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Bronopol

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Nick G H Taylor – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the anti protozoal activity of Bronopol on the key life stages of ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet 1876 ciliophora
    Veterinary Parasitology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Andrew P Shinn, Nick G H Taylor, Sara M Piconcamacho, James E Bron, Denny Conway, Gil Ha Yoon

    Abstract:

    Abstract Pyceze™ (Novartis Animal Vaccines Ltd.) is licensed as a veterinary medicine to treat fungal infections in salmon, trout and their eggs. The active ingredient is Bronopol, which due to its broad-spectrum activity has the potential to be an effective treatment against other important aquatic pathogens. In this study the efficacy of Bronopol against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was tested both in vitro and in vivo . In vitro trials demonstrated a 30 min exposure to 100 mg L −1 Bronopol killed 51.7% of the infective theronts. In vitro exposure of the protomonts to Bronopol (0, 20, 50 and 100 mg L −1 ) for 30 min was observed to kill 0%, 76.2%, 97.2% and 100% respectively. Protomonts surviving treatment, demonstrated delayed development with the time taken from protomont until the release of theronts ranging from 28.3 h for 0 mg L −1 exposure, to 70 h for parasites in 20 and 50 mg L −1 exposure groups. These concentrations also caused asymmetric cell division of the encysted tomonts. Exposure of encysted tomonts (min. 8 cell stage) to 100 mg L −1 Bronopol for 30 min, killed 50% within this period, with the remainder dying within the subsequent 42 h post exposure. Lower doses of Bronopol were less effective in killing encysted tomonts than the higher doses (3.3% of parasites were killed in 20 mg L −1 ; 10% in 50 mg L −1 ), but they still delayed theront release significantly (25.7 h for 0 mg L −1 to 46.2 h for parasites exposed to 20–50 mg L −1 ). Long, low dose (1 mg L −1 ) exposure to Bronopol was also efficacious against theronts. Survival after 12 h was 29% (c.f. 100% in control parasites), and I. multifiliis (protomonts, tomont and theronts), thus suggesting that Bronopol may serve a useful role in the control of I. multifiliis infections.

  • effects of long duration low dose Bronopol exposure on the control of ichthyophthirius multifiliis ciliophora parasitising rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum
    Veterinary Parasitology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Sara M Piconcamacho, Nick G H Taylor, James E Bron, Andrew P Shinn

    Abstract:

    Abstract Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 infections on intensively reared fish stocks can increase rapidly, which if left unmanaged, can result in the heavy loss of stock. The present study explores the efficacy of long duration, low dose (1, 2 and 5 mg L −1 ) treatments of Bronopol (marketed as Pyceze™, Novartis Ltd.) in reducing the number of trophonts establishing on juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss held under small scale culture conditions. The effect of Bronopol on the colonisation success of infective theronts was also investigated by adding 2 mg L −1 Bronopol to the water prior and during the infection process. The number of parasites surviving on fish treated this way was compared to groups of fish that only received treatment after infection had occurred. The effect of Bronopol on exiting trophonts throughout their external development to the point of theront release was also assessed through the delivery of 1 mg L −1 , 2 mg L −1 and 5 mg L −1 Bronopol for up to 27 days consecutively (days 9–36 post-infection). The trial showed that a nominal dose of 2 mg L −1 Bronopol administered prior to infection significantly reduced the number of theronts surviving in the water column at the time of the initial challenge by 35–40% ( P −1 Bronopol administered as the first wave of mature I. multifiliis trophonts exited fish ( i.e. day 11 onwards) to develop externally, reduced the number of trophonts establishing on fish as the second cycle of infection by 52–83%. Continuous application of 2 and 5 mg L −1 Bronopol throughout the second and third cycles of I. multifiliis infection gave further reductions of between 90 and 98%. The number of trophonts on the fish in the control tanks and those treated with 1 mg L −1 and the 2 mg L −1 dose at the time of initial infection, by comparison, were observed to increase with successive cycles of infection. From these small scale tank trials, this study demonstrates that the strategic, long duration, low dose delivery of drugs like Bronopol can significantly reduce the number of trophonts establishing on fish suggesting the potential of this drug at managing I. multifiliis infections.

