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Leann L Birch – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • dieting restraint and Disinhibition predict women s weight change over 6 y
    The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2009
    Co-Authors: Jennifer S Savage, Lesa Hoffman, Leann L Birch
    Abstract:

    Background: Although disinhibited eating is positively associated with higher weight in women, it is not known whether restrained eating and dieting moderate the influence of disinhibited eating on weight change. Objective: The objective was to investigate over 6 y the interactive effects of restrained and disinhibited eating and self-reported dieting to lose weight as predictors of weight gain in women. Design: Data were collected from non-Hispanic white women (n = 163) every 2 y. Height and weight were measured in triplicate. Dietary restraint and Disinhibition were assessed by using the Eating Inventory. Participants were also asked if they were “currently dieting to lose weight.” Multilevel modeling was used to examine change in weight as a function of time-invariant and time-varying predictors, including dietary restraint, dietary Disinhibition, and self-reported dieting. Results: After covariates were adjusted for, growth curve models showed that within-person increases in restraint over time were associated with concurrent decreases in weight and that higher levels of restraint moderated the positive association between dietary Disinhibition and weight. Women who reported dieting at study entry were heavier at study entry and gained more weight over time than did nondieters. Finally, a significant interaction between restraint, Disinhibition, and dieting showed that restraint moderated the effect of Disinhibition on weight differently in nondieters than in dieters. Conclusions: Increasing levels of dietary restraint may be beneficial in moderating weight by attenuating the positive association between Disinhibition and weight in dieting women. An understanding of weight and weight change requires examination of the interactive effects of restraint, Disinhibition, and dieting. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:33‐40.

  • young girls emerging dietary restraint and Disinhibition are related to parental control in child feeding
    Appetite, 2000
    Co-Authors: J L Carper, Orlet J Fisher, Leann L Birch
    Abstract:

    Abstract This research investigated the origins of dietary restraint and Disinhibition in young girls by considering how parents’ control in child feeding and their daughters’ perceptions of these practices relate to girls’ dietary restraint and Disinhibition. Participants were 197 5-year-old girls (4.6–6.4 years) and their parents. Parental pressure and restriction were measured using the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Girls’ perceptions of parental pressure and restriction were measured using the Kid’s Child Feeding Questionnaire, and their restraint and emotional and external Disinhibition were measured using an age-appropriate version of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine associations among parental control in feeding, daughters’ perceptions of control, and daughters’ dietary restraint and Disinhibition. The results indicated that one-third of 5-year-olds reported moderate levels of dietary restraint, about 25% of the sample showed evidence of emotional Disinhibition, and nearly 75% reported externally disinhibited eating in the presence of palatable foods. Daughters’ dietary restraint and emotional Disinhibition were related to their perceptions of parental pressure to eat more, while their external Disinhibition was related to their perceptions of having restrictions placed on their eating. This research reveals that pressure in child feeding is associated with the emergence of dietary restraint and Disinhibition among young girls, eating styles characterized by a lack of responsiveness to internal hunger and satiety cues.

  • like mother like daughter familial patterns of overweight are mediated by mothers dietary Disinhibition
    The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1999
    Co-Authors: Tanja M Cutting, Jennifer O Fisher, Karen Grimmthomas, Leann L Birch
    Abstract:

    Background: Obese parents are more likely to have obese children. Parents provide both the genes and eating environment for their children and familial patterns of adiposity are the result of gene-environment interactions. Environmental factors are implicated in the rapid increases in prevalence of childhood overweight that have occurred in the past 2 decades. Examination of aspects of the family environment may provide insight into increases in childhood overweight over time. Objective: We examined parental characteristics associated with overweight and eating behaviors in preschool children. Design: Seventy-five preschool children and their parents were recruited from local daycare centers. Information was obtained on parents’ body mass indexes (BMIs), dietary restraint, and dietary Disinhibition. A behavioral index of disinhibited eating in children was used to measure children’s eating when given free access to palatable snack foods in the absence of hunger. Children’s weight-for-height values were also calculated. Results: Maternal dietary Disinhibition (R 2 = 0.35. P < 0.01) and maternal BMI (R 2 = 0.19, P < 0.05) positively predicted daughters' overweight. Maternal Disinhibition (R 2 = 0.35, P < 0.05) mediated the relation between mothers' BMI and daughters' overweight when both maternal Disinhibition and maternal BMI were used to predict daughters’ overweight. Furthermore, when both mothers’ Disinhibition and daughters’ free access intakes were used to predict daughters’ overweight, mothers’ Disinhibition (P < 0.05) showed independent prediction. Conclusions: These findings suggest that familial influences on child overweight differ according to parent and child sex. Also, these results suggest that mothers’ dietary Disinhibition mediates familial similarities in degree of overweight for mothers and daughters.

