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Epithelial Cells

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David A. Sullivan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Roy L Silverstein – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • cd36 expression in sltered in retinal pigment Epithelial Cells of the rcs rat
    Experimental Eye Research, 1997
    Co-Authors: Janet R Sparrow, Sandra W Ryeom, Nada A Abumrad, Azeddine Ibrahimi, Roy L Silverstein
    Abstract:

    Abstract The retinal pigment Epithelial cell has several important functions, one of which is the phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments which are discarded diurnally. We previously provided evidence in human retinal pigment epithelium that CD36, an 88 kDa integral membrane glycoprotein, participates in the phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments. Since in the Royal College of Surgeons dystrophic rat, retinal pigment Epithelial Cells fail to perform this function and as a result the photoreceptor Cells degenerate, the expression of CD36 has now been examined by retinal pigment Epithelial Cells of the dystrophic rat. Consistent with earlier work using human retinal pigment Epithelial Cells, expression of CD36 by freshly isolated retinal pigment Epithelial Cells of Long Evans rats was confirmed by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry with antibody to rat CD36. The protein was also present in lysates of cultured retinal pigment epithelium. Furthermore, with an in vitro phagocytosis assay using 125 I-labeled outer segments, it was demonstrated that the binding and ingestion of outer segments by rat retinal pigment Epithelial Cells was reduced by 64% in the presence of antibodies to rat CD36. In contrast to observations in the Long Evans rat, immunoblotting of retinal pigment Epithelial Cells isolated from the adult Royal College of Surgeons rat revealed that CD36 protein was not present. This appeared to be a tissue-specific absence since CD36 protein was present in peritoneal macrophages harvested from the adult Royal College of Surgeons rat. A developmental study of CD36 expression also demonstrated an absence of the protein on the day of birth and at 1 and 2 weeks postnatally. By reverse trantranscriptasepolymerase chain reaction, CD36 mRNA was detected in freshly harvested retinal pigment Epithelial Cells of the Royal College of Surgeons rat at only PN1, 1 week and 10 days. Significantly, at 2 weeks of age and in the adult Royal College of Surgeons rat, CD36 transcripts were no longer present. Nevertheless, by Northern blot analysis CD36 mRNA was detected in various other tissues shown previously to express CD36. We conclude that in RPE Cells of the Royal College of Surgeons rat, CD36 protein is not expressed while CD36 mRNA is present only transiently during postnatal development.

Walter Birchmeier – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Mark P Hatton – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • serum induced differentiation of human meibomian gland Epithelial Cells
    Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2014
    Co-Authors: David A. Sullivan, Juan Ding, Karin M Green, Scott A Shaffer, Mark P Hatton
    Abstract:

    Purpose. We hypothesize that culturing immortalized human meibomian gland Epithelial Cells in serum-containing medium will induce their differentiation. The purpose of this investigation was to begin to test our hypothesis, and explore the impact of serum on gene expression and lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland Epithelial Cells.

  • effect of growth factors on the proliferation and gene expression of human meibomian gland Epithelial Cells
    Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2013
    Co-Authors: Juan Ding, Mark P Hatton, David A. Sullivan
    Abstract:

    PURPOSE. We hypothesize that growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bovine pituitary extract (BPE), induce proliferation, but not differentiation (e.g., lipid accumulation), of human meibomian gland Epithelial Cells. We also hypothesize that these actions involve a significant upregulation of genes linked to cell cycle processes, and a significant downregulation of genes associated with differentiation. Our objective was to test these hypotheses. METHODS. Immortalized human meibomian gland and conjunctival Epithelial Cells were cultured for varying time periods in the presence or absence of EGF, BPE, EGF þ BPE, or serum, followed by cell counting, neutral lipid staining, or RNA isolation for molecular biological procedures. RESULTS. Our studies show that growth factors stimulate a significant, time-dependent proliferation of human meibomian gland Epithelial Cells. These effects are associated with a significant upregulation of genes linked to cell cycle, DNA replication, ribosomes, and translation, and a significant decrease in those related to cell differentiation, tissue development, lipid metabolic processes, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling. Serum-induced differentiation, but not growth factor-related proliferation, elicits a pronounced lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland Epithelial Cells. This lipogenic response is unique, and is not duplicated by human conjunctival Epithelial Cells. CONCLUSIONS. Our results demonstrate that EGF and BPE stimulate human meibomian gland Epithelial Cells to proliferate. Further, our findings show that action is associated with an upregulation of cell cycle and translation ontologies, and a downregulation of genetic pathways linked to differentiation and lipid biosynthesis.