Andrew P Shinn – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the anti protozoal activity of Bronopol on the key life stages of ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet 1876 ciliophora
    Veterinary Parasitology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Andrew P Shinn, Nick G H Taylor, Sara M Piconcamacho, James E Bron, Denny Conway, Gil Ha Yoon

    Abstract:

    Abstract Pyceze™ (Novartis Animal Vaccines Ltd.) is licensed as a veterinary medicine to treat fungal infections in salmon, trout and their eggs. The active ingredient is Bronopol, which due to its broad-spectrum activity has the potential to be an effective treatment against other important aquatic pathogens. In this study the efficacy of Bronopol against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was tested both in vitro and in vivo . In vitro trials demonstrated a 30 min exposure to 100 mg L −1 Bronopol killed 51.7% of the infective theronts. In vitro exposure of the protomonts to Bronopol (0, 20, 50 and 100 mg L −1 ) for 30 min was observed to kill 0%, 76.2%, 97.2% and 100% respectively. Protomonts surviving treatment, demonstrated delayed development with the time taken from protomont until the release of theronts ranging from 28.3 h for 0 mg L −1 exposure, to 70 h for parasites in 20 and 50 mg L −1 exposure groups. These concentrations also caused asymmetric cell division of the encysted tomonts. Exposure of encysted tomonts (min. 8 cell stage) to 100 mg L −1 Bronopol for 30 min, killed 50% within this period, with the remainder dying within the subsequent 42 h post exposure. Lower doses of Bronopol were less effective in killing encysted tomonts than the higher doses (3.3% of parasites were killed in 20 mg L −1 ; 10% in 50 mg L −1 ), but they still delayed theront release significantly (25.7 h for 0 mg L −1 to 46.2 h for parasites exposed to 20–50 mg L −1 ). Long, low dose (1 mg L −1 ) exposure to Bronopol was also efficacious against theronts. Survival after 12 h was 29% (c.f. 100% in control parasites), and I. multifiliis (protomonts, tomont and theronts), thus suggesting that Bronopol may serve a useful role in the control of I. multifiliis infections.

  • effects of long duration low dose Bronopol exposure on the control of ichthyophthirius multifiliis ciliophora parasitising rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum
    Veterinary Parasitology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Sara M Piconcamacho, Nick G H Taylor, James E Bron, Andrew P Shinn

    Abstract:

    Abstract Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 infections on intensively reared fish stocks can increase rapidly, which if left unmanaged, can result in the heavy loss of stock. The present study explores the efficacy of long duration, low dose (1, 2 and 5 mg L −1 ) treatments of Bronopol (marketed as Pyceze™, Novartis Ltd.) in reducing the number of trophonts establishing on juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss held under small scale culture conditions. The effect of Bronopol on the colonisation success of infective theronts was also investigated by adding 2 mg L −1 Bronopol to the water prior and during the infection process. The number of parasites surviving on fish treated this way was compared to groups of fish that only received treatment after infection had occurred. The effect of Bronopol on exiting trophonts throughout their external development to the point of theront release was also assessed through the delivery of 1 mg L −1 , 2 mg L −1 and 5 mg L −1 Bronopol for up to 27 days consecutively (days 9–36 post-infection). The trial showed that a nominal dose of 2 mg L −1 Bronopol administered prior to infection significantly reduced the number of theronts surviving in the water column at the time of the initial challenge by 35–40% ( P −1 Bronopol administered as the first wave of mature I. multifiliis trophonts exited fish ( i.e. day 11 onwards) to develop externally, reduced the number of trophonts establishing on fish as the second cycle of infection by 52–83%. Continuous application of 2 and 5 mg L −1 Bronopol throughout the second and third cycles of I. multifiliis infection gave further reductions of between 90 and 98%. The number of trophonts on the fish in the control tanks and those treated with 1 mg L −1 and the 2 mg L −1 dose at the time of initial infection, by comparison, were observed to increase with successive cycles of infection. From these small scale tank trials, this study demonstrates that the strategic, long duration, low dose delivery of drugs like Bronopol can significantly reduce the number of trophonts establishing on fish suggesting the potential of this drug at managing I. multifiliis infections.

  • Effects of long duration, low dose Bronopol exposure on the control of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora), parasitising rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum).
    Veterinary parasitology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Sara M Picón-camacho, James E Bron, Nicholas G H Taylor, Andrew P Shinn

    Abstract:

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 infections on intensively reared fish stocks can increase rapidly, which if left unmanaged, can result in the heavy loss of stock. The present study explores the efficacy of long duration, low dose (1, 2 and 5 mg L(-1)) treatments of Bronopol (marketed as Pyceze™, Novartis Ltd.) in reducing the number of trophonts establishing on juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss held under small scale culture conditions. The effect of Bronopol on the colonisation success of infective theronts was also investigated by adding 2 mg L(-1) Bronopol to the water prior and during the infection process. The number of parasites surviving on fish treated this way was compared to groups of fish that only received treatment after infection had occurred. The effect of Bronopol on exiting trophonts throughout their external development to the point of theront release was also assessed through the delivery of 1 mg L(-1), 2 mg L(-1) and 5 mg L(-1) Bronopol for up to 27 days consecutively (days 9-36 post-infection). The trial showed that a nominal dose of 2 mg L(-1) Bronopol administered prior to infection significantly reduced the number of theronts surviving in the water column at the time of the initial challenge by 35-40% (P

