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Beers Criteria

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Donna M. Fick – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults using the 2012 Beers Criteria
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2015
    Co-Authors: Amy J Davidoff, Edward G Miller, Eric M Sarpong, Eunice Yang, Nicole Brandt, Donna M. Fick

    Abstract:

    Objectives
    To use the most recently available population-based data to estimate potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) prevalence under the 2012 update of the Beers list of PIMs and to provide a benchmark from which to measure future changes.

    Design
    Retrospective cohort study using nationally representative data.

    Setting
    2006–2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

    Participants
    Community-dwelling sample of U.S. older adults (N = 18,475).

    Measurements
    The updated Beers Criteria were operationalized, generating a “broad” PIM definition that incorporated form, route, or dose restrictions where clearly specified and a “qualified” definition that applied specific exceptions where mentioned in the rationale associated with each drug category. Bivariate analyses described PIM prevalence, comparing the two operational definitions, and examined time trends.

    Results
    Of older adults with prescription medications, 42.6% had at least one medication fill that met the broad definition, with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) having the highest prevalence (10.9%). The rate declined from 45.5% in 2006–2007 to 40.8% in 2009–2010. The categories with the largest absolute decline were NSAIDs, selected sulfonylureas, and estrogens. PIM prevalence was 30.9% using the qualified definition.

    Conclusion
    Despite the overall high use of PIMs, there has been a decline observed in recent years. Future studies should test the effect of educational and clinical interventions on changes in PIM use and outcomes. The current study results can aid in targeting these interventions.

  • 2012 Beers Criteria Update: How Should Practicing Nurses Use the Criteria?
    Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 2012
    Co-Authors: Donna M. Fick, Barbara Resnick

    Abstract:

    The continued development of explicit lists of medications to avoid in older adults, such as the Beers Criteria, is a key initiative in geriatrics. The involvement of nurse in this endeavor is critical , and nursing research, education, and practice will help not only develop but also disseminate important pharmacological management information to the public and thereby decrease drug-related problems and improve the health of older adults. Lastly, we wish to acknowledge Dr. Mark Beers‘ tremendous leadership in conceptualizing the importance of medication management in older adults and in acknowledging the significance of the full-team approach in patient care. Mark, who passed away in 2009, was an incredible mentor and true champion of safe medication use in adults.

  • 2012 american geriatrics society Beers Criteria new year new Criteria new perspective
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2012
    Co-Authors: Donna M. Fick, Todd P Semla

    Abstract:

    Mark Beers, MD, recognized more than 2 decades ago that the prevention of adverse drug events in older adults is crucial to the public health of this vulnerable population. The Beers Criteria remain simultaneously one of the most used and most controversial sets of medication Criteria in the world. Although not without limitations, the Beers Criteria have done more than any other tool in the past decade to improve the awareness of and clinical outcomes for older adults with polypharmacy and for the most vulnerable older adults at risk of adverse drug events. They have accomplished this because of their explicit nature, simple application for nonpharmacy experts, and wide dissemination. The continued development of explicit lists of medications to avoid in older adults, such as the Beers Criteria, is a critical component, albeit not the only one, in the public health imperative to decrease drug-related problems and improve the health of older adults. Nevertheless, continuing challenges include evaluating and communicating a drug’s risks and benefits in older adults to individual clinicians across all settings of care and developing an explicit list of these medications as part of a concise document that meets the needs of patients, clinicians, educators, researchers, policy-makers, and regulators. This article provides a perspective from the co-chairs of the 2012 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria by addressing these issues, exploring the major differences and intended use of the Criteria in this AGS-sponsored update, and proposing an agenda for future work. The authors believe the 2012 Criteria are vastly improved from previous iterations because they include important updates to the established method for developing the explicit list of medications to avoid in older adults and consider the challenges of guiding individual clinicians in avoiding certain drugs in older adults or using them with caution. Most importantly, the quality of the Criteria has been improved by the application of an evidence-based approach and the support of AGS. The decision to follow the Institute of Medicine standards for evidence and transparency was an important benchmark—one that was clearly a transition for Criteria that have been traditionally developed using a Delphi consensus process. Because of the nature of clinical drug trials in older adults, evidence was at times difficult to find and to apply cleanly. The literature search was complex because of the large number and diversity of search terms required, the extended time period searched, and the lack of clinical trial data in older adults often resulting in reliance on observational data. With AGS support, the development of databases to support more-frequent updates of the Criteria and continual grading of the evidence as it emerges will continue to enhance this process. Past criticisms of the Beers Criteria correctly pointed out that many of the drugs were off the market or not in widespread use, lessening their relevance to clinicians and their association with health outcomes. The support of AGS has made this list more dynamic and relevant to the real-world practice of medicine. Still, caveats in their recommendation or rationale complicate some of the resulting Criteria. These caveats offer additional guidance to clinicians about when to avoid a drug but at times cannot be used as a performance measure if extracted from a large database or by surveyors without sufficient clinical insight to discern these nuances. The Beers Criteria are situated within a larger perspective of strategies to improve medication safety in older adults. Previous studies have found that a small number of medications are responsible for most adverse drug events in older adults. In a recent study, four medications or medication classes (warfarin, insulin, oral antiplatelet agents, and oral hypoglycemic agents) were associated with most

