Bird Collections - Explore the Science & Experts | ideXlab

Scan Science and Technology

Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies

Bird Collections

The Experts below are selected from a list of 135 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Jürgen Haffer – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • The development of ornithology in central Europe
    Journal of Ornithology, 2007
    Co-Authors: Jürgen Haffer

    Abstract:

    The first ornithologist since Aristotle was the emperor Friedrich II of Hohenstaufen whose work on falconry (written before 1248) includes a general account of Birds based largely on his personal observations. Other medieval workers on Birds were Albertus Magnus, Thomas di Cantimpré and Konrad von Megenberg. Gybertus Longolius (1544) and William Turner (1544) reported on some Birds of the Rhine region. The Renaissance encyclopedist Conrad Gessner (1555) compiled the total knowledge of European Birds listing over 182 species mostly in alphabetical order. The world’s first local vertebrate fauna was the Theriotropheum Silesiae (1603) noted by Caspar Schwenckfeld who included brief accounts of about 150 species of Birds. Several Collections of unpublished Bird paintings from the late-16th and the 17th centuries also represent valuable faunistic records. Around 1700, two separate research traditions in Europe originated from the work of John Ray (1627–1705) in England: (1) Research into the systematics of Birds and (2) research into the field natural history of Birds. Early systematists in Germany were J.Th. Klein, H.G. Moehring, J.C. Schaeffer, P.S. Pallas, and B. Merrem. They were all typologists—like their successors during the 19th century—and assumed that Bird species, although somewhat variable, are rigidly delimited and never gave rise to new species. The principal representatives of the early field ornithology in Germany were Johann Ferdinand Adam von Pernau and Johann Heinrich Zorn, who published the results of their important field studies during the first half of the 18th century. They worked under the concepts of physico-theology employing the teleological principle and were the first truly significant researchers of the biology of European Birds. The first German Bird book with excellent folio color plates was from Johann Leonhard Frisch, which appeared 1733–1763. Around 1800, two detailed handbooks on the Birds of Germany were published by Johann Matthäus Bechstein and by Johann Andreas Naumann, respectively. Bechstein’s text is more extensive than that of Naumann, but the latter’s color plates (prepared by his son Johann Friedrich) are superior to those in Bechstein’s books. The ‘Golden Age’ of central European field ornithology from 1820 to 1850 saw the appearance of the splendid works of Johann Friedrich Naumann, Christian Ludwig Brehm, and Friedrich Faber, who established a sound basis for the study of Birds in this region and beyond. During the second half of the 19th century, many European researchers turned their attention to exotic ornithology, because large Bird Collections arrived in Europe from many different parts of the world. During those decades, the study of central European Birds made only little progress (despite a major controversy on the instinctive versus purposive behavior of Birds, which, however, did not stimulate any field research). The influence of Darwin’s theory of evolution (1859) among central European ornithologists remained only slight until the end of the 19th century. From the 1920s onward, central European ornithology changed rapidly and general biological studies were emphasized over the earlier systematic-faunistic work. This development led to an integration of the two previously separated research traditions and to a fundamental paradigm change, which had a worldwide impact (the “Stresemann revolution”). It was soon recognized that the Bird is a well-suited subject for studies into the problems of functional morphology, physiology, behavior, and orientation of animals. The two key figures of European ornithology during the last several centuries were (1) John Ray, who around 1700 established the two main research traditions—systematic ornithology and field ornithology—and (2) Erwin Stresemann who from 1921 onward reunited both of them in the New Avian Biology.

  • Ornithological research traditions in central Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries
    Journal of Ornithology, 2001
    Co-Authors: Jürgen Haffer

    Abstract:

    The ‘Golden Age’ of central European ornithology from 1820 to 1850 saw the appearance of the splendid works of Johann Friedrich Naumann, Christian Ludwig Brehm and Friedrich Faber who established a sound basis for the study of Birds in this region and beyond. During the second half of the 19th century, many European researchers turned their attention to exotic ornithology because large Bird Collections arrived in Europe from many different parts of the world. During those decades, the study of European Birds made only little progress (despite a major controversy on the instinctive versus purposive behaviour of Birds which, however, did not stimulate any field research). The influence of Darwin’s theory of evolution (1859) among central European ornithologists remained only slight until the end of the 19th century.

