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Blatta

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Meredith Blackwell – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • five novel candida species in insect associated yeast clades isolated from neuroptera and other insects
    Mycologia, 2007
    Co-Authors: Nhu H Nguyen, Meredith Blackwell

    Abstract:

    Ascomycete yeasts are found commonly in the guts of basidioma-feeding beetles but little is known about their occurrence in the gut of other insects. In this study we isolated 95 yeasts from the gut of adult insects in five neuropteran families (Neu- roptera: Corydalidae, Chrysopidae, Ascalaphidae, Mantispidae and Hemerobiidae) and a roach (Blatto- dea: Blattidae). Based on DNA sequence comparisons and other taxonomic characteristics, they were identified as more than 15 species of Saccharomycetes as well as occasional Cryptococcus-like basidiomycete yeasts. Yeast species such as Lachancea fermentati, Lachancea thermotolerans and Hanseniaspora vineae were isolated repeatedly from the gut of three species of corydalids, suggesting a close association of these species and their insect hosts. Among the yeasts isolated in this study 12 were identified as five novel Candida species that occurred in three phylogeneti- cally distinct clades. Molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that Candida chauliodes sp. nov. (NRRL Y- 27909 T ) and Candida corydali sp. nov. (NRRL Y- 27910 T ) were sister taxa in the Candida albicans/ Lodderomyces elongisporus clade. Candida dosseyi sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27950 T ) and Candida Blattae sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27698 T ) were sister taxa in the Candida intermedia clade. Candida ascalaphidarum sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27908 T ) fell on a basal branch in a clade containing Candida membranifaciens and many other insect-associated species. Descriptions of these novel yeast species are provided as well as discussion of their ecology in relation to their insect hosts.

M E A Fuchs – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • aktionsradius refugientreue neubesiedlungsverhalten und tagesrhythmik von Blatta orientalis l in abhangigkeit von populationsgrose und zusammensetzung
    Journal of Applied Entomology, 2009
    Co-Authors: D J Denzer, M E A Fuchs, G Stein

    Abstract:

    Radius of action, loyality to the refuge, settlement of new refuges and diurnal rhythm of Blatta orientalis L. in relation to population density and composition

    In an experimental system comprised of an airconditioned chamber for environmental simulation, sensor electronics for movement recordings and data processing units, the radius of action, the settlement of new refuges and the loyality of the refuge of Blatta orientalis in relation to the population density, the time spent in the experimental system, the composition of the population and the influence of high temperature by middle humidity (29–38°C, 48–70% R. H.) were investigated.

    Under standard conditions (26°C, 80% R. H.) the total activity, the average activity per animal, the highest activity and the radius of action increased with enlargement of population and the time of staying. The relationship of maximum activity to average activity decreased with increase in population. The presence of nymphs results in a decrease of adults activity. High population densities resulted in new settlements being made mainly by nymphs but this was dependent on the distance to the new harbourage. Blatta orientalis is very loyal to the refuge which is presumably identified by position and smell. Social interactions are demonstrated. High temperatures (29–38 °C) and middle humidities (48–70% R. H.) resulted in a decrease of activity and an increase of the radius of action.

    Zusammenfassung

    In einer Versuchsanlage, bestehend aus einer Klimakammer zur Umweltsimulation sowie Sensor- und Auswertelektronik, wurde der Aktionsradius, das Neubesiedlungsverhalten und die Refugientreue von Blatta orientalis in Abhangigkeit von Populationsgrose, Aufenthaltsdauer in der Versuchsanlage, Zusammensetzung der Population und Auswirkungen von hohen Temperaturen bei mittlerer Luftfeuchte untersucht (29–38 °C, 48–70% r. F.).

    Unter Standardbedingungen (26 °C, 80% r. F.) nahm die Gesamtaktivitat, die Durchschnittsaktivitat pro Tier, das Aktivitatsmaximum und der Aktionsradius mit steigender Aufenthaltsdauer und Populationsvergroserung zu. Das Verhaltnis von Aktivitatsmaximum zu Durchschnittsaktivitat sank mit Erhohung der Tierzahl. Die Anwesenheit von Nymphen reduzierte die Adultenaktivitat.

    Neubesiedlung erfolgte erst bei hohen Populationsraten, war abhangig von der Entfernung zum Zielrefugium und erfolgte hauptsachlich durch Nymphen. B. orientalis ist sehr refugientreu. Das Refugium wird vermutlich nach Lage und Geruch identifiziert. Soziale Interaktionen konnten nachgewiesen werden. Hohe Temperaturen (29–38 °C) bei mittlerer Luftfeuchte (48–70% r. F.) fuhrten zu einer Aktivitatsverminderung bei gleichzeitiger Erhohung des Aktionsradius.

