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Brackish Water Desalination

The Experts below are selected from a list of 327 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

W Winston S Ho – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • high flux reverse osmosis membranes incorporated with nay zeolite nanoparticles for Brackish Water Desalination
    Journal of Membrane Science, 2015
    Co-Authors: Lin Zhao, Hang Dong, Lin Zhang, Huanlin Chen, W Winston S Ho

    Abstract:

    Abstract Thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes incorporated with NaY zeolite nanoparticles were prepared via interfacial polymerization (IP) of trimesoyl chloride and m-phenylenediamine on nanoporous polysulfone supports. The isolated zeolite-filled polyamide layer was observed by transmission electron microscopy, and the nanoparticles dispersed in the dense nodular polyamide on the polysulfone side. The effects of IP reaction time and zeolite loading on membrane separation performance were investigated. The results showed that a longer IP reaction time was necessary to form a denser zeolite–polyamide layer for higher salt rejection, and the optimum zeolite loading was determined to be 0.15 wt%. Under the optimum conditions, the Water flux increased from 0.95 to 1.78 m3/m2/day (23.3 to 43.7 gal/ft2/day (gfd)) with the incorporation of the zeolite nanoparticles, while providing a high salt rejection of 98.8% (2000 ppm NaCl solution, 225 psi (1.55 MPa), 25 °C). The TFN membranes were then post-treated with aqueous solutions containing glycerol, camphorsulfonic acid-triethylamine salt, and sodium lauryl sulfate to further improve the Water flux. By optimizing the post-treatment solution composition, an improved Brackish Water Desalination performance was achieved with 2.06 m3/m2/day (50.6 gfd) Water flux, which was more than double compared to that of the TFC membrane without the zeolite nanoparticles, along with 98.4% salt rejection.

  • high flux reverse osmosis membranes incorporated with hydrophilic additives for Brackish Water Desalination
    Desalination, 2013
    Co-Authors: Lin Zhao, Philip C Y Chang, W Winston S Ho

    Abstract:

    Abstract Novel high-flux reverse osmosis membranes with hydrophilic additives were synthesized and characterized under Brackish Water Desalination conditions. Four selected hydrophilic additives, o-aminobenzoic acid-triethylamine salt, m-aminobenzoic acid-triethylamine salt, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl) pyridine, and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl) morpholine, were added into m-phenylenediamine (MPD) solution to react with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) during the interfacial polymerization between MPD and TMC. The effects of different concentrations for each hydrophilic additive were evaluated using Brackish Water Desalination tests with 2000 ppm NaCl solution at 225 psi and 25 °C. After the additive concentration was optimized, the synthesized membranes were post-treated to further improve the Water flux using aqueous solutions containing glycerol, sodium lauryl sulfate, and camphorsulfonic acid-triethylamine salt. The resulting membrane showed a flux of 52.6 gal/ft2/day and a salt rejection of about 98.8% or greater. This membrane outperformed the other membranes evaluated, and it also exhibited a good stability in terms of Water flux and salt rejection during the entire period of a 30-day test.

  • high flux and fouling resistant membranes for Brackish Water Desalination
    Journal of Membrane Science, 2013
    Co-Authors: Lin Zhao, Philip C Y Chang, W Winston S Ho

    Abstract:

    Abstract Novel high-flux and fouling-resistant reverse osmosis membrane were synthesized and characterized under Brackish Water Desalination conditions using 2000 ppm NaCl solution at 225 psi (1.55 MPa) and 25 °C. The o -aminobenzoic acid-triethylamine salt was added into m -phenylenediamine (MPD) solution to react with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) during the interfacial polymerization between MPD and TMC. The membrane synthesis conditions including MPD concentration, TMC concentration, and interfacial polymerization time were optimized. The membrane synthesized under the optimal conditions was post-treated with aqueous solutions containing glycerol, sodium lauryl sulfate, and camphorsulfonic acid-triethylamine salt to further increase the Water flux. The resulting membrane showed a flux of 2.22 m 3 /m 2 /day (54.4 gallons/ft 2 /day (gfd)) and a salt rejection of 98.6%. The fouling-resistant property of the synthesized membrane was enhanced by physically coating a cross-linked polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) layer on top of the thin film. The membrane coated with 10 wt% cross-linked PEG demonstrated a very high flux of 2.46 m 3 /m 2 /day (60.4 gfd) and outperformed the state-of-the-art commercial membrane. Using dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, a cationic foulant, and tannic acid, an anionic foulant, as model foulants, the coated membrane exhibited much reduced flux decline. The surface morphologies of the modified and unmodified membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results showed a smoother membrane surface by coating the PEG layer.

