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Avoparcin

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Hilde Kruse – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Continuing high prevalence of VanA‐type vancomycin‐resistant enterococci on Norwegian poultry farms three years after Avoparcin was banned
    Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Katrine Borgen, Yngvild Wasteson, Gunnar Skov Simonsen, Arnfinn Sundsfjord, Orjan Olsvik, Hilde Kruse

    Abstract:

    Avoparcin was used as a feed additive in Norwegian broiler and turkey production from 1986 until 1995. It was banned due to the selection of VanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in animal husbandry and to reduce the potential for human exposure to VRE. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of VRE carriage in Norwegian poultry farmers and their poultry three years after Avoparcin was banned. Corresponding faecal samples from poultry and humans on farms where Avoparcin had previously been used (exposed farms, n = 73) and farms where Avoparcin had never been used (unexposed farms, n = 74) were analysed for the presence of VRE. For each farm, one sample from the poultry house and one sample from the farmer were obtained. VRE were isolated from 72 of 73 (99%) and eight of 74 (11%) poultry samples from exposed and unexposed farms, respectively. VRE were isolated from 13 of 73 (18%) and one of 74 (1%) farmer samples from exposed and unexposed farms, respectively. All VRE isolates were highly resistant to vancomycin and possessed the vanA gene, as shown by PCR. The high prevalence of VRE is in accordance with previous Norwegian studies, and shows a remarkable stability of the VanA resistance determinant in an apparently non-selective environment.

  • prevalence persistence and molecular characterization of glycopeptide resistant enterococci in norwegian poultry and poultry farmers 3 to 8 years after the ban on Avoparcin
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2006
    Co-Authors: M Sorum, Hilde Kruse, Gunnar Skov Simonsen, Arnfinn Sundsfjord, Pal J Johnsen, B Aasnes, T Rosvoll

    Abstract:

    Environmental reservoirs of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) in Norway have been linked to former growth promoting use of the glycopeptide Avoparcin in poultry production. We have examined the prevalence of fecal GRE in poultry and poultry farmers 3 to 8 years after the Norwegian Avoparcin ban in 1995 and performed molecular analyses of the GRE population. Fecal samples from poultry farmers and their flocks on 29 previously Avoparcin-exposed farms were collected on five occasions during the study period (1998 to 2003). All flocks (100%) were GRE positive in 1998. Throughout the study period, 78.5% of the poultry samples were GRE positive. Glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GREF) was isolated from 27.6% of the farmer samples in 1998 and from 27.8% of the samples collected between 1998 and 2003. The prevalence of fecal GRE in poultry declined significantly during the study period, but prevalence in samples from the farmers did not decline. PCR analysis revealed a specific Tn1546-plasmid junction fragment in 93.9% of E. faecium isolates. A putative postsegregation killing (PSK) system linked to Tn1546 was detected in 97.1% of the isolates examined. Multilocus sequence typing of glycopeptide-susceptible (n = 10) and -resistant (n = 10) E. faecium isolates from humans (n = 10) and poultry (n = 10) on two farms displayed 17 different sequence types. The study confirms the continuing persistence of a widespread common plasmid-mediated vanA-pRE25-PSK element within a heterogeneous GRE population on Norwegian poultry farms 8 years after the Avoparcin ban. Moreover, it suggests an important role of PSK systems in the maintenance of antimicrobial resistance determinants in reservoirs without apparent antimicrobial selection.

  • prevalence of vancomycin resistant enterococci on poultry farms established after the ban of Avoparcin
    Avian Diseases, 2004
    Co-Authors: Marit Sorum, Gudmund Holstad, Atle Lillehaug, Hilde Kruse

    Abstract:

