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Hardness

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M T Laugier - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • comparison between nanoindentation and scratch test Hardness scratch Hardness values of copper thin films on oxidised silicon substrates
    Surface & Coatings Technology, 2007
    Co-Authors: D Beegan, S Chowdhury, M T Laugier
    Abstract:

    In this paper we measured for the first time the scratch Hardness of copper thin films and compared this with Hardness measured from nanoindentation. Copper films with thicknesses in the range 100 nm to 500 nm were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering on silicon substrates. Scratch Hardness was determined by CSM™ scratch tester using scratch widths at low loads. The measured Hardness values were compared with conventional nanoindentation Hardness measurement by CSM™ nanoHardness tester. At these low indentation depths there is a good correlation between the scratch Hardness and the nanoindentation Hardness, with an increase in Hardness as the film thickness decreases.

  • application of composite Hardness models to copper thin film Hardness measurement
    Surface & Coatings Technology, 2005
    Co-Authors: D Beegan, M T Laugier
    Abstract:

    Abstract The Hardness of copper thin films with thicknesses ranging from 25 to 500 nm on oxidised silicon substrates is investigated. The Oliver and Pharr method is used to analyse the load–displacement curves obtained from nanoindentation. Five composite Hardness models (Jonnson and Hogmark, Burnett and Rickerby, Chicot and Lesage, Korsunksy, and Puchi-Cabrera) are applied to the experimental data in order to distinguish film and substrate Hardnesses. Both the Korsunksy and Puchi-Cabrera models give very good fits to the data and predict film and substrate Hardnesses that would be expected for this film/substrate system. However, the goodness of fit for both these models is dependent on a wide range of normalised depths being represented in the experimental data.

Željko Alar - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Influential factors on Hardness uniformity of Vickers Hardness blocks for high Hardness range
    Measurement, 2015
    Co-Authors: Tamara Aleksandrov Fabijanić, Mladen Franz, Željko Alar
    Abstract:

    Abstract Reference Vickers Hardness blocks for high Hardness range were developed from WC 9–Co and WC 6–Co mixtures by two different processes of powder metallurgy, conventional liquid phase sintering in hydrogen and vacuum-sintering with subsequent hot isostatic pressing in one cycle, sinter-HIP, in order to analyse the appropriateness of the manufacturing process and the influence of starting characteristics of the mixtures on Hardness uniformity and overall metrological characteristics. WC powder of 150 nm grain size and 2.5 m 2 /g specific surface area with the addition of grain grow inhibitors was used as starting material. The emphasis of the research was placed on Hardness uniformity of the test surface as it is the most important property placed on Hardness blocks. For that purpose the surface of the blocks was divided into radial and circumferential divisions, forming different sections on the block surface. Hardness measurements were performed in each section with HV1 measuring method. A total of 40 indentations were performed, based on which the conclusions about Hardness uniformity of Vickers Hardness blocks were drawn. Hardness measurements and uniformity were tested by analysis of variance, ANOVA, for single factor in order to determine if significant Hardness variations across the block surface were present. From the research conducted it was concluded that Hardness distribution across test surfaces of Vickers Hardness blocks had a trend according to a process of manufacturing and the amount of binder in the WC–Co mixture. The best material and metrological characteristics were obtained on the block manufactured by sinter-HIP with 9 wt.% Co.

  • Hardness UNIFORMITY OF VICKERS Hardness BLOCKS FOR THE HIGH Hardness RANGE
    2014
    Co-Authors: Tamara Aleksandrov Fabijanić, Mladen Franz, Željko Alar
    Abstract:

