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Body Cavities

The Experts below are selected from a list of 294 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Pierre E. Dupont – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Concentric Tube Robot Design and Optimization Based on Task and Anatomical Constraints
    IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 2015
    Co-Authors: Christos Bergeles, Andrew Gosline, Nikolay V. Vasilyev, Patrick J. Codd, Pedro J. Del Nido, Pierre E. Dupont

    Abstract:

    Concentric tube robots are catheter-sized continuum robots that are well suited for minimally invasive surgery inside confined Body Cavities. These robots are constructed from sets of precurved superelastic tubes and are capable of assuming complex 3-D curves. The family of 3-D curves that the robot can assume depends on the number, curvatures, lengths, and stiffnesses of the tubes in its tube set. The robot design problem involves solving for a tube set that will produce the family of curves necessary to perform a surgical procedure. At a minimum, these curves must enable the robot to smoothly extend into the Body and to manipulate tools over the desired surgical workspace while respecting anatomical constraints. This paper introduces an optimization framework that utilizes procedure- or patient-specific image-based anatomical models along with surgical workspace requirements to generate robot tube set designs. The algorithm searches for designs that minimize robot length and curvature and for which all paths required for the procedure consist of stable robot configurations. Two mechanics-based kinematic models are used. Initial designs are sought using a model assuming torsional rigidity. These designs are then refined using a torsionally compliant model. The approach is illustrated with clinically relevant examples from neurosurgery and intracardiac surgery.

  • Design optimization of concentric tube robots based on task and anatomical constraints
    Proceedings – IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2011
    Co-Authors: Chris Bedell, Jesse Lock, Andrew Gosline, Pierre E. Dupont

    Abstract:

    Concentric tube robots are a novel continuum robot technology that is well suited to minimally invasive surgeries inside small Body Cavities such as the heart. These robots are constructed of concentrically combined pre-curved elastic tubes to form 3D curves. Each telescopic section of the robot is either of fixed or variable curvature. One advantage of this approach is that the component tube curvatures, lengths and stiffnesses can easily be fabricated to be procedure- and patient-specific. This paper proposes an optimization framework for solving the robot design problem. Given a 3D description of the constraining anatomy, the number of fixed and variable curvature robot sections and a tip workspace description, the algorithm solves for the robot design that possesses the desired workspace, remains inside the anatomical constraints and minimizes the curvature and length of all sections. The approach is illustrated in the context of beating-heart closure of atrial septal defects.

Ron Alterovitz – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Motion planning for continuum reconfigurable incisionless surgical parallel robots
    IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2017
    Co-Authors: Alan Kuntz, Arthur W. Mahoney, Nicolas E. Peckman, Patrick L. Anderson, Fabien Maldonado, Robert J. Webster, Ron Alterovitz

    Abstract:

    © 2017 IEEE. Continuum Reconfigurable Incisionless Surgical Parallel (CRISP) robots consist of multiple needle-diameter flexible instruments that are assembled into a parallel structure inside the human Body. With a camera placed at the tip of one of the instruments, the CRISP robot can be used to inspect anatomical sites in constrained Body Cavities in a minimally invasive manner. We introduce a motion planner for CRISP robots that computes manipulations of the flexible instruments outside the Body such that the camera can visually inspect a user-specified site of clinical interest inside the Body. Our sampling-based motion planner ensures avoidance of collisions with anatomical obstacles inside the Body, enforces remote-center-of-motion constraints on the instrument’s entry points into the Body, and efficiently handles the expensive computation of CRISP robot kinematics. We also extend the motion planner to estimate the set of points inside a Body cavity that can be visually inspected by the camera of a CRISP robot for a given setup. We demonstrate our method in a simulated endoscopic medical procedure in the pleural space around a lung.

  • Motion planning for concentric tube robots using mechanics-based models
    2011 IEEE RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2011
    Co-Authors: Luis G. Torres, Ron Alterovitz

    Abstract:

    Concentric tube robots have the potential to enable new minimally invasive surgical procedures by curving around anatomical obstacles to reach difficult-to-reach sites in Body Cavities. Planning motions for these devices is challenging in part due to their complex kinematics; concentric tube robots are composed of thin, pre-curved, telescoping tubes that can achieve a variety of shapes via extension and rotation of each of their constituent tubes. We introduce a new motion planner to maneuver these devices to clinical targets while minimizing the probability of colliding with anatomical obstacles. Unlike prior planners for these devices, we more accurately model device shape using mechanics-based models that consider torsional interaction between the tubes. We also account for the effects of uncertainty in actuation and predicted device shape. We integrate these models with a sampling-based approach based on the Rapidly-Exploring Roadmap to guarantee finding optimal plans as computation time is allowed to increase. We demonstrate our motion planner in simulation using a variety of evaluation scenarios including an anatomy-based neurosurgery case that requires maneuvering to a di#cult-to-reach brain tumor at the skull base.

Martin Lipp – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • ccr7 regulates lymphocyte egress and recirculation through Body Cavities
    Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Uta E. Höpken, Susann Winter, Ariel H. Achtman, Kerstin Krüger, Martin Lipp

    Abstract:

    T and B lymphocytes recirculate among blood, lymph, and extralymphoid tissues to ensure immune surveillance and the establishment of self-tolerance. The underlying mechanisms regulating homeostatic lymphocyte recirculation through Body Cavities are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the homeostatic chemokine receptor CCR7 regulates homeostatic recirculation of lymphocytes through Body Cavities. CCR7 deficiency results in massive accumulation of CD4 and CD8 T cells and B-2 B cells in the peritoneal and pleural Cavities. The increase in B-2 B and T lymphocytes is not associated with an altered maturation and/or activation status of these cells. Mechanistically, an increase in peritoneal lymphocyte numbers is caused by impaired egress of CCR7-deficient lymphocytes from Body Cavities. These results establish that CCR7 plays a crucial role in lymphocyte exit from the PerC. J. Leukoc. Biol. 87: 000–000; 2010.

  • CCR7 regulates lymphocyte egress and recirculation through Body Cavities.
    Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 2009
    Co-Authors: Uta E. Höpken, Susann Winter, Ariel H. Achtman, Kerstin Krüger, Martin Lipp

    Abstract:

    T and B lymphocytes recirculate among blood, lymph, and extralymphoid tissues to ensure immune surveillance and the establishment of self-tolerance. The underlying mechanisms regulating homeostatic lymphocyte recirculation through Body Cavities are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the homeostatic chemokine receptor CCR7 regulates homeostatic recirculation of lymphocytes through Body Cavities. CCR7 deficiency results in massive accumulation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and B-2 B cells in the peritoneal and pleural Cavities. The increase in B-2 B and T lymphocytes is not associated with an altered maturation and/or activation status of these cells. Mechanistically, an increase in peritoneal lymphocyte numbers is caused by impaired egress of CCR7-deficient lymphocytes from Body Cavities. These results establish that CCR7 plays a crucial role in lymphocyte exit from the PerC.