    Resumen RESUMEN. Prevalencia de enterococos resistentes a la vancomicina en granjas avicolas establecidas despues de la prohibicion de la Avoparcina. Se evaluo la presencia de enterococos resistentes a la vancomicina en muestras fecales de aves procedentes de granjas establecidas despues de la prohibicion de la Avoparcina (granjas experimentales) y de granjas previamente expuestas a la Avoparcina (granjas control). Las muestras fueron tomadas durante el otono e invierno de los anos 2001 y 2002. Se selecciono e identifico la especie de un aislamiento de cada muestra positiva y se determino la presencia del gen de resistencia a la vancomicina VanA. Se determino la concentracion de la totalidad de enterococos y de enterococos resistentes a la vancomicina. Se evaluo la susceptibilidad al coccidiostato ionoforo narasina en un numero de aislamientos de enterococos obtenidos a partir de aves y de cerdos que no habian sido expuestos a la narasina. Se detecto el gen de resistencia a la vancomicina VanA en el 64% d…

Albert J R Heck – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • interactions of α and β Avoparcin with bacterial cell wall receptor mimicking peptides studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 1999
    Co-Authors: Anca Van De Kerkvan Hoof, Albert J R Heck

    Abstract:

    Solution phase affinity constants of the glycopeptide antibiotic α- and β-Avoparcin, with a range of bacterial cell-wall receptor-mimicking model peptides, were determined by a relatively new method: affinity electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). This method is relatively efficient and allows the parallel determination of several affinity constants in mixtures of antibiotics and receptors. The determined binding constants for α- and β-Avoparcin were compared with those of the related glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. The solution phase binding affinities of α- and β-Avoparcin on one hand, and vancomycin on the other, were found to be in the same order, at least for the range of receptor-mimicking peptides studied. However, β-Avoparcin displayed slightly higher binding affinities than α-Avoparcin, particularly for strong binding receptor-mimicking peptides. The evidence that α- and β-Avoparcin and vancomycin are structurally similar, combined with the present data revealing their similar affinity for bacterial cell-wall receptor-mimicking peptides, supports the hypothesis that the appearance of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) might be linked to the widespread use of Avoparcin.

  • covalent and non covalent dissociations of gas phase complexes of Avoparcin and bacterial receptor mimicking precursor peptides studied by collisionally activated decomposition mass spectrometry
    Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 1999
    Co-Authors: Anca Van De Kerkvan Hoof, Albert J R Heck

    Abstract:

    The gas-phase stability and reactivity of non-covalent complexes of Avoparcin and bacterial receptor mimicking precursor peptides were probed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry combined with collisionally activated decomposition (CAD) studies. The order of the gas-phase stabilities of these non-covalent complexes is different from the order of the stabilities of the same complexes in solution. The specific stereoselectivity observed in non-covalent binding in solution is not retained in the gas phase. The presence of a lysine residue in the bacterial receptor mimicking precursor peptides appears to promote the gas-phase stabilities of the antibiotic-peptide complexes. Complexes of Avoparcin with receptor peptides containing a lysine residue are stabilized in the gas phase to such an extent that CAD of these non-covalent complexes proceeds through a competition between non-covalent and covalent fragmentation pathways. These results indicate clearly that the use of CAD mass spectra for the quantitative characterization of the stability of non-covalent complexes in solution should be applied with extreme caution.

  • original articles interactions of and Avoparcin with bacterial cell wall receptor mimicking peptides studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
    , 1999
    Co-Authors: Kerkvan Hoof, Albert J R Heck, Spectrometry Bijvoet

    Abstract:

    Solution phase affinity constants of the glycopeptide antibiotic – and –Avoparcin, with a range of bacterial cell-wall receptor-mimicking model peptides, were determined by a relatively new method: affinity electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). This method is relatively efficient and allows the parallel determination of several affinity constants in mixtures of antibiotics and receptors. The determined binding constants for – and –Avoparcin were compared with those of the related glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. The solution phase binding affinities of – and –Avoparcin on one hand, and vancomycin on the other, were found to be in the same order, at least for the range of receptor-mimi cking peptides studied. However, –Avoparcin displayed slightly higher binding affinities than –Avoparcin, particularly for strong binding receptor-mimicking peptides. The evidence that – and –Avoparcin and vancomycin are structurally similar, combined with the present data revealing their similar affinity for bacterial cell-wall receptor-mimicking peptides, supports the hypothesis that the appearance of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) might be linked to the widespread use of Avoparcin.