  • tagesrhythmik aktivitatshohe und aktivitatsmenge bei Blatta orientalis in abhangigkeit von geschlecht und lichtperiode1
    Journal of Applied Entomology, 2009
    Co-Authors: M E A Fuchs, S Graus, D J Denzer

    Abstract:

    Diurnal rhythm, level and amount of activity of Blatta orientalis in relation to sex and light period

    In two air-conditioned chambers for environmental simulation the circadian activity of Blatta orientalis is determined at 26 °C and 80% RH in relation to light period and sex, and evaluated by means of a data processing unit under micro-computer control. A basic test comprising 100 males and females, each, under the condition of a normal light period between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. is used as reference.

    A population only consisting of females shows a considerably lower overall activity but a longer activity period compared with a population consisting of males only. The males show a monophase diurnal rhythm while the females have a biphase diurnal rhythm with a second smaller activity peak immediately before the new light period.

    Essential for the behaviour of B. orientalis, after switching off the light, is the pre-adaption to the usual light period between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. Their inherent disposition to become active at the “usual” time remains and leads to a marked increase of activity after switching off the light. Both, a shortened and an extended light-off period as well as a reversal of the light-on and light-off phases leads to a decrease of activity while a counterclockwise time shift results in an increase of the overall activity.

    Permanent light leads to a decrease of the overall activity by 84%, compared with the basic test, and influences the monophase diurnal rhythm, while the period of action is enlarged.

    Permanent darkness increases the overall activity by 38%, compared with the basic test, while the monophase diurnal rhythm is preserved. It reduces the aggregation behaviour and leads to increased activities outside the refuge.

    Zusammenfassung

    In zwei Klimakammern zur Umweltsimulation wird die circadiane Lauftatigkeit von Blatta orientalis in Abhangigkeit von Lichtperiode und Geschlecht bei 26° und 80% r. F. gemessen und mittels einer mikrocomputergesteuerten Datenverarbeitungsanlage ausgewertet. Ein Basisversuch mit 100 Mannchen/100 Weibchen und normaler Lichtperiode von 7.00–19.00 Uhr dient als Bezugspunkt.

    Eine nur aus Weibchen bestehende Population zeigt eine wesentlich geringere Gesamtaktivitat bei gleichzeitiger Verlangerung der Aktivitatsperiode gegenuber einer nur aus Mannchen bestehenden Population; die Tagesrhythmik der Mannchen ist monophasisch, die der Weibchen biphasisch mit einem zweiten, kleineren Gipfel vor Licht-an.

    Entscheidend fur das Verhalten von B. orientalis nach Licht-aus ist die Voradaption an die gewohnte Lichtperiode von 7.00–19.00 Uhr; das Bestreben, zur gewohnten Zeit aktiv zu werden, besteht und fuhrt zu einem steilen Anstieg der Aktivitat nach Licht-aus. Eine verkurzte, aber auch eine verlangerte Dunkelphase sowie eine Umkehrung von Licht- und Dunkelphase fuhren zu einem Aktivitatsabfall, eine Verschiebung um 6 h entgegen dem Uhrzeigersinn zu einem Anstieg der Gesamtaktivitat.

    Dauerlicht fuhrt zu einer Abnahme der Gesamtaktivitat um 84% gegenuber dem Basisversuch, die monophasische Tagesrhythmik wird beeinflust, die Aktivitatsperiode verlangert.

    Dauerdunkel erhoht die Gesamtaktivitat um 38% gegenuber dem Basisversuch unter Beibehaltung der monophasischen Tagesrhythmik, vermindert das Aggregationsverhalten und fuhrt zu einer verstarkten Aktivitat auserhalb des Refugiums.

  • tagesrhythmik aktivitatshohe und aktivitatsmenge bei der orientalischen schabe Blatta orientalis l 1
    Journal of Applied Entomology, 2009
    Co-Authors: M E A Fuchs, Angelika Greib, G Sann

    Abstract:

    The diurnal rhythm, level and amount of activity of the Oriental Cockroach (Blatta orientalis L.)

    The circadian activity of Blatta orientalis is determined by means of an experimental system comprising air-conditioned chambers for environmental simulation, sensor electronics for movement recordings and data processing units.

    Under normal conditions (26 °C/80% R. H.) the highest activity is recorded 5–6 h after switching off the lights. The activity curve is monophasie. A population of 200 young adult B. orientalis causes more than 200 000 countings during one activity period, while nymphs only reach 3–4% of this amount of activity.

    High temperatures result in an increase of activity mainly due to the increased need for water. In conjunction with high humidity, an increase of about 1000%, and when combined with low humidity, a 250% rise is recorded. Warm and moist stationary air promotes activity because the cooling effects of evaporation and convection are considerably reduced. This also explains the enormous water uptake by the cockroaches. Thus, during the light-on period, loose aggregations can be found in areas exposed to slow air movement and at the watering-place. In addition, a second activity peak becomes apparent at high temperature conditions (36 °C), initiated by switching on the light.

