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Biocide

The Experts below are selected from a list of 26673 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Kevin V. Thomas – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Antifouling paint booster Biocides in UK coastal waters: Inputs, occurrence and environmental fate
    Science of the Total Environment, 2002
    Co-Authors: Kevin V. Thomas, Mathew McHugh, Mike Waldock

    Abstract:

    This study considered the inputs of antifouling paint booster Biocides into the aquatic environment directly from painted hulls and high pressure hosing operations, the occurrence of booster Biocides in marinas, harbours and docks, and the influence of degradation and water-sediment partition on their environmental fate. Irgarol 1051, the Irgarol 1051 degradation product GS26575, diuron, and the diuron degradation products 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3,1-dimethylurea (CPDU), 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea (DCPMU) and 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (DCPU) were all detected at measurable concentrations in surface waters. Irgarol 1051, GS26575 and diuron were also detected in bottom sediments. A preliminary study of Biocide input during both normal use and foreshore hull hosing showed that hosing may be a significant point source input and also be a cause for future concern since much of this input is in the form of paint particles. Field based measurements and laboratory experiments showed that Irgarol 1051 and diuron persist in the water column, due to a low affinity to partition onto sedimentary material and high resistance to degradation. Other Biocides such as chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and Sea-Nine 211 were all found to be rapidly removed from the water column and be less persistent. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • The environmental fate and behaviour of antifouling paint booster Biocides: A review
    Biofouling, 2001
    Co-Authors: Kevin V. Thomas

    Abstract:

    Antifouling paint booster Biocides are a group of organic compounds added to antifouling paints to improve their efficacy. They have become prevalent since the requirement for alternative antifouling paints formulations for small boats (< 25 m). This need followed a ban on the use of triorganotin Biocides in antifouling paints for small boats, in the late 1980’s. Worldwide, around eighteen compounds are currently used as antifouling Biocides, viz. benzmethylamide, chlorothalonil, copper pyrithione, dichlofluanid, diuron, fluorofolpet, Irgarol 1051, Sea‐Nine 211, Mancozeb, Polyphase, pyridine‐triphenyl‐borane, TCMS (2,3,5,6‐tetrachloro‐4‐methylsulfonyl) pyridine, TCMTB [2‐(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothia‐zole], Thiram, tolyfluanid, zinc pyrithione (ZPT), ziram and Zineb. Any booster Biocide released into the environment is subjected to a complex set of processes. These processes include transport mechanisms, transformation, degradation, cross media partitioning, and bioaccumulation. This paper reviews the fa…

  • Antifouling Paint Booster Biocide Contamination in UK Marine Sediments
    Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2000
    Co-Authors: Kevin V. Thomas, S.j Blake, M. J. Waldock

    Abstract:

    The proposed International Maritime Organization (IMO) ban on tributyltin (TBT) as an antifouling paint Biocide, will raise the inevitability of the increased use of alternative paints containing copper and organic booster Biocides. Although the fate of TBT in marine sediments has been extensively studied, very little work has been performed to assess the accumulation of organic booster Biocides in sediments. A survey was conducted to determine concentrations of TBT, Irgarol 1051, the Irgarol 1051 metabolite GS26575 (2-(tert-butylamino)-4-amino-6-(methylthio)-1,3,5-triazine; also referred to as M1) and diuron in coastal and off-shore sediments. TBT was consistently determined at the highest concentrations and was detected in all sediments collected from Southampton Water, UK, along with the TBT degradation product dibutyltin (DBT). Irgarol 1051 was detected (0.01–0.11 μg/g) in some sediments collected from marinas, where high concentrations of these compounds have been measured in surface waters. The Irgarol 1051 metabolite 2-methylthio-4-tert-butylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (M1/GS26575) was only detected at a few locations at concentrations

Jose L Martinez – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • multiple adaptive routes of salmonella enterica typhimurium to Biocide and antibiotic exposure
    BMC Genomics, 2016
    Co-Authors: Tânia Curiao, Emmanuela Marchi, Denis Grandgirard, Ricardo Leonsampedro, Carlo Viti, Stephen L Leib, Fernando Baquero, Marco R Oggioni, Jose L Martinez