Katrine Borgen – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Continuing high prevalence of VanA‐type vancomycin‐resistant enterococci on Norwegian poultry farms three years after Avoparcin was banned
    Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Katrine Borgen, Yngvild Wasteson, Gunnar Skov Simonsen, Arnfinn Sundsfjord, Orjan Olsvik, Hilde Kruse

    Abstract:

    Avoparcin was used as a feed additive in Norwegian broiler and turkey production from 1986 until 1995. It was banned due to the selection of VanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in animal husbandry and to reduce the potential for human exposure to VRE. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of VRE carriage in Norwegian poultry farmers and their poultry three years after Avoparcin was banned. Corresponding faecal samples from poultry and humans on farms where Avoparcin had previously been used (exposed farms, n = 73) and farms where Avoparcin had never been used (unexposed farms, n = 74) were analysed for the presence of VRE. For each farm, one sample from the poultry house and one sample from the farmer were obtained. VRE were isolated from 72 of 73 (99%) and eight of 74 (11%) poultry samples from exposed and unexposed farms, respectively. VRE were isolated from 13 of 73 (18%) and one of 74 (1%) farmer samples from exposed and unexposed farms, respectively. All VRE isolates were highly resistant to vancomycin and possessed the vanA gene, as shown by PCR. The high prevalence of VRE is in accordance with previous Norwegian studies, and shows a remarkable stability of the VanA resistance determinant in an apparently non-selective environment.

  • vana type vancomycin resistant enterococci vre remain prevalent in poultry carcasses 3 years after Avoparcin was banned
    International Journal of Food Microbiology, 2001
    Co-Authors: Katrine Borgen, Marit Sorum, Yngvild Wasteson, Hilde Kruse

    Abstract:

    Abstract Avoparcin was used as a growth promoting feed additive in Norwegian broiler and turkey production from 1986 until it was banned in 1995, when an association between vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Avoparcin use became apparent. A recent study regarding faecal samples documented a continuing high prevalence of VRE among Norwegian poultry 3 years after Avoparcin was banned. In the present study, carcasses of broilers and turkeys from farms where Avoparcin had previously been in use and carcasses of layer chickens from farms where Avoparcin had never been used were examined for the presence of VRE. One carcass from each of 150 different farms was included. By a direct plating method, VRE were isolated from 30 of 100 samples of broilers and turkeys, but not from any samples of layer chickens. When an enrichment step was included, VRE were isolated from a total of 81 of the 100 samples of broilers and turkeys and from nine of the 50 samples of layer chickens. All VRE isolated were highly resistant to vancomycin (MIC≥256 μg/ml) and possessed the vanA gene. These results correspond to the prevalence of VRE recently documented in faecal samples from Norwegian poultry. The present study reveals a high prevalence of VRE in broiler and turkey carcasses. Consequently, consumers are exposed to VRE when handling raw poultry meat, although the public health significance of such exposure is unclear.

  • continuing high prevalence of vana type vancomycin resistant enterococci on norwegian poultry farms three years after Avoparcin was banned
    Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2000
    Co-Authors: Katrine Borgen, Yngvild Wasteson, Gunnar Skov Simonsen, Arnfinn Sundsfjord, Orjan Olsvik, Hilde Kruse

    Abstract:

    Avoparcin was used as a feed additive in Norwegian broiler and turkey production from 1986 until 1995. It was banned due to the selection of VanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in animal husbandry and to reduce the potential for human exposure to VRE. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of VRE carriage in Norwegian poultry farmers and their poultry three years after Avoparcin was banned. Corresponding faecal samples from poultry and humans on farms where Avoparcin had previously been used (exposed farms, n = 73) and farms where Avoparcin had never been used (unexposed farms, n = 74) were analysed for the presence of VRE. For each farm, one sample from the poultry house and one sample from the farmer were obtained. VRE were isolated from 72 of 73 (99%) and eight of 74 (11%) poultry samples from exposed and unexposed farms, respectively. VRE were isolated from 13 of 73 (18%) and one of 74 (1%) farmer samples from exposed and unexposed farms, respectively. All VRE isolates were highly resistant to vancomycin and possessed the vanA gene, as shown by PCR. The high prevalence of VRE is in accordance with previous Norwegian studies, and shows a remarkable stability of the VanA resistance determinant in an apparently non-selective environment.