    The complete loss of the diurnal rhythm occurs only under conditions when low temperature (15 °C) and high humidity (80% R. H.) are combined. This effect is caused by the high relative humidity, while a combination of 15 °C and 30% R. H. merely results in a decrease of activity.

    It is possible to adjust the diurnal rhythm, which is primarily determined by switching the light off and on, within 24 h to a clockwise time shift of 6 h. Nevertheless, the inherent disposition of the cockroaches to become active at the “usual” time remains and leads to an increase of activity during the new light-on period.

    The applicability of the results in the control of Blatta orientalis is discussed.

    Zusammenfassung

    In einer Versuchsanlage, bestehend aus Klimakammern zur Umweltsimulation sowie aus Sensor-und Auswerteelektronik, wird die circadiane Laufaktivitat von Blatta orientalis gemessen. Im Toleranzbereich liegende Temperaturen (15 °C, 26 °C, 36 °C) und Luftfeuchten (30%, 80%) werden miteinander kombiniert.

    Unter Normalbedingungen (26 °C/80% r. F.) ist die Aktivitat 5–6 Stunden nach Licht-aus am hochsten, die Aktivitatskurve ist monophasisch. 200 jung adulte B. orientalis losen uber 200 000 Zahlungen pro Aktivitatsperiode aus, wahrend Nymphen nur 3–4% dieser Aktivitatsmenge erreichen.

    Hohe Temperaturen erzwingen Aktivitatserhohung, die in besonderem Mase auf ein gestiegenes Wasserbedurfnis zuruckgeht. In Verbindung mit hoher Luftfeuchte wird eine Steigerung um ca. 1000% und in Verbindung mit niedriger Luftfeuchte um ca. 250% registriert. Feuchtwarme, ruhende Luft wirkt aktivitatsfordernd, da die Kuhlung durch Verdunstung und Konvektion stark herabgesetzt ist. Dies erklart auch das enorme Wasserbedurfnis der Schaben. Lockere Aggregationen finden sich daher auch im Licht auf Platzen, die geringem Luftstrom ausgesetzt sind und am Wasserplatz. Auserdem wird bei hoher Temperatur (36 °C) ein zweiter Aktivitatsgipfel aufgebaut, der durch „Licht-an” ausgelost wird.

    Niedrige Temperatur (15 °C) fuhrt in Kombination mit hoher Luftfeuchte (80%) zu volligem Verlust der Tagesrhythmik. Dies wird durch die hohe Luftfeuchte verursacht, denn 15 °C/30% r. F. bewirken lediglich eine Aktivitatsminderung.

    Der Tagesrhythmus, vornehmlich von Lichtein- und -abschaltung bestimmt, past sich bereits nach einem Tag einer sechsstundigen Verschiebung der Lichtperiode im Uhrzeigersinn an. Ein inneres Bestreben der Schaben, zur „gewohnten” Zeit aktiv zu sein, besteht und erhoht die Aktivitat wahrend der neuen Lichtphase.

    Die Anwendung der Versuchsergebnisse auf die Bekampfung von Blatta orientalis wird diskutiert.

Nhu H Nguyen – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • five novel candida species in insect associated yeast clades isolated from neuroptera and other insects
    Mycologia, 2007
    Co-Authors: Nhu H Nguyen, Meredith Blackwell

    Abstract:

    Ascomycete yeasts are found commonly in the guts of basidioma-feeding beetles but little is known about their occurrence in the gut of other insects. In this study we isolated 95 yeasts from the gut of adult insects in five neuropteran families (Neu- roptera: Corydalidae, Chrysopidae, Ascalaphidae, Mantispidae and Hemerobiidae) and a roach (Blatto- dea: Blattidae). Based on DNA sequence comparisons and other taxonomic characteristics, they were identified as more than 15 species of Saccharomycetes as well as occasional Cryptococcus-like basidiomycete yeasts. Yeast species such as Lachancea fermentati, Lachancea thermotolerans and Hanseniaspora vineae were isolated repeatedly from the gut of three species of corydalids, suggesting a close association of these species and their insect hosts. Among the yeasts isolated in this study 12 were identified as five novel Candida species that occurred in three phylogeneti- cally distinct clades. Molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that Candida chauliodes sp. nov. (NRRL Y- 27909 T ) and Candida corydali sp. nov. (NRRL Y- 27910 T ) were sister taxa in the Candida albicans/ Lodderomyces elongisporus clade. Candida dosseyi sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27950 T ) and Candida Blattae sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27698 T ) were sister taxa in the Candida intermedia clade. Candida ascalaphidarum sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27908 T ) fell on a basal branch in a clade containing Candida membranifaciens and many other insect-associated species. Descriptions of these novel yeast species are provided as well as discussion of their ecology in relation to their insect hosts.