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Human Physiology

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Human Physiology - Free Register to Access Experts & Abstracts

Annie Zeidman-karpinski - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Christos S Mantzoros - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • leptin in Human Physiology and pathoPhysiology
    American Journal of Physiology-endocrinology and Metabolism, 2011
    Co-Authors: Christos S Mantzoros, Faido Magkos, Mary Inkoette, Elizabeth Sienkiewicz, Tina Dardeno, Sangyong Kim, Olepette R Hamnvik, Anastasia Koniaris
    Abstract:

    Leptin, discovered through positional cloning 15 years ago, is an adipocyte-secreted hormone with pleiotropic effects in the Physiology and pathoPhysiology of energy homeostasis, endocrinology, and metabolism. Studies in vitro and in animal models highlight the potential for leptin to regulate a number of physiological functions. Available evidence from Human studies indicates that leptin has a mainly permissive role, with leptin administration being effective in states of leptin deficiency, less effective in states of leptin adequacy, and largely ineffective in states of leptin excess. Results from interventional studies in Humans demonstrate that leptin administration in subjects with congenital complete leptin deficiency or subjects with partial leptin deficiency (subjects with lipoatrophy, congenital or related to HIV infection, and women with hypothalamic amenorrhea) reverses the energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine and metabolic abnormalities associated with these conditions. More specifically, in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea, leptin helps restore abnormalities in hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral axes including the gonadal, thyroid, growth hormone, and to a lesser extent adrenal axes. Furthermore, leptin results in resumption of menses in the majority of these subjects and, in the long term, may increase bone mineral content and density, especially at the lumbar spine. In patients with congenital or HIV-related lipoatrophy, leptin treatment is also associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, concomitant with reduced visceral and ectopic fat deposition. In contrast, leptin's effects are largely absent in the obese hyperleptinemic state, probably due to leptin resistance or tolerance. Hence, another emerging area of research pertains to the discovery and/or usefulness of leptin sensitizers. Results from ongoing studies are expected to further increase our understanding of the role of leptin and the potential clinical applications of leptin or its analogs in Human therapeutics.

  • Leptin in Human Physiology and therapeutics.
    Frontiers in neuroendocrinology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Tina Dardeno, Sharon H. Chou, Hyun Seuk Moon, John P. Chamberland, Christina G. Fiorenza, Christos S Mantzoros
    Abstract:

    Leptin regulates energy homeostasis and reproductive, neuroendocrine, immune, and metabolic functions. In this review, we describe the role of leptin in Human Physiology and review evidence from recent “proof of concept” clinical trials using recombinant Human leptin in subjects with congenital leptin deficiency, hypoleptinemia associated with energy-deficient states, and hyperleptinemia associated with garden-variety obesity. Since most obese individuals are largely leptin-tolerant or -resistant, therapeutic uses of leptin are currently limited to patients with complete or partial leptin deficiency, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. Leptin administration in these energy-deficient states may help restore associated neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune function and bone metabolism. Leptin treatment is currently available for individuals with congenital leptin deficiency and congenital lipoatrophy. The long-term efficacy and safety of leptin treatment in hypothalamic amenorrhea and acquired lipoatrophy are currently under investigation. Whether combination therapy with leptin and potential leptin sensitizers will prove effective in the treatment of garden-variety obesity and whether leptin may have a role in weight loss maintenance is being greatly anticipated.

Liu Hong-mei - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Experience in teaching Human Physiology to foreign students
    Journal of Shanxi Medical University, 2007
    Co-Authors: Liu Hong-mei
    Abstract:

    In this article,a set of efficient English teaching methods is set up by Physiology Department through continuous practice and reform.The methods include:preparation before class;compiling experimental guide of Physiology in English;using medical CAI;question-based,review-based,discussion based teaching in class;students' self-study.These methods have shown good effects in enhancing quality of teaching Human Physiology.

