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Barnea

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Uri Yermiyahu – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Effects of reclaimed wastewater irrigation and fertigation level on olive oil composition and quality.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2019
    Co-Authors: Loai Basheer, Uri Yermiyahu, Isaac Zipori, Zohar Kerem

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Irrigation of olives increases fruit and oil yields. Due to scarcity of freshwater, low-quality water including recycled wastewater (RWW) is utilized in orchards. Here, effects of irrigation with RWW and of fertilization on the composition and quality of olive oil were studied. RESULTS: Long-term RWW irrigation of ‘Barnea‘ and ‘Leccino’ olive had no significant negative effects on either oil composition or quality parameters, including free fatty acids (FFAs), peroxide value (PV), total phenolics content (TPC), fatty acid profiles and organoleptic characteristics. The average FFA contents for both cultivars were less than 0.8% during most of the experimental period, except the seasons 2009 and 2012-2013 for Barnea where the values were raised up to 1.4%. The measured PV levels were less than 9 and 5 mmol O2 kg-1 oil for Barnea and Leccino, respectively. In the last season of the experiment for each cultivar, higher TPC were observed in oils obtained from RWW irrigation with reduced fertilization (Re-) as compared to the treatments with the recommended fertilization [freshwater irrigation (Fr) and RWW irrigation (Re+) with standard dose of fertilizers], where the TPC increment exceeded 70% in Barnea and 25% in Leccino. The treatments had only minor effects on the fatty acid profile, reflected in slightly altered levels of C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids. CONCLUSION: The use of RWW, combined with the consideration of nutrients arriving with such water to provide appropriate fertilization, was found suitable for olive irrigation to ensure optimal yields while preserving oil quality. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

  • olive orchard irrigation with reclaimed wastewater agronomic and environmental considerations
    Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 2011
    Co-Authors: Eran Segal, Isaac Zipori, Alon Bengal, Ran Erel, Shoshana Suryano, Uri Yermiyahu

    Abstract:

    The olive (Olea europaea) oil industry is experiencing a transition from traditional rain-fed to intensively managed irrigated orchards. Moreover, since fresh water resources in typical olive cultivation regions are often scarce, alternative water sources, often marginal in quality, are increasingly used for the irrigation of olives. Utilization of reclaimed wastewater (RWW) increases the susceptibility of olive trees to osmotic stress and augments the potential of groundwater contamination by nutrients and salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate tree growth and productivity and to quantify nitrate and chloride (Cl) losses in an olive orchard irrigated with RWW. A four year field study compared two olive tree varieties, ‘Barnea’ and ‘Leccino’, and three treatments: (i) fresh water application with commercial fertilizer at recommended rates (Fr), (ii) RWW application with commercial fertilizer at recommended rates (Re) and (iii) RWW application with commercial fertilizer reduced according to the amounts of the nutritional constituents in the wastewater itself (Re−). No significant difference was found in nutrient and mineral accumulation in diagnostic leaves and no differences in trunk growth, fruit production or oil yields were observed between treatments. In spite of this, lower measured Cl concentration in diagnostic leaves of ‘Barnea’ and higher Cl concentrations in its root zone relative to ‘Leccino’ suggested that ‘Barnea’ trees better controlled Cl uptake. While similar amounts of water were applied, the Re and Re− treatments loaded the soil profile with 1.75 times more Cl then the Fr treatment. Additionally, significantly more nitrates were transported out of the root zone in the Re treatment compared to Fr and Re− for both cultivars. We conclude that RWW used for irrigating olive oil orchards had no effect on vegetative growth and productivity but increased salt loads into and beyond the root zone. The nutritional constituents in the RWW used to irrigate olives should be accounted for in order to increase fertilizer application efficiency and minimize the transport of nutrients into groundwater.

  • The influence of bearing cycles on olive oil quality response to irrigation
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2011
    Co-Authors: Alon Ben-gal, Arnon Dag, Loai Basheer, Uri Yermiyahu, Isaac Zipori, Zohar Kerem

    Abstract:

    Five rates of water application were applied in a 4 year study on olive (Olea europaea) varieties ‘Barnea‘ and ‘Souri’ Increased irrigation lead to increased tree scale oil yields, lower polyphenol content, and, frequently, higher oil acidity These effects were predominant in “off” years The fatty acid profile was influenced primarily by bearing level and variety and secondarily by irrigation rate The saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio was higher in “off” than in “on” years, and the monounsaturated fatty acid to polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio was higher in “on” years as a result oft he fact that oleic and stearic acids were higher in ‘on” years, while palmitic, palmitoleic, and linoleic acids were greater in “off” years Squalene was higher in ‘Souri’ than in ‘Barnea‘ oils, was not affected by bearing cycle, and was consistently lower in oil from trees receiving the lowest irrigation level

Isaac Zipori – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Effects of reclaimed wastewater irrigation and fertigation level on olive oil composition and quality.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2019
    Co-Authors: Loai Basheer, Uri Yermiyahu, Isaac Zipori, Zohar Kerem