Rena R Wing – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • internal Disinhibition predicts 5 year weight regain in the national weight control registry nwcr
    Obesity science & practice, 2016
    Co-Authors: Jason Lillis, Heather M Niemeier, J G Thomas, Rena R Wing
    Abstract:

    Maintenance of weight loss remains elusive for most individuals. One potential innovative target is internal Disinhibition (ID) or the tendency to eat in response to negative thoughts, feelings or physical sensations. Individuals high on ID do worse on average in standard behavioural treatment programmes, and recent studies suggest that Disinhibition could play a significant role in weight regain.The purpose of the current study was to examine whether ID was associated with weight change over 5 years of follow-up in the National Weight Control Registry, a registry of individuals who have successfully lost weight and maintained it.From the National Weight Control Registry, 5,320 participants were examined across 5 years. Weight data were gathered annually. The Disinhibition subscale of the Eating Inventory was used to calculate internal Disinhibition and External Disinhibition (ED) and was collected at baseline, year 1, year 3 and year 5. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the weight loss maintained across follow-up years 1 to 5 using ID and ED as baseline and prospective predictors.Internal Disinhibition predicted weight regain in all analyses. ED interacted with ID, such that individuals who were high on ID showed greater weight regain if they were also higher on ED.The ID scale could be a useful screening measure for risk of weight regain, given its brevity. Improved psychological coping could be a useful target for maintenance or booster interventions.

  • internal Disinhibition predicts weight regain following weight loss and weight loss maintenance
    Obesity, 2007
    Co-Authors: Heather M Niemeier, Suzanne Phelan, Joseph L Fava, Rena R Wing
    Abstract:

    Objective: The Disinhibition scale of the Eating Inventory predicts weight loss outcome; however, it may include multiple factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Disinhibition scale and determine how its factors independently relate to long-term weight loss outcomes. Research Methods and Procedures: Exploratory factor analysis of the Disinhibition scale was conducted on 286 participants in a behavioral weight loss trial (TRIM), and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on 3345 members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR), a registry of successful weight loss maintainers. Multivariate regressions were used to examine the relationships between the Disinhibition scale factors and weight over time in both samples. Results: Using baseline data from TRIM, two factors were extracted from the Disinhibition scale: 1) an “internal” factor that described eating in response to internal cues, such as feelings and thoughts; and 2) an “external” factor that described eating in response to external cues, such as social events. This factor structure was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis in the NWCR. In TRIM, internal Disinhibition significantly predicted weight loss at 6 months (p = 0.03) and marginally significantly predicted weight loss at 18 months (p = 0.06), with higher levels of internal Disinhibition at baseline predicting less weight loss; external Disinhibition did not predict weight loss at any time-point. In NWCR, internal Disinhibition significantly predicted one-year weight change (p = 0.001), while external Disinhibition did not. Discussion: These results suggest that it is the Disinhibition of eating in response to internal cues that is associated with poorer long-term weight loss outcomes.

Eleanor J. Bryant – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Obesity and Eating Disturbance: the Role of TFEQ Restraint and Disinhibition
    Current obesity reports, 2019
    Co-Authors: Eleanor J. Bryant, Javairia Rehman, Lisa B. Pepper, Elizabeth R. Walters
    Abstract:

    Literature from the past five years exploring roles of Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) Restraint and Disinhibition in relation to adult obesity and eating disturbance (ED) was reviewed. Restraint has a mixed impact on weight regulation, diet quality, and vulnerability to ED, where it is related detrimentally to weight regulation, diet, and psychopathology, yet can serve as a protective factor. The impact of Disinhibition is potently related to increased obesity, poorer diet, hedonically driven food choices, and a higher susceptibility to ED. Restraint and Disinhibition have distinct influences on obesity and ED and should be targeted differently in interventions. Further work is required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying TFEQ eating behavior traits.