Ursula Wolf - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The Pulse-Respiration Quotient: A Powerful but Untapped Parameter for Modern Studies About Human Physiology and PathoPhysiology
    Frontiers in Physiology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Felix Scholkmann, Ursula Wolf
    Abstract:

    A specific and unique aspect of cardiorespiratory activity can be captured by dividing the heart rate (HR) by the respiration rate (RR), giving the pulse-respiration quotient (PRQ = HR/RR). In this review article, we summarize the main findings of studies using and investigating the PRQ. We describe why the PRQ is a powerful parameter that captures complex regulatory states of the cardiorespiratory system, and we highlight the need to re-introduce the use of this parameter into modern studies about Human Physiology and pathoPhysiology. In particular, we show that the PRQ (i) changes during Human development, (ii) is time-dependent (ultradian, circadian, and infradian rhythms), (iii) shows specific patterns during sleep, (iv) changes with physical activity and body posture, (v) is linked with psychophysical and cognitive activity, (vi) is sex-dependent, and (vii) is determined by the individual physiological constitution. Furthermore, we discuss the medical aspects of the PRQ in terms of applications for disease classification and monitoring. Finally, we explain why there should be a revival in the use of the PRQ for basic research about Human Physiology and for applications in medicine, and we give recommendations for the use of the PRQ in studies and medical applications.

Tina Dardeno - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • leptin in Human Physiology and pathoPhysiology
    American Journal of Physiology-endocrinology and Metabolism, 2011
    Co-Authors: Christos S Mantzoros, Faido Magkos, Mary Inkoette, Elizabeth Sienkiewicz, Tina Dardeno, Sangyong Kim, Olepette R Hamnvik, Anastasia Koniaris
    Abstract:

    Leptin, discovered through positional cloning 15 years ago, is an adipocyte-secreted hormone with pleiotropic effects in the Physiology and pathoPhysiology of energy homeostasis, endocrinology, and metabolism. Studies in vitro and in animal models highlight the potential for leptin to regulate a number of physiological functions. Available evidence from Human studies indicates that leptin has a mainly permissive role, with leptin administration being effective in states of leptin deficiency, less effective in states of leptin adequacy, and largely ineffective in states of leptin excess. Results from interventional studies in Humans demonstrate that leptin administration in subjects with congenital complete leptin deficiency or subjects with partial leptin deficiency (subjects with lipoatrophy, congenital or related to HIV infection, and women with hypothalamic amenorrhea) reverses the energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine and metabolic abnormalities associated with these conditions. More specifically, in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea, leptin helps restore abnormalities in hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral axes including the gonadal, thyroid, growth hormone, and to a lesser extent adrenal axes. Furthermore, leptin results in resumption of menses in the majority of these subjects and, in the long term, may increase bone mineral content and density, especially at the lumbar spine. In patients with congenital or HIV-related lipoatrophy, leptin treatment is also associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, concomitant with reduced visceral and ectopic fat deposition. In contrast, leptin's effects are largely absent in the obese hyperleptinemic state, probably due to leptin resistance or tolerance. Hence, another emerging area of research pertains to the discovery and/or usefulness of leptin sensitizers. Results from ongoing studies are expected to further increase our understanding of the role of leptin and the potential clinical applications of leptin or its analogs in Human therapeutics.

  • Leptin in Human Physiology and therapeutics.
    Frontiers in neuroendocrinology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Tina Dardeno, Sharon H. Chou, Hyun Seuk Moon, John P. Chamberland, Christina G. Fiorenza, Christos S Mantzoros
    Abstract:

    Leptin regulates energy homeostasis and reproductive, neuroendocrine, immune, and metabolic functions. In this review, we describe the role of leptin in Human Physiology and review evidence from recent “proof of concept” clinical trials using recombinant Human leptin in subjects with congenital leptin deficiency, hypoleptinemia associated with energy-deficient states, and hyperleptinemia associated with garden-variety obesity. Since most obese individuals are largely leptin-tolerant or -resistant, therapeutic uses of leptin are currently limited to patients with complete or partial leptin deficiency, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. Leptin administration in these energy-deficient states may help restore associated neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune function and bone metabolism. Leptin treatment is currently available for individuals with congenital leptin deficiency and congenital lipoatrophy. The long-term efficacy and safety of leptin treatment in hypothalamic amenorrhea and acquired lipoatrophy are currently under investigation. Whether combination therapy with leptin and potential leptin sensitizers will prove effective in the treatment of garden-variety obesity and whether leptin may have a role in weight loss maintenance is being greatly anticipated.