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Benthic Organisms

The Experts below are selected from a list of 303 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

David D. Hart – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • physical biological coupling in streams the pervasive effects of flow on Benthic Organisms
    Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 1999
    Co-Authors: David D. Hart, Christopher M. Finelli

    Abstract:

    ▪ Abstract Flowing water has profound effects on a diverse array of ecological processes and patterns in streams and rivers. We propose a conceptual framework for investigating the multiple causal pathways by which flow influences Benthic biota and focus particular attention on the local scales at which these Organisms respond to flow. Flow (especially characteristics linked to the velocity field) can strongly affect habitat characteristics, dispersal, resource acquisition, competition, and predation; creative experiments will be needed to disentangle these complex interactions. Benthic Organisms usually reside within the roughness layer, where the unique arrangement of sediment particles produces strongly sheared and highly three-dimensional flow patterns. Thus, accurate characterization of the local flow environments experienced by Benthic Organisms often requires the use of flow measurement technology with high spatial and temporal resolution. Because flow exhibits variation across a broad range of sca…

  • Physical-Biological Coupling in Streams: The Pervasive Effects of Flow on Benthic Organisms
    Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 1999
    Co-Authors: David D. Hart, Christopher M. Finelli

    Abstract:

    Flowing water has profound effects on a diverse array of ecological processes and patterns in streams and rivers. We propose a conceptual framework for investigating the multiple causal pathways by which flow influences Benthic biota and focus particular attention on the local scales at which these Organisms respond to flow. Flow (especially characteristics linked to the velocity field) can strongly affect habitat characteristics, dispersal, resource acquisition, competition, and predation; creative experiments will be needed to disentangle these complex interactions. Benthic Organisms usually reside within the roughness layer, where the unique arrangement of sediment particles produces strongly sheared and highly three-dimensional flow patterns. Thus, accurate characterization of the local flow environments experienced by Benthic Organisms often requires the use of flow measurement technology with high spatial and temporal resolution. Because flow exhibits variation across a broad range of scales, it is also necessary to examine how organism-flow relationships at one scale are linked to those at others. Interdisciplinary approaches are needed in the study of physical-biological coupling; increased collaboration between ecologists and experts in fluid mechanics and hydraulic engineering is particularly desirable. A greater understanding of physical-biological coupling will not only yield deeper insights into the ecological organization of streams and rivers, it will also improve our ability to predict how flow alterations caused by various human activities affect these vital ecosystems.

  • turbulent transport of suspended particles and dispersing Benthic Organisms how long to hit bottom
    Journal of Theoretical Biology, 1997
    Co-Authors: James N. Mcnair, Denis J Newbold, David D. Hart

    Abstract:

    Abstract Turbulence plays an important role in the transport of particles in many aquatic systems. In addition to various types of inorganic sediment (silt, sand, etc.), these particles typically include bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and fine organic debris. In this paper, we focus on one aspect of turbulent particle transport; namely, the average time required for a suspended particle to reach the bottom of a waterbody from a specified initial elevation. This is the mean hitting-time problem, and it is important in determining, for example, the effect of turbulence on downstream transport of organic particles, dispersal times and dispersal propagules. We approach this problem by developing a stochastic diffusion model of particle transport called the Local Exchange Model, which is an extension of a model posed by Denny & Shibata (1989) in an earlier study of the same problem. We show how the mean hitting-time of the Local Exchange Model varies with factors such as a particle’s fall velocity an the shape of the vertical profile in turbulent mixing. We also show how the mean hitting-time is related to both the vertical profile in current velocity and the vertical profile in concentration of suspended particles, and how these relationships can be exploited in testing the model. Among other things, our results predict that, with the sole exception of neutrally buoyant particles that do not swim downward, there is always a region of the water-column in which turbulence increases rather than decreases the mean hitting-time. We discuss the significance of this and other results for dispersal by Benthic Organisms.