  • Disinhibition, Appetite, and Weight Regulation in Adults
    Handbook of Behavior Food and Nutrition, 2011
    Co-Authors: Eleanor J. Bryant
    Abstract:

    Disinhibition (measured by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick 1985) is an influential and dynamic eating behavior trait. Its importance in the field of eating behavior is becoming increasingly apparent. The objective of this chapter is to explore the etiology of Disinhibition, and its association with appetite regulation, weight status, and eating disturbances through homeostatic and hedonic processes. In addition, the application of this knowledge to other areas of health will be addressed. More specifically, this will focus on how Disinhibition could be used to identify individuals susceptible to weight gain and disturbed eating behavior, and how management of Disinhibition could be beneficial in both weight loss regimes and in treating eating disorders. Trait Disinhibition is characterized by a readiness to eat or to eat opportunistically, and thus is associated with a higher BMI and obesity. It has been demonstrated that high Disinhibition is predictive of a poorer success at weight loss and is associated with weight regain following weight loss, a low physical activity level, low self esteem, and poor psychological health. In addition, Disinhibition has been implicated in eating disorders and is associated with eating disorder severity. Disinhibition is thus a powerful trait that incorporates both psychological and physiological components which appear to influence an individual’s eating behavior and lifestyle choices.

  • Disinhibition its effects on appetite and weight regulation
    Obesity Reviews, 2007
    Co-Authors: Eleanor J. Bryant, Neil A King, John E Blundell
    Abstract:

    Summary Over the past 30 years, the understanding of eating behaviour has been dominated by the concept of dietary restraint. However, the development of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire introduced two other factors, Disinhibition and Hunger, which have not received as much recognition in the literature. The objective of this review was to explore the relationship of the Disinhibition factor with weight regulation, food choice and eating disorders, and to consider its aetiology. The review indicates that Disinhibition is an important eating behaviour trait. It is associated not only with a higher body mass index and obesity, but also with mediating variables, such as less healthful food choices, which contribute to overweight/obesity and poorer health. Disinhibition is also implicated in eating disorders and contributes to eating disorder severity. It has been demonstrated that Disinhibition is predictive of poorer success at weight loss, and of weight regain after weight loss regimes and is associated with lower self-esteem, low physical activity and poor psychological health. Disinhibition therefore emerges as an important and dynamic trait, with influences that go beyond eating behaviour and incorporate other behaviours which contribute to weight regulation and obesity. The characteristics of Disinhibition itself therefore reflect many components representative of a thrifty type of physiology. We propose that the trait of Disinhibition be more appropriately renamed as ‘opportunistic eating’ or ‘thrifty behaviour’.

Carlos A. Paladini – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Disinhibition bursting of dopaminergic neurons
    Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 2011
    Co-Authors: Collin J. Lobb, Charles J. Wilson, Todd W. Troyer, Carlos A. Paladini
    Abstract:

    Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic neurons receive strong tonic inputs from GABAergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) and globus pallidus (GP), and glutamatergic neurons in the subthalamic nucleus. The presence of these tonic inputs raises the possibility that phasic Disinhibition may trigger phasic bursts in dopaminergic neurons. We first applied constant NMDA and GABAA conductances onto a two-compartment single cell model of the dopaminergic neuron (Kuznetsov et al., 2006). The model exhibited Disinhibition bursting upon stepwise removal of inhibition. A further bifurcation analysis suggests that Disinhibition may be more robust than excitation alone in that for most levels of NMDA conductance, the cell remains capable of bursting even after a complete removal of inhibition, whereas too much excitatory input will drive the cell into depolarization block. To investigate the network dynamics of Disinhibition, we used a modified version of an integrate-and-fire based model of the basal ganglia (Humphries et al., 2006). Synaptic activity generated in the network was delivered to the two-compartment single cell dopaminergic neuron. Phasic activation of the D1-expressing medium spiny neurons in the striatum (D1STR) produced Disinhibition bursts in dopaminergic neurons through the direct pathway (D1STR to SNpr to SNpc). Anatomical studies have shown that D1STR neurons have collaterals that terminate in GP. Adding these collaterals to the model, we found that striatal activation increased the intra-burst firing frequency of the Disinhibition burst as the weight of this connection was increased. Our studies suggest that striatal activation is a robust means by which Disinhibition bursts can be generated by SNpc dopaminergic neurons, and that recruitment of the indirect pathway via collaterals may enhance Disinhibition bursting.

  • High-frequency, short-latency Disinhibition bursting of midbrain dopaminergic neurons
    Journal of Neurophysiology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Collin J. Lobb, Charles J. Wilson, Carlos A. Paladini
    Abstract:

