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Kamal G. Ishak - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Keith J. Kaplan - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Trevor F.c. Batten - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Neurochemistry of Superficial Spinal Neurones Projecting to Nucleus of the Solitary Tract that Express c-fos on Chemical Somatic and Visceral Nociceptive Input in the Rat
    Metabolic Brain Disease, 2001
    Co-Authors: Filomena O. Gamboa-esteves, Deolinda Lima, Trevor F.c. Batten

    We have investigated the presence of three neurochemical markers, glutamate, calbindin-D28k, and nitric oxide synthase, in spinal neurones that transmit chemical noxious inputs from both the skin and the Viscera, by combining retrograde labelling with the fluorescent tracer Fluorogold with dual labelling immunohistochemistry. Neurones projecting to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) that expressed Fos protein in response to cutaneous or Visceral noxious stimulation were concentrated in lamina I of the cervical and lumbosacral segments, respectively. Although both labelled neuronal populations were numerous, the spino-solitary cells that transmit Visceral nociceptive input predominated over those transmitting cutaneous nociceptive input. Calbindin-D28k-immunoreactivity was observed in neurones of three morphological types (fusiform, flattened, and pyramidal) projecting to the NTS that were activated by somatic or Visceral nociceptive neurones. Nitric oxide synthase and glutamate immunoreactivities were present only in Viscerally activated nociceptive neurones projecting to the NTS. Glutamate-immunopositive NTS-projecting cells were exclusively of the flattened type, and the nitric oxide synthase-immunolabelled NTS-projecting cells comprised 75% fusiform cells and 25% flattened cells. These data suggest that the involvement of excitatory spinal lamina I projection neurones in the transmission of peripheral chemical nociceptive inputs to the NTS may be restricted to information of Visceral origin.

Linda Rinaman - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • ascending projections from the caudal Visceral nucleus of the solitary tract to brain regions involved in food intake and energy expenditure
    Brain Research, 2010
    Co-Authors: Linda Rinaman

    Metabolic homeostasis reflects the complex output of endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral control circuits that extend throughout the central nervous system. Brain regions that control food intake and energy expenditure are privy to continuous Visceral sensory feedback signals that presumably modulate appetite, satiety, digestion, and metabolism. Sensory signals from the gastrointestinal tract and associated digestive Viscera are delivered to the brain primarily by vagal afferents that terminate centrally within the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), with signals subsequently relayed to higher brain regions by parallel noradrenergic and peptidergic projection pathways arising within the NST. This article begins with an overview of these ascending pathways identified in adult rats using a standard anterograde tracer microinjected into the caudal Visceral sensory region of the NST, and also by immunocytochemical localization of glucagon-like peptide-1. NST projection targets identified by these two approaches are compared to the distribution of neurons that become infected after inoculating the ventral stomach wall with a neurotropic virus that transneuronally infects synaptically-linked chains of neurons in the anterograde (i.e., ascending sensory) direction. Although the focus of this article is the anatomical organization of axonal projections from the caudal Visceral NST to the hypothalamus and limbic forebrain, discussion is included regarding the hypothesized role of these projections in modulating behavioral arousal and coordinating endocrine and behavioral (i.e., hypophagic) responses to stress.

Chung Owyang - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • pathobiology of Visceral pain molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications v central nervous system processing of somatic and Visceral sensory signals
    American Journal of Physiology-gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 2000
    Co-Authors: Uri Ladabaum, Satoshi Minoshima, Chung Owyang

    Somatic and Visceral sensation, including pain perception, can be studied noninvasively in humans with functional brain imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have identified a series of cerebral regions involved in the processing of somatic pain, including the anterior cingulate, insular, prefrontal, inferior parietal, primary and secondary somatosensory, and primary motor and premotor cortices, the thalamus, hypothalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Experimental evidence supports possible specific roles for individual structures in processing the various dimensions of pain, such as encoding of affect in the anterior cingulate cortex. Visceral sensation has been examined in the setting of myocardial ischemia, distension of hollow Viscera, and esophageal acidification. Although knowledge regarding somatic sensation is more extensive than the information available for Visceral sensation, important similarities have emerged between cerebral representations of somatic and Visceral pain.