  • Ornithological research traditions in central Europe during the 19^th and 20^th centuries
    Journal für Ornithologie, 2001
    Co-Authors: Jürgen Haffer

    Abstract:

    Das „Goldene Zeitalter“ der mitteleuropäischen Ornithologie zwischen 1820 und 1850 sah das Erscheinen der glänzenden Werke von Johann Friedrich Naumann, Christian Ludwig Brehm und Friedrich Faber als feste Grundlage für das Studium der Vögel dieser Region und darüber hinaus. In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts wandten sich die meisten Forscher der fremdländischen Ornithologie zu, weil Museen und Privatsammler sehr viel Material aus Übersee erhielten. Das Studium der europäischen Vögel machte dagegen nur geringe Fortschritte (trotz einer grundlegenden Debatte über instinktives gegenüber verstandesmäßigem Verhalten der Vögel, die aber keine neuen Forschungen anregte). Der Einfluss von Darwins Evolutionstheorie (1859) auf die Ansichten der Systematiker Mitteleuropas war bis zum Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts nur gering. Seit den 1920-er Jahren hat sich die mitteleuropäische Ornithologie rasch gewandelt, und biologische Studien traten gegenüber den früheren systematisch-faunistischen Arbeiten stark hervor (die „Stresemannsche Revolution“). Dieser Paradigma-Wechsel hatte eine weltweite Wirkung. Vögel erwiesen sich bald als besonders günstige Studienobjekte für Untersuchungen der funktionellen Morphologie, Physiologie, des Verhaltens und der Orientierung. Es waren Ornithologen (Stresemann, Rensch, Mayr), die entscheidend zur Entwicklung des biologischen Artkonzeptes und zur Klärung des Problems der Artbildung beigetragen haben. The ‘Golden Age’ of central European ornithology from 1820 to 1850 saw the appearance of the splendid works of Johann Friedrich Naumann, Christian Ludwig Brehm and Friedrich Faber who established a sound basis for the study of Birds in this region and beyond. During the second half of the 19^th century, many European researchers turned their attention to exotic ornithology because large Bird Collections arrived in Europe from many different parts of the world. During those decades, the study of European Birds made only little progress (despite a major controversy on the instinctive versus purposive behaviour of Birds which, however, did not stimulate any field research). The influence of Darwin’s theory of evolution (1859) among central European ornithologists remained only slight until the end of the 19^th century. From the 1920s onward, central European ornithology changed rapidly and general biological studies were emphasized over the earlier systematic-faunistic work (the “Stresemann revolution”). This paradigm change had a worldwide impact. It was soon recognized that the Bird is a well suited subject for studies into the problems of functional morphology, physiology, behaviour and orientation. Ornithologists (Stresemann, Rensch, Mayr) made the decisive contributions to the biological species concept and to solving the problem of speciation.

S J Milton – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the Bird Collections of c j andersson in southern africa 1850 1867
    Archives of Natural History, 2006
    Co-Authors: W R J Dean, M Sandwith, S J Milton

    Abstract:

    Abstract A number of Bird specimens, including at least 53 type specimens, were collected by C. J. Andersson (or credited to him as the collector) mainly in Namibia, but also in Angola, Botswana and South Africa, between 1850 and July 1867. Although much of the original material collected by Andersson has been lost, 2,523 Bird study skins and sets of eggs collected by him are currently in museum Collections; of them 58 are without any data except species name, 202 have the country only, 367 have country and a vague locality (Damaraland, Cape Colony and Ovamboland), and 1,896 have detailed locality data. Although 757 specimens are without dates, another 1,666 have at least month and year, and a further 100 have year only, or can be dated to a particular year. A list of collecting sites and dates when they were visited is given. Of particular interest are the type specimens collected by Andersson and his colleagues as some of these include species with incorrect or vague type localities.

  • The Bird Collections of C. J. Andersson in southern Africa, 1850–1867
    Archives of Natural History, 2006
    Co-Authors: W R J Dean, M Sandwith, S J Milton

    Abstract:

    Abstract A number of Bird specimens, including at least 53 type specimens, were collected by C. J. Andersson (or credited to him as the collector) mainly in Namibia, but also in Angola, Botswana and South Africa, between 1850 and July 1867. Although much of the original material collected by Andersson has been lost, 2,523 Bird study skins and sets of eggs collected by him are currently in museum Collections; of them 58 are without any data except species name, 202 have the country only, 367 have country and a vague locality (Damaraland, Cape Colony and Ovamboland), and 1,896 have detailed locality data. Although 757 specimens are without dates, another 1,666 have at least month and year, and a further 100 have year only, or can be dated to a particular year. A list of collecting sites and dates when they were visited is given. Of particular interest are the type specimens collected by Andersson and his colleagues as some of these include species with incorrect or vague type localities.