Christopher M. Finelli – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • physical biological coupling in streams the pervasive effects of flow on Benthic Organisms
    Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 1999
    Co-Authors: David D. Hart, Christopher M. Finelli

    Abstract:

    ▪ Abstract Flowing water has profound effects on a diverse array of ecological processes and patterns in streams and rivers. We propose a conceptual framework for investigating the multiple causal pathways by which flow influences Benthic biota and focus particular attention on the local scales at which these Organisms respond to flow. Flow (especially characteristics linked to the velocity field) can strongly affect habitat characteristics, dispersal, resource acquisition, competition, and predation; creative experiments will be needed to disentangle these complex interactions. Benthic Organisms usually reside within the roughness layer, where the unique arrangement of sediment particles produces strongly sheared and highly three-dimensional flow patterns. Thus, accurate characterization of the local flow environments experienced by Benthic Organisms often requires the use of flow measurement technology with high spatial and temporal resolution. Because flow exhibits variation across a broad range of sca…

  • Physical-Biological Coupling in Streams: The Pervasive Effects of Flow on Benthic Organisms
    Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 1999
    Co-Authors: David D. Hart, Christopher M. Finelli

    Abstract:

    Flowing water has profound effects on a diverse array of ecological processes and patterns in streams and rivers. We propose a conceptual framework for investigating the multiple causal pathways by which flow influences Benthic biota and focus particular attention on the local scales at which these Organisms respond to flow. Flow (especially characteristics linked to the velocity field) can strongly affect habitat characteristics, dispersal, resource acquisition, competition, and predation; creative experiments will be needed to disentangle these complex interactions. Benthic Organisms usually reside within the roughness layer, where the unique arrangement of sediment particles produces strongly sheared and highly three-dimensional flow patterns. Thus, accurate characterization of the local flow environments experienced by Benthic Organisms often requires the use of flow measurement technology with high spatial and temporal resolution. Because flow exhibits variation across a broad range of scales, it is also necessary to examine how organism-flow relationships at one scale are linked to those at others. Interdisciplinary approaches are needed in the study of physical-biological coupling; increased collaboration between ecologists and experts in fluid mechanics and hydraulic engineering is particularly desirable. A greater understanding of physical-biological coupling will not only yield deeper insights into the ecological organization of streams and rivers, it will also improve our ability to predict how flow alterations caused by various human activities affect these vital ecosystems.

Lee P Ferguson – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • bioaccumulation and toxicity of single walled carbon nanotubes to Benthic Organisms at the base of the marine food chain
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2013
    Co-Authors: Ashley N Parks, Lisa M Portis, Ariette P Schierz, Kate M Washburn, Monique M Perron, Robert M Burgess, Kay T Ho, Thomas G Chandler, Lee P Ferguson

    Abstract:

    As the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) increases over time, so does the potential for environmental release. This research aimed to determine the toxicity, bioavailability, and bioaccumulation of SWNTs in marine Benthic Organisms at the base of the food chain. The toxicity of SWNTs was tested in a whole sediment exposure with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Americamysis bahia. In addition, SWNTs were amended to sediment and/or food matrices to determine their bioavailability and bioaccumulation through these routes in A. abdita, A. bahia, and the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus. No significant mortality to any species via sediment or food matrices was observed at concentrations up to 100 ppm. A novel near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopic method was utilized to measure and characterize the body burdens of pristine SWNTs in nondepurated and depurated Organisms. We did not detect SWNTs in depurated Organisms but quantified them in nondepurated A. abdita fed SWNT-amended algae. After a 28-d exposure to [14C]SWNT-amended sediment (100 µg/g) and algae (100 µg/g), [14C]SWNT was detected in depurated and nondepurated L. plumulosus amphipods at 0.50 µg/g and 5.38 µg/g, respectively. The results indicate that SWNTs are bioaccessible to marine Benthic Organisms but do not appear to accumulate or cause toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1270–1277. © 2013 SETAC