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Basin Evolution

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Charles S. Hutchison – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • marginal Basin Evolution the southern south china sea
    Marine and Petroleum Geology, 2004
    Co-Authors: Charles S. Hutchison

    Abstract:

    Abstract The southern South China Sea is divided into contrasting morphology by the West Baram Line. To the west is the Sundaland extinct passive margin in which rifting began in the Eocene (∼46 Ma) and ceased at 19–21 Ma (anomaly 6), where sea-floor spreading began much later than along the shelf of China. The break-up hiatus lasted ∼3–5 Ma marked by the Mid-Miocene unconformity, also preserved on land Sarawak. The post-rift strata date from ∼16 Ma and drape over the rifted topography. To the east is a convergent margin that became a collision zone in the Middle Miocene. The Sunda Shelf is of uniform ∼30 km thickness except in localised deep Basins, and extends to a water depth of ∼200 m. The continental slope is narrow. The continental rise (Dangerous Grounds), is covered by water ranging from 500 m to 3.5 km depth at the continent–ocean transition. Its width ranges from 170 to 330 km. The Rajang Delta extends over the shelf and continental slope. Its post-rift sediments drape over the rifted proximal topography of the Dangerous Grounds. To the east the drape is thinner and has not completely buried the rifted topography. The cuestas appear to have supported the carbonate build-up infrastructures of the Spratly Islands, whose slopes rise abruptly from a sea-floor of 2–3 km depth. The Sabah and Brunei margin is a collision zone that was formerly convergent. The on land geology indicates a Mesozoic ophiolitic basement. The main collision feature is the Western Cordillera, constructed mainly of sandy Eocene to Lower Miocene turbidites, predominantly Oligocene to Lower Miocene in the West Crocker (32–18 Ma), uplifted episodically throughout the Upper Miocene and Pliocene, 14–8 Ma. The 2 km deep Northwest Borneo Trough may be a relict of the convergence phase, but could also be a collisional foredeep. The oil-prolific Baram Delta, resulting from uplift and erosion of the Western Cordillera, has built out as far as the Northwest Borneo Trough. It is suggested that the passive margin continental rise (Dangerous Grounds) has been underthrust beneath Sabah to cause uplift of the Western Cordillera. The West Baram Line accordingly abruptly separates the collision zone from the western extinct passive margin; and is a now extinct major right-lateral transform fault.

  • Marginal Basin Evolution: The southern South China Sea
    Marine and Petroleum Geology, 2004
    Co-Authors: Charles S. Hutchison

    Abstract:

    The southern South China Sea is divided into contrasting morphology by the West Baram Line. To the west is the Sundaland extinct passive margin in which rifting began in the Eocene (∼46 Ma) and ceased at 19-21 Ma (anomaly 6), where sea-floor spreading began much later than along the shelf of China. The break-up hiatus lasted ∼3-5 Ma marked by the Mid-Miocene unconformity, also preserved on land Sarawak. The post-rift strata date from ∼16 Ma and drape over the rifted topography. To the east is a convergent margin that became a collision zone in the Middle Miocene. The Sunda Shelf is of uniform ∼30 km thickness except in localised deep Basins, and extends to a water depth of ∼200 m. The continental slope is narrow. The continental rise (Dangerous Grounds), is covered by water ranging from 500 m to 3.5 km depth at the continent-ocean transition. Its width ranges from 170 to 330 km. The Rajang Delta extends over the shelf and continental slope. Its post-rift sediments drape over the rifted proximal topography of the Dangerous Grounds. To the east the drape is thinner and has not completely buried the rifted topography. The cuestas appear to have supported the carbonate build-up infrastructures of the Spratly Islands, whose slopes rise abruptly from a sea-floor of 2-3 km depth. The Sabah and Brunei margin is a collision zone that was formerly convergent. The on land geology indicates a Mesozoic ophiolitic basement. The main collision feature is the Western Cordillera, constructed mainly of sandy Eocene to Lower Miocene turbidites, predominantly Oligocene to Lower Miocene in the West Crocker (32-18 Ma), uplifted episodically throughout the Upper Miocene and Pliocene, 14-8 Ma. The 2 km deep Northwest Borneo Trough may be a relict of the convergence phase, but could also be a collisional foredeep. The oil-prolific Baram Delta, resulting from uplift and erosion of the Western Cordillera, has built out as far as the Northwest Borneo Trough. It is suggested that the passive margin continental rise (Dangerous Grounds) has been underthrust beneath Sabah to cause uplift of the Western Cordillera. The West Baram Line accordingly abruptly separates the collision zone from the western extinct passive margin; and is a now extinct major right-lateral transform fault. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lin Liangbiao – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Tectonic sequence framework and sedimentary Basin Evolution of upper triassic in the sichuan Basin, China
    BioTechnology: An Indian Journal, 2020
    Co-Authors: Lin Liangbiao