Nidal Hilal – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • an integrated fertilizer driven forward osmosis renewables powered membrane distillation system for Brackish Water Desalination a combined experimental and theoretical approach
    Desalination, 2019
    Co-Authors: Wafa Suwaileh, Nidal Hilal, Daniel Johnson, Daniel R Jones

    Abstract:

    Abstract Utilization of an integrated forward osmosis-solar powered membrane distillation system can provide a promising method for Brackish Water Desalination. In this study, the Brackish Water feed and fertilizer draw solutions were operated in a forward osmosis process to generate irrigation Water for agriculture. Forward osmosis was also selected as membrane distillation pre-treatment to avoid fouling and wetting of the membrane distillation membrane. Subsequently, the diluted draw solutions were treated in the membrane distillation system to recover the initial osmotic pressure and to obtain a final distillate permeate. The experimental results revealed that the modified forward osmosis membrane exhibited slightly better performance in terms of maximum Water flux, minimum reverse solute flux and high Water recovery of 53.5%. In the membrane distillation process, an optimum Water flux of about 5.7 L/m2. hr and high rejection rate of about 99.55% were achieved at an optimum temperature of 60 °C. Modelling was applied to investigate the feasibility of using a solar collector to power the membrane distillation system and hence limit energy costs. By using renewable energy, we calculate that the energy consumption of the hybrid system could be reduced by 67%. Membrane distillation-solar powered system can achieve optimum energy consumption recoded as 1.1 kWh. We concluded that the diluted fertilizer draw solution can be used as an irrigation Water after further dilution by an available Water source. By using forward osmosis prior to membrane distillation process, the membrane distillation membrane showed less fouling and wetting leading to excellent rejection rate and acceptable distillate permeate. The energy consumption of the forward osmosis-solar powered membrane distillation system was lower than that for reverse osmosis stand-alone system. The findings of this work could be used to develop guidelines for the optimal design of industrial forward osmosis-membrane distillation system.

  • Brackish Water Desalination for agriculture assessing the performance of inorganic fertilizer draw solutions
    Desalination, 2019
    Co-Authors: Wafa Suwaileh, Nidal Hilal, Daniel Johnson

    Abstract:

    Abstract Fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) is a cost-effective technology for Brackish Water Desalination. The diluted fertilizer draw solution can be used to supply nutrients to crops instead of separating it from the desalinated Water. This work evaluates the performance of the FDFO using four fertilizer draw solutions with various concentrations (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mol/L) and a polyamide thin film composite (TFC) FO membrane for Brackish Water Desalination. The results revealed that KCl fertilizer draw solution achieved the highest Water flux and adequate reverse salt flux as compared to other fertilizer draw solution. The mixture KCl + KNO3 and KH2PO4 fertilizer draw solution generated the lowest Water permeation and reverse salt flux. KH2PO4 draw solute promoted the growth of salt scaling which affected the membrane productivity in terms of Water flux. The negatively charge of the membrane surface was responsible for precipitation of salt on the selective layer. This influenced the performance and resulted in low Water permeation and minimum loss of nutrients in the fertilizer draw solution. The advantage of FDFO is in not needing a recovery step to reconcentrate the draw solution, instead using diluted draw solution as a supplement to irrigation Water via fertigation.

  • effect of membrane performance including fouling on cost optimization in Brackish Water Desalination process
    Chemical Engineering Research & Design, 2017
    Co-Authors: Darman Nordin, Abdul Wahab Mohammad, Abdelbaki Benamor, Nidal Hilal

    Abstract:

