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Cadmium Plating

The Experts below are selected from a list of 243 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

H Paajanen – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • corrosion of Cadmium Plating by runway de icing chemicals in cyclic tests effects of chemical concentration and Plating quality
    Surface & Coatings Technology, 2014
    Co-Authors: H Korpiniemi, Elina Huttunensaarivirta, V T Kuokkala, H Paajanen

    Abstract:

    Abstract Concentration of de-icing chemicals used at airfields in Northern countries may vary significantly, due to the dilution caused by rain and melting ice or snow. Furthermore, quality variations in Cadmium Platings used in aircraft components are a common fact. In this study, we examine the influence of the de-icing chemical concentration and the Plating quality on the corrosion of Cadmium using two cyclic corrosion tests: Boeing and AMS G-12 tests. The tests are performed using four de-icers: pure potassium formate, pure potassium acetate and two commercial chemicals containing these salts, at three concentrations, and four types of Cadmium Plating. The obtained results show that the extent of corrosion of the Cadmium Plating decreases with decrease in de-icing chemical concentration. The changes in characteristics of the chemicals, such as pH value, electrical conductivity and the amount of dissolved oxygen, due to changes in concentration, do not unambiguously explain the observation. Rather, the conditions during heat–humidity exposure, particularly the employed temperature, are of key importance. Wetting behavior of the chemicals on the four types of Cadmium Plating discloses slight differences between the Plating types but more distinct differences between the used potassium formates and potassium acetates. A more efficient wetting of Cadmium Platings by potassium formates than potassium acetates yields one explanation why potassium formates introduce more severe corrosion damage. Concerning the Cadmium Plating quality, thickness and the amount and distribution of pores are the key parameters in terms of corrosion performance. In this paper, these results are presented and discussed in the light of published literature.

  • corrosion of Cadmium Plating by runway de icing chemicals study of surface phenomena and comparison of corrosion tests
    Surface & Coatings Technology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Elina Huttunensaarivirta, H Korpiniemi, V T Kuokkala, H Paajanen

    Abstract:

    Abstract In this paper, we study the corrosion of Cadmium Plating by four runway de-icing chemicals using electrochemical measurements and standard (immersion) and proposed (cyclic) runway de-icing corrosion tests for Cadmium Plating. Besides the obtained electrochemical and gravimetric data, we analyze the exposed surfaces by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and infra-red spectroscopy (IR). The chemicals included in the tests are pure potassium formate, pure potassium acetate and the corresponding commercial chemicals. Examinations revealed two parallel and linked phenomena on the Plating surface, i.e., anodic dissolution of Cadmium and development of corrosion products, primarily Cadmium carbonate, CdCO3. Electrochemical measurements disclosed that the formed corrosion products slightly improved corrosion resistance of the surface but definitely did not stop corrosion completely, probably due to discontinuous structure. As for the studied de-icing chemicals, potassium formates systematically introduced more segmented corrosion products than potassium acetates and, subsequently, more severe corrosion on the specimens. Immersion Cadmium corrosion test did not give very reliable results due to relatively low introduced corrosion rates and very large occasional scatter in the results. Cyclic Cadmium corrosion tests introduced relatively greater corrosion rates and somewhat lower deviations than the immersion test, being hence, more reliable, but also more challenging in terms of meeting the weight change criteria for passing the test.

Elina Huttunensaarivirta – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • corrosion of Cadmium Plating by runway de icing chemicals in cyclic tests effects of chemical concentration and Plating quality
    Surface & Coatings Technology, 2014
    Co-Authors: H Korpiniemi, Elina Huttunensaarivirta, V T Kuokkala, H Paajanen

    Abstract:

    Abstract Concentration of de-icing chemicals used at airfields in Northern countries may vary significantly, due to the dilution caused by rain and melting ice or snow. Furthermore, quality variations in Cadmium Platings used in aircraft components are a common fact. In this study, we examine the influence of the de-icing chemical concentration and the Plating quality on the corrosion of Cadmium using two cyclic corrosion tests: Boeing and AMS G-12 tests. The tests are performed using four de-icers: pure potassium formate, pure potassium acetate and two commercial chemicals containing these salts, at three concentrations, and four types of Cadmium Plating. The obtained results show that the extent of corrosion of the Cadmium Plating decreases with decrease in de-icing chemical concentration. The changes in characteristics of the chemicals, such as pH value, electrical conductivity and the amount of dissolved oxygen, due to changes in concentration, do not unambiguously explain the observation. Rather, the conditions during heat–humidity exposure, particularly the employed temperature, are of key importance. Wetting behavior of the chemicals on the four types of Cadmium Plating discloses slight differences between the Plating types but more distinct differences between the used potassium formates and potassium acetates. A more efficient wetting of Cadmium Platings by potassium formates than potassium acetates yields one explanation why potassium formates introduce more severe corrosion damage. Concerning the Cadmium Plating quality, thickness and the amount and distribution of pores are the key parameters in terms of corrosion performance. In this paper, these results are presented and discussed in the light of published literature.