    Hardness uniformity is the most important property of Hardness block and depends on the quality of the starting material, process of obtaining, heat and surface treatment. All parameters must be selected very carefully to achieve homogenous microstructure with no defects. Vickers Hardness blocks for the high Hardness range were produced by two different processes of powder metallurgy ; conventional liquid phase sintering in hydrogen and sinter HIP. Nano powder of WC with a grain size of 150 nm with specific surface area of 2, 5 m2/g and addition of grain grow inhibitors was used as staring powder. Hardness uniformity of the produced blocks was investigated in this paper. Surface of the blocks was divided into radial and circumferential divisions forming different sections on the block surface. Hardness measurements were performed in each section with one level of the test force. Applied force was 9.807 N what corresponds to measuring method HV1. For reliable Hardness measurement five indentations were measured in each section. Overall 40 indentations were performed based on which conclusions about the Hardness uniformity of the Vickers Hardness blocks were brought. Hardness uniformity was tested by analysis of variance, ANOVA, for single factor in to order to determine if significant Hardness variations across the block surface are present. From carried research was concluded that Hardness distribution on test surfaces of Vickers Hardness blocks has a trend according to a process of obtaining.

Ebara Qingdao - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Determination of water Hardness with a complex water Hardness indicator
    Industrial Water Treatment, 2002
    Co-Authors: Yang Hong, Ebara Qingdao
    Abstract:

    The water Hardness indicator has been studied. The experimental results reveal that it is very easy and quick to determinate the Hardness of water sample with the water Hardness indicator and colourimetric card.The Hardness range is 0~0.05 mmol/L. The indicator has been used in steam boiler's water supply and circulating cooling water systems including making of soft water, demineralized water and pure water .Good results have been achieved.

R W Wassell - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Hardness measured with traditional vickers and martens Hardness methods
    Dental Materials, 2007
    Co-Authors: Shakeel Shahdad, J F Mccabe, Steven Bull, S Rusby, R W Wassell
    Abstract:

    Abstract Objective To determine the differences, if any, between Hardness measured with traditional Vickers and Martens Hardness test methods on denture teeth under 2, 10 and 50 N loads. Method Hardness of acrylic resin (VIV), composite resin (ORT) and porcelain (POR) denture tooth materials was measured using a traditional Vickers Hardness (HV) method and Martens Hardness (HM) method at 2, 10 and 50 N test loads. Vickers Hardness was also calculated from the force-indentation depth curves (HVfid) that were recorded during Martens Hardness. Indentation creep of the three test materials was also determined during Martens Hardness testing. Results HM values were the same irrespective of the test force used. However, HV values were different for the three test forces. ANOVA using Tukey's test of the HM data showed that the Hardness of POR was significantly higher than VIV or ORT ( P P P Significance This study confirms that the visco-elastic recovery of the materials has a very significant effect on the outcome of the Hardness tests of denture teeth and the Martens Hardness test method has obvious advantages when testing dental materials.

D Beegan - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • comparison between nanoindentation and scratch test Hardness scratch Hardness values of copper thin films on oxidised silicon substrates
    Surface & Coatings Technology, 2007
    Co-Authors: D Beegan, S Chowdhury, M T Laugier
    Abstract:

    In this paper we measured for the first time the scratch Hardness of copper thin films and compared this with Hardness measured from nanoindentation. Copper films with thicknesses in the range 100 nm to 500 nm were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering on silicon substrates. Scratch Hardness was determined by CSM™ scratch tester using scratch widths at low loads. The measured Hardness values were compared with conventional nanoindentation Hardness measurement by CSM™ nanoHardness tester. At these low indentation depths there is a good correlation between the scratch Hardness and the nanoindentation Hardness, with an increase in Hardness as the film thickness decreases.

  • application of composite Hardness models to copper thin film Hardness measurement
    Surface & Coatings Technology, 2005
    Co-Authors: D Beegan, M T Laugier
    Abstract:

    Abstract The Hardness of copper thin films with thicknesses ranging from 25 to 500 nm on oxidised silicon substrates is investigated. The Oliver and Pharr method is used to analyse the load–displacement curves obtained from nanoindentation. Five composite Hardness models (Jonnson and Hogmark, Burnett and Rickerby, Chicot and Lesage, Korsunksy, and Puchi-Cabrera) are applied to the experimental data in order to distinguish film and substrate Hardnesses. Both the Korsunksy and Puchi-Cabrera models give very good fits to the data and predict film and substrate Hardnesses that would be expected for this film/substrate system. However, the goodness of fit for both these models is dependent on a wide range of normalised depths being represented in the experimental data.