Sara M Piconcamacho – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the anti protozoal activity of Bronopol on the key life stages of ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet 1876 ciliophora
    Veterinary Parasitology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Andrew P Shinn, Nick G H Taylor, Sara M Piconcamacho, James E Bron, Denny Conway, Gil Ha Yoon

    Abstract:

    Abstract Pyceze™ (Novartis Animal Vaccines Ltd.) is licensed as a veterinary medicine to treat fungal infections in salmon, trout and their eggs. The active ingredient is Bronopol, which due to its broad-spectrum activity has the potential to be an effective treatment against other important aquatic pathogens. In this study the efficacy of Bronopol against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was tested both in vitro and in vivo . In vitro trials demonstrated a 30 min exposure to 100 mg L −1 Bronopol killed 51.7% of the infective theronts. In vitro exposure of the protomonts to Bronopol (0, 20, 50 and 100 mg L −1 ) for 30 min was observed to kill 0%, 76.2%, 97.2% and 100% respectively. Protomonts surviving treatment, demonstrated delayed development with the time taken from protomont until the release of theronts ranging from 28.3 h for 0 mg L −1 exposure, to 70 h for parasites in 20 and 50 mg L −1 exposure groups. These concentrations also caused asymmetric cell division of the encysted tomonts. Exposure of encysted tomonts (min. 8 cell stage) to 100 mg L −1 Bronopol for 30 min, killed 50% within this period, with the remainder dying within the subsequent 42 h post exposure. Lower doses of Bronopol were less effective in killing encysted tomonts than the higher doses (3.3% of parasites were killed in 20 mg L −1 ; 10% in 50 mg L −1 ), but they still delayed theront release significantly (25.7 h for 0 mg L −1 to 46.2 h for parasites exposed to 20–50 mg L −1 ). Long, low dose (1 mg L −1 ) exposure to Bronopol was also efficacious against theronts. Survival after 12 h was 29% (c.f. 100% in control parasites), and I. multifiliis (protomonts, tomont and theronts), thus suggesting that Bronopol may serve a useful role in the control of I. multifiliis infections.

  • effects of long duration low dose Bronopol exposure on the control of ichthyophthirius multifiliis ciliophora parasitising rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum
    Veterinary Parasitology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Sara M Piconcamacho, Nick G H Taylor, James E Bron, Andrew P Shinn

    Abstract:

    Abstract Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 infections on intensively reared fish stocks can increase rapidly, which if left unmanaged, can result in the heavy loss of stock. The present study explores the efficacy of long duration, low dose (1, 2 and 5 mg L −1 ) treatments of Bronopol (marketed as Pyceze™, Novartis Ltd.) in reducing the number of trophonts establishing on juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss held under small scale culture conditions. The effect of Bronopol on the colonisation success of infective theronts was also investigated by adding 2 mg L −1 Bronopol to the water prior and during the infection process. The number of parasites surviving on fish treated this way was compared to groups of fish that only received treatment after infection had occurred. The effect of Bronopol on exiting trophonts throughout their external development to the point of theront release was also assessed through the delivery of 1 mg L −1 , 2 mg L −1 and 5 mg L −1 Bronopol for up to 27 days consecutively (days 9–36 post-infection). The trial showed that a nominal dose of 2 mg L −1 Bronopol administered prior to infection significantly reduced the number of theronts surviving in the water column at the time of the initial challenge by 35–40% ( P −1 Bronopol administered as the first wave of mature I. multifiliis trophonts exited fish ( i.e. day 11 onwards) to develop externally, reduced the number of trophonts establishing on fish as the second cycle of infection by 52–83%. Continuous application of 2 and 5 mg L −1 Bronopol throughout the second and third cycles of I. multifiliis infection gave further reductions of between 90 and 98%. The number of trophonts on the fish in the control tanks and those treated with 1 mg L −1 and the 2 mg L −1 dose at the time of initial infection, by comparison, were observed to increase with successive cycles of infection. From these small scale tank trials, this study demonstrates that the strategic, long duration, low dose delivery of drugs like Bronopol can significantly reduce the number of trophonts establishing on fish suggesting the potential of this drug at managing I. multifiliis infections.