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Maureen G Reed – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
the contributions of unesco man and Biosphere programme and Biosphere Reserves to the practice of sustainability scienceSustainability Science, 2019Co-Authors: Maureen G ReedAbstract:
Sustainability science as a transdisciplinary academic field has taken off since the beginning of the twenty-first century. Recent reflections have traced its practical origins back to the 1980s when sustainable development became popularized. Using academic and governmental literature as primary sources, I argue that these reflections are incomplete and that the practices of sustainability science as espoused today are embedded in the establishment of a normative and pragmatic form of ecosystem sciences that emerged in Europe and North America in the early twentieth century—informed by scientific principles of holism, conservation, and faith in scientific expertise and by social sensibilities of love of nature, morality, and pragmatism. Following World War II, years of scientific and intergovernmental debate led to the creation of an international program of applied research and education in the 1970s—the Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme of the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. The most enduring legacy of the MAB Programme is the world network of Biosphere Reserves, first initiated in 1976 and now numbering 669 in 120 countries. While this program is not the only contributor to sustainability science, this network became an embodiment of sustainability science, by implementing a use-inspired, transdisciplinary research and action program at the human–environment interface. A major challenge has been to generate consistent uptake and cross fertilization by scientists internationally. Reviewing the ideas and ideals that helped found the MAB Programme uncovers enduring institutional, methodological and epistemological challenges facing sustainability scientists and suggests opportunities to transform the research and practice of sustainability science so that they better align with contemporary aspirations and values.
social learning driven by collaboration in the canadian network of unesco Biosphere Reserves, 2018Co-Authors: Maureen G Reed, Paivi AbernethyAbstract:
Learning has become a means for achieving adaptive governance and sustainability; however, relatively little attention has been given to learning partnerships of groups spanning spatial scales, governance responsibilities and scales of influence. This chapter documents a multi-scale partnership involving academics, practitioners, and governing bodies associated with Canadian Biosphere Reserves. Together they worked to improve their sustainability practices through networking and social learning strategies. Initiated in 2011, the partnership involved individual practitioners of 15 Biosphere Reserves, academic researchers, and the national-level governing bodies of the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme of UNESCO – the Canadian-MAB committee, and the Canadian Commission for UNESCO. We demonstrate how single, double and triple loop learning outcomes were achieved in this multi-level partnership through a platform structured around a social learning and action cycle using highly skilled facilitation. We paid particular attention to three questions: (1) who learns?; (2) what is to be learned?; and (3) how can social learning be accomplished? Over time, experience and trust gained through the partnership encouraged Biosphere reserve practitioners, governing agencies, academic researchers and Indigenous partners to engage in peer learning and deepen learning outcomes in favour of sustainability and adaptive governance.
conservation in action renewing the relevance of unesco Biosphere ReservesConservation Letters, 2016Co-Authors: Maureen G ReedAbstract:
The research and policy landscape for biodiversity conservation is changing. Protected areas are now expected to meet a broad range of objectives including effective and equitable management. In this new landscape, organizations strive to find ways to ensure the rights of local and Indigenous peoples are respected while conservation scientists have endorsed the need for platforms for international research and practice. For 40 years, a growing international network of sites support such research and practice, yet, it has been underutilized and largely ignored by scientists and decision-makers alike. To better understand this paradox, this article explores the evolution of the World Network of UNESCO Biosphere Reserves internationally and its application in Canada. Analysis of archived materials, a national survey of practitioners, and interviews with past and present members of Canada’s national committee reveals an expanded mandate for Biosphere Reserves beyond conservation science and biodiversity protection. The article recommends that to support the expanded conservation agenda, Biosphere Reserves work with governments and conservation scientists to connect more effectively with global concerns and initiatives such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and Sustainable Development Goals; establish appropriate, reliable, and active transdisciplinary partnerships; and meaningfully engage a broader range of knowledge holders.
Rafael Miranda – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
data exchange gaps in knowledge of biodiversity implications for the management and conservation of Biosphere ReservesBiodiversity and Conservation, 2014Co-Authors: Andrea Pinodelcarpio, Arturo H Arino, Rafael MirandaAbstract:
The knowledge of species occurrence within an area is crucial to develop proper conservation strategies to protect species diversity. Biosphere Reserves (BRs), established to preserve biodiversity and sustainably use their resources, should therefore have precise information of its biodiversity. We compared and evaluated information on threatened and non-threatened vertebrate species available for Spanish BRs from three sources: management documents (MDs), the Global Biodiversity Information Facility index (GBIF), and atlases and red books. Our results suggest that information from any one source was rather partial, to a degree that depended on which vertebrate group was considered. Management documents did list a high percentage of threatened species found in BRs, reaching up to the total number of species of birds and mammals. Species lists overlap between all three sources ranged from 59 % for fish to 84 % for mammals. In addition, there is an inconsistency between national and international threatened species categories and it should thus call for revisions. Even though the information of non-threatened and threatened species occurrence in MDs of Spanish BRs is good, it is necessary to pay attention to amphibian and fish species which are less recorded.
