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Ballast Water

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Matej David – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Ballast Water: Problems and Management
    World Seas: an Environmental Evaluation, 2018
    Co-Authors: Stephan Gollasch, Matej David

    Abstract:

    Abstract Harmful species transfers undoubtedly present one of the strongest man-made threats to the aquatic world. For safe operations, vessels essentially depend on Ballast Water in which they usually carry several species so that each vessel has the potential to transport that species and introduce it to a new area. Species are not present only in the Ballast Water itself, but are in acompanying sediments and also occur as fouling on the insides of tanks, all representing potential species spread during vessel voyages. In 2004, the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) was adopted to provide globally unified prevention measures. Even when the BWM Convention standards are met, a certain number of organisms is acceptable in the discharge and a range of organisms under 10 μm remained unregulated. Prevention of organism transfer is far from easy, and so the implementation of the BWM Convention remains a challenge.

  • Identification of Ballast Water discharge profiles of a port to enable effective Ballast Water management and environmental studies
    Journal of Sea Research, 2017
    Co-Authors: Matej David, Stephan Gollasch, Ludvik Penko

    Abstract:

    Abstract Information about the profile of Ballast Water discharges in a port is one of the basic elements of the decision making process in Ballast Water risk assessment and management, and supports the evaluation of dimensions and processes of aquatic species invasions with vessels Ballast Water. In the lack of Ballast Water reporting, Ballast Water discharge assessments need to be conducted. In this study we have assessed and compared Ballast Water discharge profiles of two ports with different maritime traffic and cargo profiles, the Port of Hamburg (Germany) and the Muuga Harbour, Port of Tallinn (Estonia). This study shows methods and approaches which can be used to assess volumes and donor ports of Ballast Water discharges for a port at the level of each vessel call. These methods and approaches can be applied to any port to support the implementation of feasible and efficient Ballast Water management measures and to enable environmental studies including long-term accumulation risks of disinfection by-products from Ballast Water management systems making use of active substances, as well as for discharges of other chemical compounds.

  • Recommendations for representative Ballast Water sampling
    Journal of Sea Research, 2017
    Co-Authors: Stephan Gollasch, Matej David

    Abstract:

    Until now, the purpose of Ballast Water sampling studies was predominantly limited to general scientific interest to determine the variety of species arriving in Ballast Water in a recipient port. Knowing the variety of species arriving in Ballast Water also contributes to the assessment of relative species introduction vector importance. Further, some sampling campaigns addressed awareness raising or the determination of organism numbers per Water volume to evaluate the species introduction risk by analysing the propagule pressure of species. A new aspect of Ballast Water sampling, which this contribution addresses, is compliance monitoring and enforcement of Ballast Water management standards as set by, e.g., the IMO Ballast Water Management Convention. To achieve this, sampling methods which result in representative Ballast Water samples are essential. We recommend such methods based on practical tests conducted on two commercial vessels also considering results from our previous studies. The results show that different sampling approaches influence the results regarding viable organism concentrations in Ballast Water samples. It was observed that the sampling duration (i.e., length of the sampling process), timing (i.e., in which point in time of the discharge the sample is taken), the number of samples and the sampled Water quantity are the main factors influencing the concentrations of viable organisms in a Ballast Water sample. Based on our findings we provide recommendations for representative Ballast Water sampling.

Stephan Gollasch – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Ballast Water: Problems and Management
    World Seas: an Environmental Evaluation, 2018
    Co-Authors: Stephan Gollasch, Matej David

    Abstract:

    Abstract Harmful species transfers undoubtedly present one of the strongest man-made threats to the aquatic world. For safe operations, vessels essentially depend on Ballast Water in which they usually carry several species so that each vessel has the potential to transport that species and introduce it to a new area. Species are not present only in the Ballast Water itself, but are in acompanying sediments and also occur as fouling on the insides of tanks, all representing potential species spread during vessel voyages. In 2004, the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) was adopted to provide globally unified prevention measures. Even when the BWM Convention standards are met, a certain number of organisms is acceptable in the discharge and a range of organisms under 10 μm remained unregulated. Prevention of organism transfer is far from easy, and so the implementation of the BWM Convention remains a challenge.

  • Identification of Ballast Water discharge profiles of a port to enable effective Ballast Water management and environmental studies
    Journal of Sea Research, 2017
    Co-Authors: Matej David, Stephan Gollasch, Ludvik Penko

    Abstract:

    Abstract Information about the profile of Ballast Water discharges in a port is one of the basic elements of the decision making process in Ballast Water risk assessment and management, and supports the evaluation of dimensions and processes of aquatic species invasions with vessels Ballast Water. In the lack of Ballast Water reporting, Ballast Water discharge assessments need to be conducted. In this study we have assessed and compared Ballast Water discharge profiles of two ports with different maritime traffic and cargo profiles, the Port of Hamburg (Germany) and the Muuga Harbour, Port of Tallinn (Estonia). This study shows methods and approaches which can be used to assess volumes and donor ports of Ballast Water discharges for a port at the level of each vessel call. These methods and approaches can be applied to any port to support the implementation of feasible and efficient Ballast Water management measures and to enable environmental studies including long-term accumulation risks of disinfection by-products from Ballast Water management systems making use of active substances, as well as for discharges of other chemical compounds.