Paul Gallagher – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • appropriate prescribing in the elderly an investigation of two screening tools Beers Criteria considering diagnosis and independent of diagnosis and improved prescribing in the elderly tool to identify inappropriate use of medicines in the elderly in
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 2009
    Co-Authors: Cristin Ryan, Paul Gallagher, Denis Omahony, P Barry, Julia Kennedy, Peter Weedle, Stephen Byrne

    Abstract:

    Summary
    Background:  Elderly patients are particularly vulnerable to inappropriate prescribing, with increased risk of adverse drug reactions and consequently higher rates of morbidity and mortality. A large proportion of inappropriate prescribing is preventable by adherence to prescribing guidelines, suitable monitoring and regular medication review. As a result, screening tools have been developed to help clinicians improve their prescribing.

    Objectives:  To compare identification rates of inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients in primary care using two validated screening tools: BeersCriteria and improved prescribing in the elderly tool (IPET); to calculate the net ingredient cost (NIC) per month (€) of the potentially inappropriate medicines in this population of patients.

    Method:  A consecutive cohort of 500 patients 65 years of age and over were recruited prospectively from primary care over a 6 month period in a provincial town in Ireland. Patients’ medical records (electronic and paper) were screened and all relevant information concerning current illnesses and medications was recorded on a standardized data collection form to which BeersCriteria [considering diagnosis (CD) and independent of diagnosis (ID)] and IPET tools were applied. The NIC was calculated from an edition of the Irish monthly index of medical specialities published concurrently with the data collection.

    Results:  BeersCriteria identified a total of 69 medicines that were prescribed inappropriately (eight CD and 61 ID) in 65 patients (13%), costing €824·88 per month while IPET identified 63 potentially inappropriate medicines in 52 (10·4%) patients costing €381·28 per month.

    Conclusions:  Potentially inappropriate medications are prescribed in a significant proportion of elderly people in primary care, with significant economic implications.

  • stopp screening tool of older persons potentially inappropriate prescriptions application to acutely ill elderly patients and comparison with Beers Criteria
    Age and Ageing, 2008
    Co-Authors: Paul Gallagher, Denis Omahony

    Abstract:

    Introduction: STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons’ potentially inappropriate Prescriptions) is a new, systems-defined medicine review tool. We compared the performance of STOPP to that of established BeersCriteria in detecting potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) and related adverse drug events (ADEs) in older patients presenting for hospital admission. Methods: we prospectively studied 715 consecutive acute admissions to a university teaching hospital. Diagnoses, reason for admission and concurrent medications were recorded. STOPP and BeersCriteria were applied. PIMs with clear causal connection or contribution to the principal reason for admission were determined. Results:median patient age (interquartile range) was 77 (72‐82) years. Median number of prescription medicines was 6 (range 0‐21). STOPP identified 336 PIMs affecting 247 patients (35%), of whom one-third (n = 82) presented with an associated ADE. BeersCriteria identified 226 PIMs affecting 177 patients (25%), of whom 43 presented with an associated ADE. STOPP-related PIMs contributed to 11.5% of all admissions. BeersCriteria-related PIMs contributed to significantly fewer admissions (6%). Conclusion: STOPP Criteria identified a significantly higher proportion of patients requiring hospitalisation as a result of PIM-related adverse events than BeersCriteria. This finding has significant implications for hospital geriatric practice.

  • STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons’ potentially inappropriate Prescriptions): Application to acutely ill elderly patients and comparison with BeersCriteria
    Age and Ageing, 2008
    Co-Authors: Paul Gallagher, Denis O'mahony

    Abstract:

    Introduction: STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons’ potentially inappropriate Prescriptions) is a new, systems-defined medicine review tool. We compared the performance of STOPP to that of established BeersCriteria in detecting potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) and related adverse drug events (ADEs) in older patients presenting for hospital admission. METHODS: we prospectively studied 715 consecutive acute admissions to a university teaching hospital. Diagnoses, reason for admission and concurrent medications were recorded. STOPP and BeersCriteria were applied. PIMs with clear causal connection or contribution to the principal reason for admission were determined. RESULTS: median patient age (interquartile range) was 77 (72-82) years. Median number of prescription medicines was 6 (range 0-21). STOPP identified 336 PIMs affecting 247 patients (35%), of whom one-third (n = 82) presented with an associated ADE. BeersCriteria identified 226 PIMs affecting 177 patients (25%), of whom 43 presented with an associated ADE. STOPP-related PIMs contributed to 11.5% of all admissions. BeersCriteria-related PIMs contributed to significantly fewer admissions (6%). CONCLUSION: STOPP Criteria identified a significantly higher proportion of patients requiring hospitalisation as a result of PIM-related adverse events than BeersCriteria. This finding has significant implications for hospital geriatric practice.