    Abstract Membrane selection is a crucial step that will affect the economic feasibility of the membrane Water treatment process. A comprehensive evaluation consisting of Verberne Cost Model, assessment of membrane performance and fouling propensity, osmotic pressure differential (OPD) and specific energy consumption (SEC) was employed to determine the potential of nanofiltration (NF 270, NF 90 and TS 80) and low pressure reverse osmosis (XLE) membranes to be used in Brackish Water Desalination process. The aim was to save costs by replacing the typical Brackish Water reverse osmosis (BW 30) membrane. Verberne Cost Model showed that higher flux NF membranes resulted in lower overall costs. However, after assessing the membrane performance, NF 270 and TS 80 were excluded due to their high fouling propensity and their failure to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) in the solution. Instead, NF 90 membrane which produced Water with acceptable TDS and has moderate permeability ended up to be more cost competitive compared to BW 30 membrane, with 17–21% lower total costs and 13–17% lower Water costs. Apart from this, OPD and SEC were applied to justify the selection of optimal membrane recovery rate based on the Water costs calculated. It was determined that the optimal recovery rate was 80% where the SEC and Water costs were close to available Water treatment plants. Overall, this study showed that the selection of membrane can be carried out by using Verberne Cost Model assisted by assessment of membrane performance and fouling propensity, OPD and SEC.

Taishung Chung – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • thin film nanocomposite hollow fiber membranes comprising na functionalized carbon quantum dots for Brackish Water Desalination
    Water Research, 2019
    Co-Authors: Die Ling Zhao, Taishung Chung

    Abstract:

    Abstract We have incorporated Na+-functionalized carbon quantum dots (Na-CQDs) into the polyamide layer via interfacial polymerization reaction and developed novel thin film nanocomposite (TFN) hollow fiber membranes for Brackish Water Desalination. Comparing with the conventional thin film composite (TFC) membranes, the TFN membranes comprising Na-CQDs have a larger effective surface area, thinner polyamide layer and more hydrophilic oxygen-containing groups in the polyamide layer. Besides, the interstitial space among the polyamide chains becomes larger due to the presence of Na-CQDs. As a result, the incorporation of 1 wt% Na-CQDs into the polyamide layer could improve the pure Water permeability (PWP) of the membranes from 1.74 LMH/bar to 2.56 LMH/bar by 47.1% without compromising their NaCl rejection of 97.7%. Interestingly, stabilization of the TFN hollow fiber membranes containing 1 wt% Na-CQDs at 23 bar could further promote the PWP to 4.27 LMH/bar and the salt rejection to 98.6% under the same testing conditions due to the deformation of the membranes under a high hydraulic pressure. When using a 2000 ppm NaCl aqueous solution as the feed, the optimal Water flux and rejection of the newly developed TFN membranes at 15 bar are 57.65 ± 3.26 LMH and 98.6% ± 0.35% respectively. The Na-CQDs incorporated TFN hollow fiber membranes show promising applications in the field of Brackish Water Desalination.

  • Thin film nanocomposite hollow fiber membranes comprising Na+-functionalized carbon quantum dots for Brackish Water Desalination.
    Water Research, 2019
    Co-Authors: Die Ling Zhao, Taishung Chung

    Abstract:

    Abstract We have incorporated Na+-functionalized carbon quantum dots (Na-CQDs) into the polyamide layer via interfacial polymerization reaction and developed novel thin film nanocomposite (TFN) hollow fiber membranes for Brackish Water Desalination. Comparing with the conventional thin film composite (TFC) membranes, the TFN membranes comprising Na-CQDs have a larger effective surface area, thinner polyamide layer and more hydrophilic oxygen-containing groups in the polyamide layer. Besides, the interstitial space among the polyamide chains becomes larger due to the presence of Na-CQDs. As a result, the incorporation of 1 wt% Na-CQDs into the polyamide layer could improve the pure Water permeability (PWP) of the membranes from 1.74 LMH/bar to 2.56 LMH/bar by 47.1% without compromising their NaCl rejection of 97.7%. Interestingly, stabilization of the TFN hollow fiber membranes containing 1 wt% Na-CQDs at 23 bar could further promote the PWP to 4.27 LMH/bar and the salt rejection to 98.6% under the same testing conditions due to the deformation of the membranes under a high hydraulic pressure. When using a 2000 ppm NaCl aqueous solution as the feed, the optimal Water flux and rejection of the newly developed TFN membranes at 15 bar are 57.65 ± 3.26 LMH and 98.6% ± 0.35% respectively. The Na-CQDs incorporated TFN hollow fiber membranes show promising applications in the field of Brackish Water Desalination.