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Biotechnology

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Atilla A Hincal – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Approaches to education of pharmaceutical Biotechnology in faculties of pharmacy.
    Current pharmaceutical biotechnology, 2001
    Co-Authors: Sema Çaliş, Fatih Oner, S Kas, Atilla A Hincal

    Abstract:

    Pharmaceutical Biotechnology is developing rapidly both in academic institutions and in the biopharmaceutical industry. For this reason, FIP Special Interest Group of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology decided to develop a questionnaire concerning pharmaceutical Biotechnology education. After preliminary studies were completed, questionnaires were sent to the leading scientists in academia and research directors or senior managers of various Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Companies in order to gather their views about how to create a satisfactory program. The objectives of this study were as follows: -To review all of the graduate and undergraduate courses which are presently available worldwide on pharmaceutical Biotechnology in Faculties of Pharmacy. -To review all of the text books, references and scientific sources available worldwide in the area of pharmaceutical Biotechnology. When replying to the questionnaires, the respondents were asked to consider the present status of pharmaceutical Biotechnology education in academia and future learning needs in collaboration with the Biotechnology industry. The data from various pharmacy faculties and Biotechnology industry representatives from Asia, Europe and America were evaluated and the outcome of the survey showed that educational efforts in training qualified staff in the rapidly growing field of pharmaceutical Biotechnology is promising. Part of the results of this questionnaire study have already been presented at the 57th International Congress of FIP Vancouver, Canada in 1997.

John E Smith – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Biotechnology
    Biotechnology, 2009
    Co-Authors: John E Smith

    Abstract:

    A defining aim of this fifth edition of Biotechnology has been to re-establish the correct understanding of the true meaning of Biotechnology. Biotechnology is in essence the deciphering and use of biological knowl- edge. It is highly multidisciplinary since it has its foundations in many disciplines including biology,microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biol- ogy, genetics, chemistry and chemical and process engineering. It may also be viewed as a series of enabling technologies that involve the practical application of organisms (especially microorganisms) or their cellular com- ponents tomanufacturing and service industries and environmentalman- agement. Historically, Biotechnology was an artisanal skill rather than a science, exemplified in themanufacture ofwines, beers, cheeses, etc.where the techniques of manufacture were well worked out and reproducible, while the biological mechanisms were not understood. As the scientific basis of these Biotechnology processes has developed this has led to more efficient manufacturing of the traditional processes that still represent the major financial returns of Biotechnology, i.e. bread, beers, wines, cheeses, etc. Modern biotechnological processes have generated awide range of new and novel products including antibiotics, vaccines and monoclonal anti- bodies, the production of which has been optimised by improved fermen- tation practices. Biotechnology has been further revolutionised by a range of newmolecular biology innovations, allowing unprecedented molecular changes to be made to living organisms. The increasing understanding of genomics and proteomics has led to the creation of a vast range of trans- genic microorganisms, agricultural (genetically modified) crops and ani- mals, and major new recombinant protein drugs, and has revolutionised activities in the traditional food and drinks industries. In the environ- ment, Biotechnology innovations are creating major advances in water and land management and also remediating the pollution generated by over-industrialisation. There have been vast investments in molecular diagnostics, not only in medicine but in plant and animal agriculture and the environment. Will the huge potential of stem cells for remedialmedicine soon be realised? Until recently, much attention has been given to determining the ‘nuts and bolts’ of biological systems. Now, systems biology is aiming to describe and to understand the operation of complex biological systems and ulti- mately to develop predictive models of, for example, human disease and complex fermenter systems used in Biotechnology. Some of the new aspects of Biotechnology, such as genetic engineering, have aroused certain social sensitivities of an ethical, moral and political character. Regulatory authorities throughout the world arenowexamining the implications of thesenewand revolutionary techniques. It ishoped that common sense will prevail. Undoubtedly, modern Biotechnology can onlymaximise its full poten- tial to benefit mankind through achieving a basis of public understanding, awareness,andknowledgeof the technologies.Participating scientists must learn to communicate openly with the public and attempt to demystify the complex nature of living systems. By doing so they will generate a greater level of confidence and trust between the scientific community and the public at large. This expanded fifth edition of Biotechnology is again aimed to give an integrated overview of its complex, multifaceted and often ill-maligned subjects, and for some young readers to point the way forward to exciting, satisfying and rewarding careers. Biotechnology will undoubtedly be the major technology of the twenty-first century and should be so recognised by the lay public. I am again deeply indebted to the long-suffering Elizabeth Clements for her skilful processing of the manuscript and her continued dedication.

  • Basic Biotechnology: Public perception of Biotechnology
    Basic Biotechnology, 2006
    Co-Authors: John E Smith

    Abstract:

    Introduction Public perception of new technologies can have pronounced effects on the timing and direction of innovation, and on rates of uptake or discrimination of the technology, its products and services. Public perception can be area- or region-specific (e.g. North America, Southeast Asia, etc.) and will be dependent on several variables, namely economic affluence, level of education, cultural and religious values and traditions, and social and institutional ways of participation. At the present time, public perception of Biotechnology is generating much debate, especially in the EU. Before entering into an examination of how the general public are believed to perceive modern Biotechnology, especially genomics and proteomics, it is pertinent to highlight how Biotechnology evolved historically to its present-day profound and positive impact on industry, medicine, agriculture, commerce and the environment. Historically, the microbial aspects of Biotechnology evolved over many centuries as an artisan skill rather than as a science exemplified in the ancient manufacturing of beer, wine, cheese, yoghurts, fermented meats, such as salami, etc., where the methods of production were well understood but the actual microbial and biochemical mechanisms went unknown. Indeed, it was well into the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries before the causal microorganisms could be identified and their positive role confirmed. Consequently, with the advances in microbiology and biochemistry, all of the previously empirically driven processes became better understood and controlled. To these traditional and long-established products were added, more recently, antibiotics, vaccines, therapeutic proteins and countless others.

Sema Çaliş – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Approaches to education of pharmaceutical Biotechnology in faculties of pharmacy.
    Current pharmaceutical biotechnology, 2001
    Co-Authors: Sema Çaliş, Fatih Oner, S Kas, Atilla A Hincal

    Abstract:

    Pharmaceutical Biotechnology is developing rapidly both in academic institutions and in the biopharmaceutical industry. For this reason, FIP Special Interest Group of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology decided to develop a questionnaire concerning pharmaceutical Biotechnology education. After preliminary studies were completed, questionnaires were sent to the leading scientists in academia and research directors or senior managers of various Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Companies in order to gather their views about how to create a satisfactory program. The objectives of this study were as follows: -To review all of the graduate and undergraduate courses which are presently available worldwide on pharmaceutical Biotechnology in Faculties of Pharmacy. -To review all of the text books, references and scientific sources available worldwide in the area of pharmaceutical Biotechnology. When replying to the questionnaires, the respondents were asked to consider the present status of pharmaceutical Biotechnology education in academia and future learning needs in collaboration with the Biotechnology industry. The data from various pharmacy faculties and Biotechnology industry representatives from Asia, Europe and America were evaluated and the outcome of the survey showed that educational efforts in training qualified staff in the rapidly growing field of pharmaceutical Biotechnology is promising. Part of the results of this questionnaire study have already been presented at the 57th International Congress of FIP Vancouver, Canada in 1997.