    During reinforcement and sequence learning, dopaminergic neurons fire bursts of action potentials. Dopaminergic neurons in vivo receive strong background excitatory and inhibitory inputs, suggesting that one mechanism by which bursts may be produced is Disinhibition. Unfortunately, these inputs are lost during slice preparation and are not precisely controlled during in vivo experiments. In the present study we show that dopaminergic neurons can be shifted into a balanced state in which constant synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and GABA(A) conductances are mimicked either pharmacologically or using dynamic clamp. From this state, a Disinhibition burst can be evoked by removing the background inhibitory conductance. We demonstrate three functional characteristics of network-based Disinhibition that promote high-frequency, short-latency bursting in dopaminergic neurons. First, we found that increasing the total background NMDA and GABA(A) synaptic conductances increased the intraburst firing frequency and reduced its latency. Second, we found that the Disinhibition burst is sensitive to the proportion of background inhibitory input that is removed. In particular, we found that high-frequency, short-latency bursts were enhanced by increasing the degree of Disinhibition. Third, the time course over which inhibition is removed had a large effect on the burst, namely, that synchronous removal of weak inhibitory inputs produces bursts of high intraburst frequency and shorter latency. Our results suggest that fast, more precisely timed bursts can be evoked by complete and synchronous Disinhibition of dopaminergic neurons in a high-condconductancete.

  • The generation of Disinhibition bursts of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia
    BMC Neuroscience, 2010
    Co-Authors: Collin J. Lobb, Carlos A. Paladini, Charles J. Wilson, Todd W. Troyer
    Abstract:

    The majority of the synapses onto dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) are GABAergic and originate from spontaneously active neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) and globus pallidus (GP) [1]. This tonic GABAA–mediated inhibition [2] is opposed by tonic NMDA-mediated excitation from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) [3], suggesting that dopaminergic neurons may be in a high conductance state [4]. Thus, in vivo we expect SNpc activity to depend on the neuron’s intrinsic pacemaking currents acting in tandem with tonic NMDA and GABAA-mediated synaptic currents. We first investigated the high conductance state in a coupled-oscillator model of the SNpc dopaminergic neuron [5]. This neuron model is capable of producing bursts through phasic activation of NMDA receptors, but strong excitation can prevent firing due to inactivation block. However, by adding GABAA receptors (EGABA = -60 mV), we found that in the high conductance state the model is capable of firing single spikes. This was parametrically explored using a range of constant NMDA and GABAA conductances. The likelihood of strong GABAergic tone in vivo raises the possibility that phasic Disinhibition may be an alternative mechanism to phasic excitation for triggering reward-related bursts of action potentials [6]. To investigate the possible dynamics of Disinhibition and how it may cause bursting, we used a modified version of an integrate-and-fire based model of the basal ganglia [7]. A SNpc nucleus receiving afferent inputs from the striatum, GP, STN, and SNpr were added to the network model. We captured the spike input to a random SNpc dopaminergic neuron in the network model and used these spike trains to generate synaptic input to the conductancebased coupled oscioscillator model of the dopaminergic neuron. Phasic activation of the D1-expressing medium spiny neurons in the striatum (D1STR) produced Disinhibition bursts in dopaminergic neurons through the direct pathway (D1STR to SNpr to SNpc). It has previously been shown that direct pathway medium spiny neurons have collaterals that terminate in the GP [8]. This connection was added to the network model (D1STR to GP). We found that striatal activation of the indirect pathway (D1STR-GP-STN-SNpr) through this connection increased the Disinhibition burst frequency. These studies suggest that striatal activation is a robust means by which Disinhibition bursts can be generated by SNpc dopaminergic neurons, and that the indirect pathway may enhance Disinhibition bursting.

John E Blundell – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Disinhibition its effects on appetite and weight regulation
    Obesity Reviews, 2007
    Co-Authors: Eleanor J. Bryant, Neil A King, John E Blundell
    Abstract:

    Summary Over the past 30 years, the understanding of eating behaviour has been dominated by the concept of dietary restraint. However, the development of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire introduced two other factors, Disinhibition and Hunger, which have not received as much recognition in the literature. The objective of this review was to explore the relationship of the Disinhibition factor with weight regulation, food choice and eating disorders, and to consider its aetiology. The review indicates that Disinhibition is an important eating behaviour trait. It is associated not only with a higher body mass index and obesity, but also with mediating variables, such as less healthful food choices, which contribute to overweight/obesity and poorer health. Disinhibition is also implicated in eating disorders and contributes to eating disorder severity. It has been demonstrated that Disinhibition is predictive of poorer success at weight loss, and of weight regain after weight loss regimes and is associated with lower self-esteem, low physical activity and poor psychological health. Disinhibition therefore emerges as an important and dynamic trait, with influences that go beyond eating behaviour and incorporate other behaviours which contribute to weight regulation and obesity. The characteristics of Disinhibition itself therefore reflect many components representative of a thrifty type of physiology. We propose that the trait of Disinhibition be more appropriately renamed as ‘opportunistic eating’ or ‘thrifty behaviour’.