Denis Omahony – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • appropriate prescribing in the elderly an investigation of two screening tools Beers Criteria considering diagnosis and independent of diagnosis and improved prescribing in the elderly tool to identify inappropriate use of medicines in the elderly in
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 2009
    Co-Authors: Cristin Ryan, Paul Gallagher, Denis Omahony, P Barry, Julia Kennedy, Peter Weedle, Stephen Byrne

    Abstract:

    Summary
    Background:  Elderly patients are particularly vulnerable to inappropriate prescribing, with increased risk of adverse drug reactions and consequently higher rates of morbidity and mortality. A large proportion of inappropriate prescribing is preventable by adherence to prescribing guidelines, suitable monitoring and regular medication review. As a result, screening tools have been developed to help clinicians improve their prescribing.

    Objectives:  To compare identification rates of inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients in primary care using two validated screening tools: BeersCriteria and improved prescribing in the elderly tool (IPET); to calculate the net ingredient cost (NIC) per month (€) of the potentially inappropriate medicines in this population of patients.

    Method:  A consecutive cohort of 500 patients 65 years of age and over were recruited prospectively from primary care over a 6 month period in a provincial town in Ireland. Patients’ medical records (electronic and paper) were screened and all relevant information concerning current illnesses and medications was recorded on a standardized data collection form to which BeersCriteria [considering diagnosis (CD) and independent of diagnosis (ID)] and IPET tools were applied. The NIC was calculated from an edition of the Irish monthly index of medical specialities published concurrently with the data collection.

    Results:  BeersCriteria identified a total of 69 medicines that were prescribed inappropriately (eight CD and 61 ID) in 65 patients (13%), costing €824·88 per month while IPET identified 63 potentially inappropriate medicines in 52 (10·4%) patients costing €381·28 per month.

    Conclusions:  Potentially inappropriate medications are prescribed in a significant proportion of elderly people in primary care, with significant economic implications.

  • stopp screening tool of older persons potentially inappropriate prescriptions application to acutely ill elderly patients and comparison with Beers Criteria
    Age and Ageing, 2008
    Co-Authors: Paul Gallagher, Denis Omahony

    Abstract:

    Introduction: STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons’ potentially inappropriate Prescriptions) is a new, systems-defined medicine review tool. We compared the performance of STOPP to that of established BeersCriteria in detecting potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) and related adverse drug events (ADEs) in older patients presenting for hospital admission. Methods: we prospectively studied 715 consecutive acute admissions to a university teaching hospital. Diagnoses, reason for admission and concurrent medications were recorded. STOPP and BeersCriteria were applied. PIMs with clear causal connection or contribution to the principal reason for admission were determined. Results:median patient age (interquartile range) was 77 (72‐82) years. Median number of prescription medicines was 6 (range 0‐21). STOPP identified 336 PIMs affecting 247 patients (35%), of whom one-third (n = 82) presented with an associated ADE. BeersCriteria identified 226 PIMs affecting 177 patients (25%), of whom 43 presented with an associated ADE. STOPP-related PIMs contributed to 11.5% of all admissions. BeersCriteria-related PIMs contributed to significantly fewer admissions (6%). Conclusion: STOPP Criteria identified a significantly higher proportion of patients requiring hospitalisation as a result of PIM-related adverse events than BeersCriteria. This finding has significant implications for hospital geriatric practice.

  • inappropriate prescribing in an acutely ill population of elderly patients as determined by Beers Criteria
    Age and Ageing, 2008
    Co-Authors: Paul Gallagher, P Barry, Cristin Ryan, Irene Hartigan, Denis Omahony

    Abstract:

    Introduction: Adverse drug events (ADEs) are associated with inappropriate prescribing (IP) and result in increased morbidity, mortality and resource utilisation. We used BeersCriteria to determine the three-month prevalence of IP in a non-selected community-dwelling population of acutely ill older people requiring hospitalisation.Methods: A prospective, observational study of 597 consecutive acute admissions was performed. Diagnoses and concurrent medications were recorded before hospital physician intervention, and BeersCriteria applied.Results: Mean patient age (SD) was 77 (7) years. Median number of medications was 5, range 0-13. IP occurred in 32% of patients (n = 191), with 24%, 6% and 2% taking 1, 2 and 3 inappropriate medications respectively. Patients taking >5 medications were 3.3 times more likely to receive an inappropriate medication than those taking ≤5 medications (OR 3.34: 95%, CI 2.37-4.79; P<0.001). Forty-nine per cent of patients with inappropriate prescriptions were admitted with adverse effects of the inappropriate medications. Sixteen per cent of all admissions were associated with such adverse effects.Conclusion: IP is highly prevalent in acutely ill older patients and is associated with polypharmacy and hospitalisation. However, BeersCriteria cannot be used as a gold standard as they do not comprehensively address all aspects of IP in older people.