Karl Schulze-hagen – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Avian taxidermy in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance
    Journal of Ornithology, 2003
    Co-Authors: Karl Schulze-hagen, Frank D. Steinheimer, Ragnar Kinzelbach, Christoph Gasser

    Abstract:

    Research on textual and pictorial sources from the period 1200–1700, especially in Central Europe, has revealed the existence of considerably more and earlier examples of Bird Collections than previously suspected, as well as of a variety of motivations and manual skills required for the preserving of Birds prior to 1600. Many 16th century natural history cabinets contained large numbers of mounted Birds, often of exotic species. This has been documented in some inventories, e. g., that of the cabinet of arts of Emperor Rudolf II of Habsburg. However, it has so far gone unnoticed that numerous illustrations in the ornithological works of Gessner (1555), Belon (1555), Cyganski (1585), Aldrovandi (1599–1603) and in theThesaurus Picturarum of Marcus zum Lamm (from 1577–1606; Kinzelbach & Holzinger 2000) were made using preserved Birds as models. In Gessner (1555) in particular, the great majority of the Bird illustrations are of mounted or mummified specimens.

  • Avian taxidermy in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance
    Journal für Ornithologie, 2003
    Co-Authors: Karl Schulze-hagen, Frank D. Steinheimer, Ragnar Kinzelbach, Christoph Gasser

    Abstract:

    Für die Entwicklung der Ornithologie war die Konservierung toter Vögel, insbesondere die Herstellung von montierten Präparaten bzw. Bälgen, eine wesentliche Voraussetzung. Auch heute noch dient der Balg als authentischer Beleg der Avifaunistik, Taxonomic und in jüngster Zeit zusätzlich als Materialquelle für die biochemischen Methoden der Systematik. Während aus dem 17. Jahrhundert präparierte Vögel zunehmend häufiger nachzuweisen sind, waren aus der Zeit vor 1600 bislang nur drei Beispiele von Vogelpräparation bekannt (Stresemann 1923, 1951). Nachsuche in Text- und Bildquellen aus der Zeit von 1200–1700, insbesondere in Mitteleuropa, erbrachte erheblich mehr und weft frühere Belege für Vogelsammlungen, weiterhin Hinweise auf die unterschiedlichen Motive und handwerklichen Voraussetzungen für die Prepäration von Vögeln vor 1600. Die Naturalienkabinette der Renaissance an Fiirstenhöfen als auch in den Häusern städtischer Patrizier und Gelehrter enthielten schon seit dem 16. Jahrhundert in größerer Menge ausgestopfte Vögel, häufig exotischer Herkunft. Dokumentiert ist dies in einigen Inventarlisten, wie z. B. das Kunstkammerinventar Kaiser Rudolf II. von Habsburg. Bisher war unbeachtet geblieben, dass zahlreichen Illustrationen in den ornithologischen Werken von Gessner (1555), Belon (1555), Cyganski (1585), Aldrovandi (1599–1603) und im Thesaurus Picturarum des Marcus zum Lamm (1577–1606 entstanden; Kinzelbach & Hölzinger 2000) präparierte Vögel als Bildvorlagen dienten. Vor allem bei Gessner (1555) ist die überwiegende Mehrzahl der Vogelillustrationen nach Stopfpräparaten bzw. Mumien gezeichnet. Neben den wissenschaftlichen Werken und vereinzelten Beispielen in der Kunst bieten bisher unberücksichtigte Quellen aus dem Umfeld von Vogelfang, Jagd und Volkskunde weitere Hinweise auf Vogelpräparation. Eine Vielzahl von Motiven und von beteiligten Berufszweigen für die Vogelpräparation wird sichtbar. Vogelpräparation ist schon im Falknereitraktat Kaiser Friedrich II. von Hohenstaufen, der vor 1248 verfasst wurde, nachweisbar (s. auch Tab. 1). Auch Lockvögel beim Vögelfang waren haufig Stopfpräparate. Solche werden bereits um 1300 und um 1450 erwähnt. Die älteste wissenschaftliche Präparieranweisung stammt von Belon (1555). Olinas (1622) Uccelliera und Aitingers (1626/31) Kurtzer Vnd Einfeltiger bericht Von Dem Vogelstellen enthalten die ersten detaillierten Präparieranleitungen. Beide beschreiben das bereits über Generationen überlieferte Wissen zur Vogelpraparation. Zunächst herrschten mumifizierende Techniken vor, bei denen die Eingeweide entfernt und der Restkörper anschließend im Ofen getrocknet wurde. Doch spätestens seit Olina (1622) und Aitinger (1626/31) ist belegt, dass die befiederte Haut nach Entfernung allen Fleisches über einen künstlichen Körper aus Stroh, Torf oder anderen Materialien gezogen wurde. Diese Form der Präparation wurde als Ausstopfen, das Ergebnis als Balg bezeichnet. Die Haltbarkeit solcher Präparate war gering. Erst Aufbewahrung in dicht schließenden Kästen, ein verbessertes Sammlungsmanagement und insbesondere der Gebrauch von Arsen, welches in Deutschland schon mindestens 70 Jahre vor der „offiziellen Erstanwendung” durch Bécoeur verwendet wurde (Hohberg 1682), verlängerte die Haltbarkeit. Die Vermutung, dass die frühe Vogelpraparation von den erstmals 1522 in Europa eintreffenden Paradiesvogelbälgen abgeleitet sein könnte (Stresemann 1951), lässt sich nicht aufrecht halten. Vielmehr reichen deren Wurzeln mindestens his ins Mittelalter zurück. Die ersten wissenschaftlich ausgerichteten Ornithologen im 16. Jahrhundert besaßen solide präparatorische Kenntnisse, die sie im Umfeld von Vogelfang, Jagd und Kürschnerei erworben hatten. Die Anwendung der Vogelpräparation war zweifellos eine wesentliche Voraussetzung für die frühe Blüte der Ornithologie im 16. Jahrhundert. Research on textual and pictorial sources from the period 1200–1700, especially in Central Europe, has revealed the existence of considerably more and earlier examples of Bird Collections than previously suspected, as well as of a variety of motivations and manual skills required for the preserving of Birds prior to 1600. Many 16^th century natural history cabinets contained large numbers of mounted Birds, often of exotic species. This has been documented in some inventories, e. g., that of the cabinet of arts of Emperor Rudolf II of Habsburg. However, it has so far gone unnoticed that numerous illustrations in the ornithological works of Gessner (1555), Belon (1555), Cyganski (1585), Aldrovandi (1599–1603) and in the Thesaurus Picturarum of Marcus zum Lamm (from 1577–1606; Kinzelbach & Hölzinger 2000) were made using preserved Birds as models. In Gessner (1555) in particular, the great majority of the Bird illustrations are of mounted or mummified specimens. Sources from fields that have been neglected in the past, such as Bird-trapping, hunting, and folklore, have supplied further examples. Avian taxidermy is referred to as early as in the treatise on falconry of Emperor Friedrich II of Hohenstaufen, written before 1248 (see also Tab. 1). Decoys used in Bird-trapping were commonly stuffed specimens, and as such are mentioned around 1300 and 1450. The oldest scientific instructions on taxidermy were set down by Belon (1555). Olina (1622) and Aitinger (1626/31) provide the first detailed guides to taxidermic procedures. At first the mummification method dominated, in which the viscera were removed and the remainder of the body then dried in an oven and/or salted. However, we know that since Olina (1622) and Aitinger (1626/31) at the latest, the feathered skin was pulled over an artificial body following the removal of the flesh. The durability of such specimens was poor. This was only gradually improved by specimens being kept in well-sealed cases and by the use of arsenic, which had actually been employed in Germany at least 70 years before its ‘official introduction’ by Bécoeur (Hohberg 1682). The first scientifically motivated ornithologists of the 16th century were in possession of sound taxidermic knowledge, which they had gained through contact with activities like Bird-trapping, hunting, and the preparation of animal skins for clothing. There can be no doubt that the application of avian taxidermy was a crucial precondition for the early flowering of ornithology in the 16^th century.