    Abstract:

    Biocides and antibiotics are used to eradicate or prevent the growth of microbial species on surfaces (occasionally on catheters), or infected sites, either in combination or sequentially, raising concerns about the development of co-resistance to both antimicrobial types. The effect of such compounds on Salmonella enterica, a major food-borne and zoonotic pathogen, has been analysed in different studies, but only few works evaluated its biological cost, and the overall effects at the genomic and transcriptomic levels associated with diverse phenotypes resulting from Biocide exposure, which was the aim of this work. Exposure to triclosan, clorhexidine, benzalkonium, (but not to hypochlorite) resulted in mutants with different phenotypes to a wide range of antimicrobials even unrelated to the selective agent. Most Biocide-resistant mutants showed increased susceptibility to compounds acting on the cell wall (β-lactams) or the cell membranes (poly-L-lysine, polymyxin B, colistin or toxic anions). Mutations (SNPs) were found in three intergenic regions and nine genes, which have a role in energy production, amino acids, carbohydrates or lipids metabolism, some of them involved in membrane transport and pathogenicity. Comparative transcriptomics of Biocide-resistant mutants showed over-expression of genes encoding efflux pumps (sugE), ribosomal and transcription-related proteins, cold-shock response (cpeE) and enzymes of microaerobic metabolism including those of the phosphotransferase system. Mainly ribosomal, metabolic and pathogenicity-related genes had affected expression in both in vitro-selected Biocide mutants and field Salmonella isolates with reduced Biocide susceptibility. Multiple pathways can be involved in the adaptation of Salmonella to Biocides, mainly related with global stress, or involving metabolic and membrane alterations, and eventually causing “collateral sensitivity” to other antimicrobials. These changes might impact the bacterial-environment interaction, imposing significant bacterial fitness costs which may reduce the chances of fixation and spread of Biocide resistant mutants.

  • evaluation of epidemiological cut off values indicates that Biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically relevant microorganisms
    PLOS ONE, 2014
    Co-Authors: Ian Morrissey, Tânia Curiao, Marco R Oggioni, Daniel R Knight, Teresa M Coque, Ayse Kalkanci, Jose L Martinez

    Abstract:

    To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to Biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) distributions for four common Biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635) and Salmonella spp. (N = 901) but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368), Candida albicans (N = 200), Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60), Enterobacter spp. (N = 54), Enterococcus faecium (N = 53), and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56). From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all Biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of Biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs) and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC), E. coli (MBC and MIC) and S. aureus (MBC and MIC). There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by Biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to Biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

Mike Waldock – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Antifouling paint booster Biocides in UK coastal waters: Inputs, occurrence and environmental fate
    Science of the Total Environment, 2002
    Co-Authors: Kevin V. Thomas, Mathew McHugh, Mike Waldock

    Abstract:

    This study considered the inputs of antifouling paint booster Biocides into the aquatic environment directly from painted hulls and high pressure hosing operations, the occurrence of booster Biocides in marinas, harbours and docks, and the influence of degradation and water-sediment partition on their environmental fate. Irgarol 1051, the Irgarol 1051 degradation product GS26575, diuron, and the diuron degradation products 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3,1-dimethylurea (CPDU), 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea (DCPMU) and 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (DCPU) were all detected at measurable concentrations in surface waters. Irgarol 1051, GS26575 and diuron were also detected in bottom sediments. A preliminary study of Biocide input during both normal use and foreshore hull hosing showed that hosing may be a significant point source input and also be a cause for future concern since much of this input is in the form of paint particles. Field based measurements and laboratory experiments showed that Irgarol 1051 and diuron persist in the water column, due to a low affinity to partition onto sedimentary material and high resistance to degradation. Other Biocides such as chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and Sea-Nine 211 were all found to be rapidly removed from the water column and be less persistent. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.