the biodiversity data knowledge gap assessing information loss in the management of Biosphere ReservesBiological Conservation, 2014Co-Authors: Andrea Pinodelcarpio, Jordi Puig, Arturo H Arino, Ana Villarroya, Rafael MirandaAbstract:
Abstract The knowledge of biodiversity within an area is vital if we want to develop adequate conservation strategies. Biosphere Reserves are purposefully established for the sustainable use of their resources, and therefore their biodiversity should be well known. We compared and evaluated information available for Mexican Biosphere Reserves on threatened and non-threatened vertebrate species records from three different sources – the corresponding Biosphere Reserves management plans (MPs), the Global Biodiversity Information Facility index (GBIF), and scientific literature, in order to find potential knowledge gaps. Our results suggest that there were varying gaps in information among sources according to vertebrate group. For each group of vertebrate species, management plans held the largest subsets of information but were not complete, ranging from 89.6% of the combined known species of birds to 70% for amphibians and freshwater fishes. However, both GBIF and literature included data absent from MPs, and GBIF included data not otherwise available, proving it as important as literature or other data sources (e.g. field data) used for crafting such plans. Moreover, we found references to threatened species that were not listed in the MPs, reaching to as many as 50% of the total known species of fish. Species information shared by all three sources ranged from 28% for amphibians to 72.5% for birds. Conservation efforts should therefore take into account that possibly less charismatic taxa such as amphibians, reptiles and freshwater fish lack more information than birds or mammals. The disparity observed in the vertebrate species information constitutes an information gap that could (or should) be solved by scientists and managers alike.
communication gaps in knowledge of freshwater fish biodiversity implications for the management and conservation of mexican Biosphere ReservesJournal of Fish Biology, 2011Co-Authors: Andrea Pinodelcarpio, Jordi Puig, Arturo H Arino, Ana Villarroya, Rafael MirandaAbstract:
To detect differences in the information available on freshwater fish species found in Mexican Biosphere Reserves, the number of species considered in three sources of information: management programmes, Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and the scientific literature were compared. Additionally, management actions for the Reserves were evaluated. More than 55% of freshwater fish species registered for the Reserves were found only in one of the three sources of information, while just 12% was shared among all the three. Fifteen threatened species were registered in GBIF and the scientific literature that were not found in management programmes. Although all the management programmes described conservation actions, none of them gave details about how they would be implemented. Lack of communication among the sources studied, unawareness of the existence of threatened species and the absence of detailed management actions hinder the development of adequate conservation strategies.
Lisen Schultz – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
integrating conservation and sustainable development through adaptive co management in unesco Biosphere ReservesConservation and Society, 2018Co-Authors: Julia Baird, Lisen Schultz, Ryan Plummer, Derek Armitage, Orjan BodinAbstract:
Integrating conservation and sustainable development is difficult, but organisations charged with this mandate must move forward with implementation. Adaptive Co-Management (ACM), an approach that brings together the learning function of adaptation with the linking function of collaboration, has been identified as a promising way to enhance the effectiveness of sustainable development without compromising conservation efforts. We examine four UNESCO Biosphere Reserves (BRs) to better understand the extent to which they exhibit characteristics of ACM integrated conservation and sustainable development and gain insights into how they do so. We find that the BRs we studied in Canada and Sweden undertake a substantial number of activities strongly oriented towards integration of conservation and development objectives. These activities involve a wide variety of actors in both on-the-ground implementation efforts and decision-making activities, create novel spaces for interaction among participants which contributes to their bridging ability, and draw on social networks, available assets and individuals’ contributions to enable actions in pursuit of their integrative mandate. Insights into these activities and how they were undertaken can offer lessons for future practice and research within the World Biosphere Reserve Network, as well as conservation organisations more broadly. Although we demonstrate that significant efforts are being made towards integration of conservation and development, we nonetheless suggest that further studies should explicitly investigate if and how such integration actually lead to more desirable social and ecological outcomes.
learning to live with social ecological complexity an interpretive analysis of learning in 11 unesco Biosphere ReservesGlobal Environmental Change-human and Policy Dimensions, 2018Co-Authors: Lisen Schultz, Simon West, Alba Juarez Bourke, Laia Darmengol, Pau Torrents, Hildur Hardardottir, Annie Jansson, Alba Mohedano RoldanAbstract:
Learning is increasingly considered a means to achieve sustainability in practice and has become a prominent goal of sustainability interventions. The UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves see …
is adaptive co management delivering examining relationships between collaboration learning and outcomes in unesco Biosphere ReservesEcological Economics, 2017Co-Authors: Julia Baird, Orjan Bodin, Ryan Plummer, Derek Armitage, Angela Dzyundzyak, Lisen SchultzAbstract:
This paper examines relationships among perceived processes and outcomes in four UNESCO Biosphere Reserves (BRs). BRs offer a unique opportunity to examine these relationships because they aim to foster more adaptive and collaborative forms of management, i.e. adaptive co-management (ACM). Accounting for the outcomes of ACM is a difficult task and little progress has been made to this end. However, we show here that ACM efforts in all four BRs had a myriad of positive results as well as ecological and livelihood effects. Process variables of collaboration and learning explained over half (54.6%) of the variability in results and over one third (35.1%) of the variability in effects. While the overall models for outcomes and subsequent process were not significant, the regressions revealed predictive potential for both process variables. Our analysis highlights that a better process is associated with more positive outcomes and that collaboration and learning make unique contributions to outcomes. Opportunities for quantitative techniques to be utilized in understanding the dynamics of ACM are illustrated. Understanding relationships between process and outcomes (and vice versa) provides a sound basis to answer critiques, enhances accountability, and maximizes the potential of positive impacts for ecosystems and humans.