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Brain Anatomy

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Eileen Daly – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Brain Anatomy and sensorimotor gating in Asperger’s syndrome.
    Brain : a journal of neurology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Grainne M Mcalonan, Eileen Daly, Veena Kumari, Hugo D Critchley, Therese Van Amelsvoort, John Suckling, Andrew Simmons, Thordur Sigmundsson, Kathyrn Greenwood, Ailsa Russell

    Abstract:

    Asperger’s syndrome (an autistic disorder) is characterized by stereotyped and obsessional behaviours, and pervasive abnormalities in socio-emotional and communicative behaviour. These symptoms lead to social exclusion and a significant healthcare burden; however, their neurobiological basis is poorly understood. There are few studies on Brain Anatomy of Asperger’s syndrome, and no focal anatomical abnormality has been reliably reported from Brain imaging studies of autism, although there is increasing evidence for differences in limbic circuits. These Brain regions are important in sensorimotor gating, and impaired ‘gating’ may partly explain the failure of people with autistic disorders to inhibit repetitive thoughts and actions. Thus, we compared Brain Anatomy and sensorimotor gating in healthy people with Asperger’s syndrome and controls. We included 21 adults with Asperger’s syndrome and 24 controls. All had normal IQ and were aged 18-49 years. We studied Brain Anatomy using quantitative MRI, and sensorimotor gating using prepulse inhibition of startle in a subset of 12 individuals with Asperger’s syndrome and 14 controls. We found significant age-related differences in volume of cerebral hemispheres and caudate nuclei (controls, but not people with Asperger’s syndrome, had age-related reductions in volume). Also, people with Asperger’s syndrome had significantly less grey matter in fronto-striatal and cerebellar regions than controls, and widespread differences in white matter. Moreover, sensorimotor gating was significantly impaired in Asperger’s syndrome. People with Asperger’s syndrome most likely have generalized alterations in Brain development, but this is associated with significant differences from controls in the Anatomy and function of specific Brain regions implicated in behaviours characterizing the disorder. We hypothesize that Asperger’s syndrome is associated with abnormalities in fronto-striatal pathways resulting in defective sensorimotor gating, and consequently characteristic difficulties inhibiting repetitive thoughts, speech and actions.

  • familial risk of autism alters subcortical and cerebellar Brain Anatomy in infants and predicts the emergence of repetitive behaviors in early childhood
    Autism Research, 2019
    Co-Authors: Ines Pote, Eileen Daly, Siying Wang, Vaheshta Sethna, Anna Blasi, Maria Kuklisovamurgasova, Sarah Lloydfox, Evelyne Mercure, Paula Busuulwa, Vladimira Stoencheva

    Abstract:

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition, and infant siblings of children with ASD are at a higher risk of developing autistic traits or an ASD diagnosis, when compared to those with typically developing siblings. Reports of differences in Brain Anatomy and function in high‐risk infants which predict later autistic behaviors are emerging, but although cerebellar and subcortical Brain regions have been frequently implicated in ASD, no high‐risk study has examined these regions. Therefore, in this study, we compared regional MRI volumes across the whole Brain in 4–6‐month‐old infants with (high‐risk, n = 24) and without (low‐risk, n = 26) a sibling with ASD. Within the high‐risk group, we also examined whether any regional differences observed were associated with autistic behaviors at 36 months. We found that high‐risk infants had significantly larger cerebellar and subcortical volumes at 4–6‐months of age, relative to low‐risk infants; and that larger volumes in high‐risk infants were linked to more repetitive behaviors at 36 months. Our preliminary observations require replication in longitudinal studies of larger samples. If correct, they suggest that the early subcortex and cerebellum volumes may be predictive biomarkers for childhood repetitive behaviors.

  • In vivo Brain Anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.
    NeuroImage, 2010
    Co-Authors: Brian Hallahan, Eileen Daly, Kieran C. Murphy, Michael C. Craig, Fiona Toal, Anita Ambikapathy, C J Moore, Dene Robertson, Declan G. Murphy

    Abstract:

    Abstract Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole Brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate Brain Anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional Brain bulk volume, and localised grey/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right Brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the Brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in Brain Anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood.