  • The colour of Birds: Hans Duncker, pioneer Bird geneticist
    Journal of Ornithology, 2003
    Co-Authors: Tim R. Birkhead, Karl Schulze-hagen, Götz Palfner

    Abstract:

    Hans Duncker (1881–1961) is among the first avian geneticists, but remains poorly known. He trained as a biologist, completing his PhD at the University of Gottingen in 1905 and then became a high-school teacher in Bremen where he remained for the rest of his life. In 1921 he met Karl Reich (1885–1970) who was the first person to make recordings of Bird song and was well-known for creating a strain of canaries that sang Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) songs. Duncker provided a novel Darwinian/Mendelian explanation for how Reich’s canaries acquired their songs. In the early 1920s, a time during which the field of genetics was rapidly developing in the USA and Britain, but not Germany, Duncker and Reich conducted large-scale breeding experiments to establish the pattern of inheritance of variegation and other traits in canaries. In 1925 Duncker met Generalkonsul Carl Cremer (1858–1938), who provided the financial backing for a massive and comprehensive study of inheritance of colour patterns in Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulates). At the same time Duncker also initiated a project to create a red canary by hybridising canaries with the Red Siskin (Carduelis cucullata). Duncker recognized that Bird-keepers had much to offer professional scientists (and vice versa) and was keen to bridge the gap between them and to this end in 1927 began his own journal “Vogel ferner Lander”. His research on the genetics of the canary and budgerigar resulted in the publication of a large number of papers in ornithological journals and magazines and several books. Duncker was a eugenicist, and when the National Socialists came to power in 1933 he supported and promoted the notion of positive eugenics. He was later (in 1990) condemned for these activities and for having been a Nazi, but we show that Duncker joined the Party only reluctantly. After WWII Duncker restored and re-catalogued the Bird Collections at the Ubersee-Museum in Bremen. We discuss the possible reasons why Duncker’s research, much of it very innovative, has been largely ignored internationally.