    Abstract:

    The Late Triassic is an important geologic age for the Evolution of the Sichuan Basin. Based on data from field outcrops, drilling, and seismic acquisition, a detailed study on the sequence boundaries, division, and characteristics of the Upper Triassic in the Sichuan Basin was conducted using tectonic sequence stratigraphy to establish a sequence stratigraphic framework. The research indicates that four sequence boundaries were distinguishable in the Upper Triassic: 1) regionally structural unconformity between the Upper Triassic and Middle and Lower Triassic; 2) the boundary between the second member of the Xujiahe Formation and the Xiaotangzi Formation; 3) the secondary structural unconformity between the third and fourth members of the Xujiahe Formation; and 4) regionally structural unconformity between the Triassic and Jurassic. Based on the occurrence of sequence boundaries, three tectonic sequences could be divided in the study area, each of which was bound by the maximum flooding surface and subdivided into Basin extension (BE) and Basin wither (BW) system tracts. The Evolution of the Western Sichuan Foreland Basin was the main Evolution in the Late Triassic, in which TS1 represents the Evolution stage of the marginal foreland Basin, TS2 represents the formation of the Western Sichuan Foreland Basin with the advent of the Longmen Mountain thrusting and napping body, and TS3 represents the development of the Western Sichuan Foreland Basin. In TS3, the Longmen Mountain was thrust and folded to form the mountain, which was affected by the An County Movement, such that the entire Sichuan Basin transferred into a continental depositional environment. This provided a large amount of carbonate fragments for western Sichuan Basin and became the principal provenance in this area. Tectonic movement is a major controlling factor of the Sichuan Basin Evolution in the Late Triassic.

  • Tectonic sequence framework and sedimentary Basin Evolution of upper triassic in the sichuan Basin, China
    BioTechnology: An Indian Journal, 2014
    Co-Authors: Lin Liangbiao

    Abstract:

    The Late Triassic is an important geologic age for the Evolution of the Sichuan Basin. Based on data from field outcrops, drilling, and seismic acquisition, a detailed study on the sequence boundaries, division, and characteristics of the Upper Triassic in the Sichuan Basin was conducted using tectonic sequence stratigraphy to establish a sequence stratigraphic framework. The research indicates that four sequence boundaries were distinguishable in the Upper Triassic: 1) regionally structural unconformity between the Upper Triassic and Middle and Lower Triassic; 2) the boundary between the second member of the Xujiahe Formation and the Xiaotangzi Formation; 3) the secondary structural unconformity between the third and fourth members of the Xujiahe Formation; and 4) regionally structural unconformity between the Triassic and Jurassic. Based on the occurrence of sequence boundaries, three tectonic sequences could be divided in the study area, each of which was bound by the maximum flooding surface and subdivided into Basin extension (BE) and Basin wither (BW) system tracts. The Evolution of the Western Sichuan Foreland Basin was the main Evolution in the Late Triassic, in which TS1 represents the Evolution stage of the marginal foreland Basin, TS2 represents the formation of the Western Sichuan Foreland Basin with the advent of the Longmen Mountain thrusting and napping body, and TS3 represents the development of the Western Sichuan Foreland Basin. In TS3, the Longmen Mountain was thrust and folded to form the mountain, which was affected by the An County Movement, such that the entire Sichuan Basin transferred into a continental depositional environment. This provided a large amount of carbonate fragments for western Sichuan Basin and became the principal provenance in this area. Tectonic movement is a major controlling factor of the Sichuan Basin Evolution in the Late Triassic. © Trade Science Inc.