K Scheffler – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • design of a shim coil array matched to the human Brain Anatomy
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 2020
    Co-Authors: Hatem Elshatlawy, K Scheffler, A Aghaeifar, Sebastian Littin, Stefan Kroboth, Huijun Yu, Philipp Amrein, Wenchao Yang, Pierre Levan

    Abstract:

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to introduce a novel design method of a shim coil array specifically optimized for whole Brain shimming and to compare the performance of the resulting coils to conventional spherical harmonic shimming. Methods The proposed design approach is based on the stream function method and singular value decomposition. Eighty-four field maps from 12 volunteers measured in seven different head positions were used during the design process. The cross validation technique was applied to find an optimal number of coil elements in the array. Additional 42 field maps from 6 further volunteers were used for an independent validation. A bootstrapping technique was used to estimate the required population size to achieve a stable coil design. Results Shimming using 12 and 24 coil elements outperforms fourth- and fifth-order spherical harmonic shimming for all measured field maps, respectively. Coil elements show novel coil layouts compared to the conventional spherical harmonic coils and existing multi-coils. Both leave-one-out and independent validation demonstrate the generalization ability of the designed arrays. The bootstrapping analysis predicts that field maps from approximately 140 subjects need to be acquired to arrive at a stable design. Conclusions The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method to design a shim coil array matched to the human Brain Anatomy, which naturally satisfies the laws of electrodynamics. The design method may also be applied to develop new shim coil arrays matched to other human organs.

Declan G. Murphy – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • In vivo Brain Anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.
    NeuroImage, 2010
    Co-Authors: Brian Hallahan, Eileen Daly, Kieran C. Murphy, Michael C. Craig, Fiona Toal, Anita Ambikapathy, C J Moore, Dene Robertson, Declan G. Murphy

    Abstract:

    Abstract Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole Brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate Brain Anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional Brain bulk volume, and localised grey/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right Brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the Brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in Brain Anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood.

  • Brain Anatomy and ageing in non-demented adults with Down’s syndrome: an in vivo MRI study.
    Psychological Medicine, 2009
    Co-Authors: Felix Beacher, Eileen Daly, Andrew Simmons, Verinder Prasher, Robin G. Morris, C. Robinson, Simon Lovestone, Kieran C. Murphy, Declan G. Murphy

    Abstract:

    Background People with Down’s syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing dementia in middle age. The biological basis for this is unknown. It has been proposed that non-demented adults with DS may undergo accelerated Brain ageing. Method We used volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and manual tracing to compare Brain Anatomy and ageing in 39 non-demented adults with DS and 42 healthy controls. Results Individuals with DS had significant differences in Brain Anatomy. Furthermore, individuals with DS had a significantly greater age-related reduction in volume of frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, and a significantly greater age-related increase in volume of peripheral cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Conclusions Non-demented adults with DS have differences in Brain Anatomy and ‘accelerated’ ageing of some Brain regions. This may increase their risk for age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

  • Psychosis and autism: magnetic resonance imaging study of Brain Anatomy.
    British Journal of Psychiatry, 2009
    Co-Authors: Fiona Toal, Eileen Daly, Kieran C. Murphy, Mick Brammer, Oswald J.n. Bloemen, Quinton Deeley, Nigel Tunstall, Lisa Page, Declan G. Murphy

    Abstract:

    Background

    Autism-spectrum disorder is increasingly recognised, with recent studies estimating that 1% of children in South London are affected. However, the biology of comorbid mental health problems in people with autism-spectrum disorder is poorly understood.

    Aims

    To investigate the Brain Anatomy of people with autism-spectrum disorder with and without psychosis.

    Method

    We used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and compared 30 adults with autism-spectrum disorder (14 with a history psychosis) and 16 healthy controls.

    Results

    Compared with controls both autism-spectrum disorder groups had significantly less grey matter bilaterally in the temporal lobes and the cerebellum. In contrast, they had increased grey matter in striatal regions. However, those with psychosis also had a significant reduction in grey matter content of frontal and occipital regions. Contrary to our expectation, within autism-spectrum disorder, comparisons revealed that psychosis was associated with a reduction in grey matter of the right insular cortex and bilaterally in the cerebellum extending into the fusiform gyrus and the lingual gyrus.

    Conclusions

    The presence of neurodevelopmental abnormalities normally associated with autism-spectrum disorder might represent an alternative ‘ entry-point’ into a final common pathway of psychosis.