  • culture immortalization and characterization of human meibomian gland Epithelial Cells
    Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2010
    Co-Authors: Mark P Hatton, Payal Khandelwal, David A. Sullivan
    Abstract:

    Meibomian glands are essential in maintaining the health and integrity of the ocular surface.1–6 These glands actively synthesize lipids and secrete them at the upper and lower eyeleyelid margins just anterior to the mucocutaneous junctions. These glandular lipids then spread onto the tear film and promote the stability and prevent the evaporation of this film.1–6 Meibomian gland lipids may also help preserve visual acuity, provide lubrication during blinking, interfere with bacterial colonization, and prevent tear overflow.1–6 Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), in turn, leads to tear film instability and evaporation1–6 and is thought to be the major cause of dry eye syndrome throughout the world.7 However, aside from its regulation by sex steroids8–13 or the negative impact of retinoic acid,14 almost nothing is known about the physiological control of the meibomian gland in health or disease. This dearth of knowledge is somewhat surprising, given that the meibomian gland is a large sebaceous gland, and numerous articles have been published about the neural, hormonal, and secretagogue modulation of nonocular sebaceous gland tissue.15–24 These reports have shown that the nature of sebaceous gland regulation may vary significantly depending on the type of gland and its skin location. And of particular importance, much of this knowledge of sebaceous gland control has been generated by research with primary, and especially, immortalized sebaceous gland Epithelial Cells.25–28 We seek to advance our understanding of the regulation of meibomian gland function and the mechanisms underlying MGD. We also seek to translate this knowledge into the development of novel and unique therapeutic strategies to treat MGD and evaporative dry eye. Toward that end, we had a twofold purpose in this study: first, to establish a defined culture system for the maintenance of primary Epithelial Cells from human meibomian glands and, second, to immortalize these meibomian gland Epithelial Cells, thereby developing cell cultures that could be useful for identifying factors that regulate meibomian gland Epithelial cell activity.

Roberto P Garofalo – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • respiratory syncytial virus induces selective production of the chemokine rantes by upper airway Epithelial Cells
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1997
    Co-Authors: Tadahito Saito, Ronald W Deskin, Antonella Casola, Helene A Haeberle, Barbara Olszewska, Peter B Ernst, Rafeul Alam, Pearay L Ogra, Roberto P Garofalo
    Abstract:

    : The presence of histamine and eosinophil cationic protein in nasopharyngeal secretions of infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced bronchiolitis implies the activation of basophil and eosinophil leukocytes, but the specific mechanism of their recruitment has not been elucidated. Chemokines are potent and selective leukocyte chemotactic molecules that are also expressed by airway Epithelial Cells. Therefore, the pattern of chemokines produced in response to RSV infection was investigated in primary cultures of human nose- and adenoid-derived Epithelial Cells. Interleukin-8, growth-related peptide-alpha, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were constitutively released by uninfected Epithelial Cells and were not further enhanced by infection with RSV. RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell-expressed and -secreted), which was present in negligible concentrations in uninfected cultures, was strongly induced by RSV infection, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Through the release of RANTES, Epithelial Cells may control the selective concentration and activation of basophils and eosinophils in RSV-infected airway mucosa.