  • Recommendations for representative Ballast Water sampling
    Journal of Sea Research, 2017
    Co-Authors: Stephan Gollasch, Matej David

    Abstract:

    Until now, the purpose of Ballast Water sampling studies was predominantly limited to general scientific interest to determine the variety of species arriving in Ballast Water in a recipient port. Knowing the variety of species arriving in Ballast Water also contributes to the assessment of relative species introduction vector importance. Further, some sampling campaigns addressed awareness raising or the determination of organism numbers per Water volume to evaluate the species introduction risk by analysing the propagule pressure of species. A new aspect of Ballast Water sampling, which this contribution addresses, is compliance monitoring and enforcement of Ballast Water management standards as set by, e.g., the IMO Ballast Water Management Convention. To achieve this, sampling methods which result in representative Ballast Water samples are essential. We recommend such methods based on practical tests conducted on two commercial vessels also considering results from our previous studies. The results show that different sampling approaches influence the results regarding viable organism concentrations in Ballast Water samples. It was observed that the sampling duration (i.e., length of the sampling process), timing (i.e., in which point in time of the discharge the sample is taken), the number of samples and the sampled Water quantity are the main factors influencing the concentrations of viable organisms in a Ballast Water sample. Based on our findings we provide recommendations for representative Ballast Water sampling.

Oihane C. Basurko – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The challenges and promises of genetic approaches for Ballast Water management
    Journal of Sea Research, 2016
    Co-Authors: Anaïs Rey, Oihane C. Basurko, Naiara Rodríguez-ezpeleta

    Abstract:

    Ballast Water is a main vector of introduction of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens, which includes Non-Indigenous Species. Numerous and diversified organisms are transferred daily from a donor to a recipient port. Developed to prevent these introduction events, the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments will enter into force in 2017. This international convention is asking for the monitoring of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens. In this review, we highlight the urgent need to develop cost-effective methods to: (1) perform the biological analyses required by the convention; and (2) assess the effectiveness of two main Ballast Water management strategies, i.e. the Ballast Water exchange and the use of Ballast Water treatment systems. We have compiled the biological analyses required by the convention, and performed a comprehensive evaluation of the potential and challenges of the use of genetic tools in this context. Following an overview of the studies applying genetic tools to Ballast Water related research, we present metabarcoding as a relevant approach for early detection of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens in general and for Ballast Water monitoring and port risk assessment in particular. Nonetheless, before implementation of genetic tools in the context of the Ballast Water management convention, benchmarked tests against traditional methods should be performed, and standard, reproducible and easy to apply protocols should be developed.

  • emerging risks from Ballast Water treatment the run up to the international Ballast Water management convention
    Chemosphere, 2014
    Co-Authors: Barbara Werschkun, Stephan Gollasch, Matej David, Oihane C. Basurko, Sangeeta Banerji, Frank Fuhr, Tamara Grummt, Michael Haarich, Stefan Kacan, Anja Kehrer

    Abstract:

    Uptake and discharge of Ballast Water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. The International Ballast Water Management Convention aims at a global answer. The agreed standards for Ballast Water discharge will require Ballast Water treatment. Systems based on various physical and/or chemical methods were developed for on-board installation and approved by the International Maritime Organization. Most common are combinations of high-performance filters with oxidizing chemicals or UV radiation. A well-known problem of oxidative Water treatment is the formation of disinfection by-products, many of which show genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, or other long-term toxicity. In natural biota, genetic damages can affect reproductive success and ultimately impact biodiversity. The future exposure towards chemicals from Ballast Water treatment can only be estimated, based on land-based testing of treatment systems, mathematical models, and exposure scenarios. Systematic studies on the chemistry of oxidants in seaWater are lacking, as are data about the background levels of disinfection by-products in the oceans and strategies for monitoring future developments. The international approval procedure of Ballast Water treatment systems compares the estimated exposure levels of individual substances with their experimental toxicity. While well established in many substance regulations, this approach is also criticised for its simplification, which may disregard critical aspects such as multiple exposures and long-term sub-lethal effects. Moreover, a truly holistic sustainability assessment would need to take into account factors beyond chemical hazards, e.g. energy consumption, air pollution or waste generation.

  • Statistical representativeness of Ballast Water sampling
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment, 2011
    Co-Authors: Oihane C. Basurko, Ehsan Mesbahi

    Abstract:

    The International Maritime Organization’s (IMO’s) G2 guideline (Guidelines for Ballast Water sampling) clearly states that Ballast Water samples are required to be representative of the whole Ballast Water discharged. Enforcement and implementation of the Ballast Water convention largely depend on defendable case based on evidence that a ship entering territorial Waters has not complied with regulations. The statistical representativeness of Ballast Water samples has been discussed in this study with additional emphasis on practicality of the sampling procedure. The mathematical formula for determining a sample size for a proportion from a finite population has been used to identify the minimum number of samples which could be considered as statistically representative of the ship’s Ballast Water. Results clearly indicate that a large amount of Ballast Water, the 16 per cent of Ballast Water (8000 m3) for a ship discharging 50 000 m3 of Ballast Water, must be sampled to achieve certain level of confidence which could be translated as a true representation of the ship’s Ballast Water discharged and potentially used in any further legal actions by states or ship operators.