  • corrosion of Cadmium Plating by runway de icing chemicals study of surface phenomena and comparison of corrosion tests
    Surface & Coatings Technology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Elina Huttunensaarivirta, H Korpiniemi, V T Kuokkala, H Paajanen

    Abstract:

    Abstract In this paper, we study the corrosion of Cadmium Plating by four runway de-icing chemicals using electrochemical measurements and standard (immersion) and proposed (cyclic) runway de-icing corrosion tests for Cadmium Plating. Besides the obtained electrochemical and gravimetric data, we analyze the exposed surfaces by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and infra-red spectroscopy (IR). The chemicals included in the tests are pure potassium formate, pure potassium acetate and the corresponding commercial chemicals. Examinations revealed two parallel and linked phenomena on the Plating surface, i.e., anodic dissolution of Cadmium and development of corrosion products, primarily Cadmium carbonate, CdCO3. Electrochemical measurements disclosed that the formed corrosion products slightly improved corrosion resistance of the surface but definitely did not stop corrosion completely, probably due to discontinuous structure. As for the studied de-icing chemicals, potassium formates systematically introduced more segmented corrosion products than potassium acetates and, subsequently, more severe corrosion on the specimens. Immersion Cadmium corrosion test did not give very reliable results due to relatively low introduced corrosion rates and very large occasional scatter in the results. Cyclic Cadmium corrosion tests introduced relatively greater corrosion rates and somewhat lower deviations than the immersion test, being hence, more reliable, but also more challenging in terms of meeting the weight change criteria for passing the test.

H Korpiniemi – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • corrosion of Cadmium Plating by runway de icing chemicals in cyclic tests effects of chemical concentration and Plating quality
    Surface & Coatings Technology, 2014
    Co-Authors: H Korpiniemi, Elina Huttunensaarivirta, V T Kuokkala, H Paajanen

    Abstract:

    Abstract Concentration of de-icing chemicals used at airfields in Northern countries may vary significantly, due to the dilution caused by rain and melting ice or snow. Furthermore, quality variations in Cadmium Platings used in aircraft components are a common fact. In this study, we examine the influence of the de-icing chemical concentration and the Plating quality on the corrosion of Cadmium using two cyclic corrosion tests: Boeing and AMS G-12 tests. The tests are performed using four de-icers: pure potassium formate, pure potassium acetate and two commercial chemicals containing these salts, at three concentrations, and four types of Cadmium Plating. The obtained results show that the extent of corrosion of the Cadmium Plating decreases with decrease in de-icing chemical concentration. The changes in characteristics of the chemicals, such as pH value, electrical conductivity and the amount of dissolved oxygen, due to changes in concentration, do not unambiguously explain the observation. Rather, the conditions during heat–humidity exposure, particularly the employed temperature, are of key importance. Wetting behavior of the chemicals on the four types of Cadmium Plating discloses slight differences between the Plating types but more distinct differences between the used potassium formates and potassium acetates. A more efficient wetting of Cadmium Platings by potassium formates than potassium acetates yields one explanation why potassium formates introduce more severe corrosion damage. Concerning the Cadmium Plating quality, thickness and the amount and distribution of pores are the key parameters in terms of corrosion performance. In this paper, these results are presented and discussed in the light of published literature.

  • corrosion of Cadmium Plating by runway de icing chemicals study of surface phenomena and comparison of corrosion tests
    Surface & Coatings Technology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Elina Huttunensaarivirta, H Korpiniemi, V T Kuokkala, H Paajanen

    Abstract:

    Abstract In this paper, we study the corrosion of Cadmium Plating by four runway de-icing chemicals using electrochemical measurements and standard (immersion) and proposed (cyclic) runway de-icing corrosion tests for Cadmium Plating. Besides the obtained electrochemical and gravimetric data, we analyze the exposed surfaces by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and infra-red spectroscopy (IR). The chemicals included in the tests are pure potassium formate, pure potassium acetate and the corresponding commercial chemicals. Examinations revealed two parallel and linked phenomena on the Plating surface, i.e., anodic dissolution of Cadmium and development of corrosion products, primarily Cadmium carbonate, CdCO3. Electrochemical measurements disclosed that the formed corrosion products slightly improved corrosion resistance of the surface but definitely did not stop corrosion completely, probably due to discontinuous structure. As for the studied de-icing chemicals, potassium formates systematically introduced more segmented corrosion products than potassium acetates and, subsequently, more severe corrosion on the specimens. Immersion Cadmium corrosion test did not give very reliable results due to relatively low introduced corrosion rates and very large occasional scatter in the results. Cyclic Cadmium corrosion tests introduced relatively greater corrosion rates and somewhat lower deviations than the immersion test, being hence, more reliable, but also more challenging in terms of meeting the weight change criteria for passing the test.