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Irrigation of olives increases fruit and oil yields. Due to scarcity of freshwater, low-quality water including recycled wastewater (RWW) is utilized in orchards. Here, effects of irrigation with RWW and of fertilization on the composition and quality of olive oil were studied. RESULTS: Long-term RWW irrigation of ‘Barnea‘ and ‘Leccino’ olive had no significant negative effects on either oil composition or quality parameters, including free fatty acids (FFAs), peroxide value (PV), total phenolics content (TPC), fatty acid profiles and organoleptic characteristics. The average FFA contents for both cultivars were less than 0.8% during most of the experimental period, except the seasons 2009 and 2012-2013 for Barnea where the values were raised up to 1.4%. The measured PV levels were less than 9 and 5 mmol O2 kg-1 oil for Barnea and Leccino, respectively. In the last season of the experiment for each cultivar, higher TPC were observed in oils obtained from RWW irrigation with reduced fertilization (Re-) as compared to the treatments with the recommended fertilization [freshwater irrigation (Fr) and RWW irrigation (Re+) with standard dose of fertilizers], where the TPC increment exceeded 70% in Barnea and 25% in Leccino. The treatments had only minor effects on the fatty acid profile, reflected in slightly altered levels of C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids. CONCLUSION: The use of RWW, combined with the consideration of nutrients arriving with such water to provide appropriate fertilization, was found suitable for olive irrigation to ensure optimal yields while preserving oil quality. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

  • Effect of Mechanically Harvested Olive Storage Temperature and Duration on Oil Quality
    Horttechnology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Smadar Boim, Yulya Sobotin, Isaac Zipori

    Abstract:

    Most newly planted olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards are irrigated and harvested mechanically. We assessed the effects of olive storage temperature and duration on the resultant oil’s quality in three cultivars from modern orchards. Oil acidity increased with storage temperature and time, most markedly in ‘Barnea’ and least in ‘Koroneiki’. In ‘Koroneiki’, after 9 days in cool storage (4 and 10 C), free fatty acid (FFA) level remained constant. Polyphenol (PP) content behaved differently among cultivars: in ‘Picual’, it was relatively invariable; in ‘Barnea’, it decreased moderately; and in ‘Koroneiki’, it decreased sharply to half of its initial value in 4 C storage and one-sixth its initial value in room temperature storage after 23 days. Peroxide value (PV) did not increase during the storage period and did not appear to be affected by temperature. Thus, different cultivars show different responses to storage, and fruit originated from modern orchards are not necessarily more sensitive to storage than those from traditional orchards.

  • olive orchard irrigation with reclaimed wastewater agronomic and environmental considerations
    Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 2011
    Co-Authors: Eran Segal, Isaac Zipori, Alon Bengal, Ran Erel, Shoshana Suryano, Uri Yermiyahu

    Abstract:

    The olive (Olea europaea) oil industry is experiencing a transition from traditional rain-fed to intensively managed irrigated orchards. Moreover, since fresh water resources in typical olive cultivation regions are often scarce, alternative water sources, often marginal in quality, are increasingly used for the irrigation of olives. Utilization of reclaimed wastewater (RWW) increases the susceptibility of olive trees to osmotic stress and augments the potential of groundwater contamination by nutrients and salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate tree growth and productivity and to quantify nitrate and chloride (Cl) losses in an olive orchard irrigated with RWW. A four year field study compared two olive tree varieties, ‘Barnea’ and ‘Leccino’, and three treatments: (i) fresh water application with commercial fertilizer at recommended rates (Fr), (ii) RWW application with commercial fertilizer at recommended rates (Re) and (iii) RWW application with commercial fertilizer reduced according to the amounts of the nutritional constituents in the wastewater itself (Re−). No significant difference was found in nutrient and mineral accumulation in diagnostic leaves and no differences in trunk growth, fruit production or oil yields were observed between treatments. In spite of this, lower measured Cl concentration in diagnostic leaves of ‘Barnea’ and higher Cl concentrations in its root zone relative to ‘Leccino’ suggested that ‘Barnea’ trees better controlled Cl uptake. While similar amounts of water were applied, the Re and Re− treatments loaded the soil profile with 1.75 times more Cl then the Fr treatment. Additionally, significantly more nitrates were transported out of the root zone in the Re treatment compared to Fr and Re− for both cultivars. We conclude that RWW used for irrigating olive oil orchards had no effect on vegetative growth and productivity but increased salt loads into and beyond the root zone. The nutritional constituents in the RWW used to irrigate olives should be accounted for in order to increase fertilizer application efficiency and minimize the transport of nutrients into groundwater.

Israel Finkelstein – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • kadesh Barnea a reevaluation of its archaeology and history
    Tel Aviv, 2010
    Co-Authors: Israel Finkelstein

    Abstract:

    AbstractThe article reevaluates the archaeology and history of Kadesh Barnea in view of some recent publications. It argues that the finds at the site cover the entire sequence of the Iron Age and later, up to the Persian period. The main conclusions are: (1) Substratum 4c represents the earliest occupation, which dates to the Iron I in the 12th to 10th centuries BCE. The radiocarbon results from seed samples that ostensibly belong to Substratum 4b provide dates in the 10th century BCE, and should be affiliated with this settlement. (2) Substratum 4b is a settlement (rather than an oval fortress) that features at least two phases. It covers the entire sequence of the Iron IIA, between the late 10th and early 8th century BCE. (3) Strata 3–2 feature the remains of a single rectangular fortress with a solid wall built as a foundation for a system of casemates. This fortress was built in the second half of the 8th century, with the Assyrian take-over of the region, and continued to function until ca. 600 BCE….