Rohitash Chandra – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Surrogate-assisted Bayesian inversion for landscape and Basin Evolution models
    , 2019
    Co-Authors: Rohitash Chandra, Danial Azam, Arpit Kapoor, R. Dietmar Mulller

    Abstract:

    Abstract. The complex and computationally expensive features of the forward landscape and sedimentary Basin Evolution models pose a major challenge in the development of efficient inference and optimization methods. Bayesian inference provides a methodology for estimation and uncertainty quantification of free model parameters. In our previous work, parallel tempering Bayeslands was developed as a framework for parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification for the landscape and Basin Evolution modelling software Badlands. Parallel tempering Bayeslands features high-performance computing with dozens of processing cores running in parallel to enhance computational efficiency. Although parallel computing is used, the procedure remains computationally challenging since thousands of samples need to be drawn and evaluated. In large-scale landscape and Basin Evolution problems, a single model evaluation can take from several minutes to hours, and in certain cases, even days. Surrogate-assisted optimization has been with successfully applied to a number of engineering problems This motivates its use in optimisation and inference methods suited for complex models in geology and geophysics. Surrogates can speed up parallel tempering Bayeslands by developing computationally inexpensive surrogates to mimic expensive models. In this paper, we present an application of surrogate-assisted parallel tempering where that surrogate mimics a landscape Evolution model including erosion, sediment transport and deposition, by estimating the likelihood function that is given by the model. We employ a machine learning model as a surrogate that learns from the samples generated by the parallel tempering algorithm and the likelihood from the model. The entire framework is developed in a parallel computing infrastructure to take advantage of parallelization. The results show that the proposed methodology is effective in lowering the overall computational cost significantly while retaining the quality of solutions.

  • Surrogate-assisted Bayesian inversion for landscape and Basin Evolution models
    arXiv: Machine Learning, 2018
    Co-Authors: Rohitash Chandra, Danial Azam, Arpit Kapoor, R. Dietmar Müller

    Abstract:

    The complex and computationally expensive nature of landscape Evolution models pose significant challenges in the inference and optimisation of unknown parameters. Bayesian inference provides a methodology for estimation and uncertainty quantification of unknown model parameters. In our previous work, we developed parallel tempering Bayeslands as a framework for parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification for the Badlands landscape Evolution model. Parallel tempering Bayeslands features high-performance computing with dozens of processing cores running in parallel to enhance computational efficiency. Although we use parallel computing, the procedure remains computationally challenging since thousands of samples need to be drawn and evaluated. \textcolor{black}{In large-scale landscape and Basin Evolution problems, a single model evaluation can take from several minutes to hours, and in some instances, even days. Surrogate-assisted optimisation has been used for several computationally expensive engineering problems which motivate its use in optimisation and inference of complex geoscientific models.} The use of surrogate models can speed up parallel tempering Bayeslands by developing computationally inexpensive models to mimic expensive ones. In this paper, we apply surrogate-assisted parallel tempering where that surrogate mimics a landscape Evolution model by estimating the likelihood function from the model. \textcolor{black}{We employ a neural network-based surrogate model that learns from the history of samples generated. } The entire framework is developed in a parallel computing infrastructure to take advantage of parallelism. The results show that the proposed methodology is effective in lowering the overall computational cost significantly while retaining the quality of solutions.