Ice Milk

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Terrance L. Fox - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Comparison of Various Plating Procedures for the Detection and Enumeration of Coliforms in Ice Cream and Ice Milk.
    Journal of food protection, 1992
    Co-Authors: Marian G. Matushek, Michael S. Curiale, J. Sue Mcallister, Terrance L. Fox
    Abstract:

    Eight plating procedures for the detection and enumeration of coliforms in Ice cream and nonfat frozen dessert were compared. The procedures were: (i) direct plating of 1 ml, (ii) 2 ml, or (iii) 3 ml of product with violet red bile agar (VRBA), (iv) direct plating of 5 ml of product with VRBA in a large petri dish, (v) plating 10 ml of a 1:10 dilution of the product across three plates poured with VRBA, (vi) plating 1 ml of a 1:10 dilution with VRBA, and (vii) plating 1 ml of a 1:10 dilution to Petrifilm E. coli Count (PEC) plates incubated for 24 and (viii) 48 h. Three samples of Ice cream (high-fat chocolate, high-fat vanilla, and high-fat strawberry) and three samples of frozen dessert (fat-free chocolate, fat-free vanilla, and fat-free strawberry) were selected as representative products and were inoculated with coliforms for use in the study. The data indicated that direct plating of Ice cream or frozen dessert was less reliable than plating a diluted product for detection and enumeration of coliforms. Results of platings with VRBA and PEC of 1-ml portions of a 1:10 dilution were closely related to the results of the Standard Methods agar procedure of plating 10 ml of a 1:10 dilution for detection and enumeration of coliforms.

L N Yee - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • carbohydrate or protein based fat mimicker effects on Ice Milk properties
    Journal of Food Science, 1993
    Co-Authors: K A Schmidt, A Lundy, J Reynolds, L N Yee
    Abstract:

    Batches of Ice Milks (2–5% Milk fat) made with a carbohydrate- or a protein-based fat mimicker were compared to conventional Ice Milk (4.8% Milk fat). Rheological, freezing, and melting properties were evaluated. The carbohydrate-based fat mimicker changed rheological properties, resulting in higher viscosities, greater deviations from Newtonian flow, and higher consistency indIces. Less air was incorporated in the mix containing the carbohydrate-based fat mimicker than in the control or the mix with protein-based fat mimicker, The protein-based fat mimicker mix had rheological and melting properties similar to those of the control but achieved higher air incorporation than did the control.

Richard W. Hartel - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Soft-Frozen Dairy Desserts
    Ice Cream, 2012
    Co-Authors: H. Douglas Goff, Richard W. Hartel
    Abstract:

    Soft-frozen dairy desserts appeal to many consumers because of their creamy and smooth texture. These dessert products are typically frozen on the retail premises from manufactured and distributed mix and are consumed in the soft-frozen state soon after being prepared, without hardening, in the form of cones, sundaes, parfaits, banana splits, Milk shakes, and related items. Soft-frozen desserts remain popular with customers of shops focusing on these products and in fast-food-style restaurants. Less capital is needed by the retailer to get into the soft-serve Ice cream business than to make and sell hard-frozen Ice cream. Although vanilla is by far the most common flavor, chocolate or other flavors are also available and opportunities to add flavored syrups and/or mix-ins and to enrobe cones with chocolate have greatly increased the consumer’s options for soft-serve products. Soft-frozen desserts include Ice cream, light or low-fat Ice cream, Ice Milk, frozen custard, and frozen yogurt. Milk shakes are also included in this category, as most foodservIce operations would operate a Milk shake freezer to make shakes from a prepared dairy mix in much the same way as they would for soft-serve cones. This chapter reviews production and consumption statistics for soft-frozen products, soft-serve mix composition, operation of freezers for soft-serve and shakes, and cleaning and sanitizing soft-serve freezers. It also reviews state-of-the-art equipment offered by the major equipment manufacturers.

  • Determination of Ice Crystal Size Distributions in Frozen Desserts
    Journal of Dairy Science, 1991
    Co-Authors: D.p. Donhowe, Richard W. Hartel, R L Bradley
    Abstract:

    Abstract Formation of the Ice crystal size distribution during manufacture of frozen desserts plays an important role in determining textural characteristics. A crystal size distribution with a large mean size and wide variation results in a coarse product. A new methodology has been developed to characterize the Ice crystal size distribution accurately. An optical microscope was used to produce photomicrographs of Ice crystals in frozen products. The microscope was housed in a refrigerated glove box, which provided excellent temperature control and allowed samples to be analyzed at various stages of manufacture. The photomicrographs were analyzed using a digitizing board connected to a microcomputer. Several Ice cream and Ice Milk formulations were analyzed to test the methodology. Ice crystal size was inversely related to the total solids of the formulations. Ice crystal size also increased substantially between draw and hardening and during the first 7 wk of storage at –20°C. Further frozen storage did not result in any significant change in crystal size. These results agree with previous data and with theoretical considerations.

Marian G. Matushek - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Comparison of Various Plating Procedures for the Detection and Enumeration of Coliforms in Ice Cream and Ice Milk.
    Journal of food protection, 1992
    Co-Authors: Marian G. Matushek, Michael S. Curiale, J. Sue Mcallister, Terrance L. Fox
    Abstract:

    Eight plating procedures for the detection and enumeration of coliforms in Ice cream and nonfat frozen dessert were compared. The procedures were: (i) direct plating of 1 ml, (ii) 2 ml, or (iii) 3 ml of product with violet red bile agar (VRBA), (iv) direct plating of 5 ml of product with VRBA in a large petri dish, (v) plating 10 ml of a 1:10 dilution of the product across three plates poured with VRBA, (vi) plating 1 ml of a 1:10 dilution with VRBA, and (vii) plating 1 ml of a 1:10 dilution to Petrifilm E. coli Count (PEC) plates incubated for 24 and (viii) 48 h. Three samples of Ice cream (high-fat chocolate, high-fat vanilla, and high-fat strawberry) and three samples of frozen dessert (fat-free chocolate, fat-free vanilla, and fat-free strawberry) were selected as representative products and were inoculated with coliforms for use in the study. The data indicated that direct plating of Ice cream or frozen dessert was less reliable than plating a diluted product for detection and enumeration of coliforms. Results of platings with VRBA and PEC of 1-ml portions of a 1:10 dilution were closely related to the results of the Standard Methods agar procedure of plating 10 ml of a 1:10 dilution for detection and enumeration of coliforms.

T. Y. Sheu - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Microentrapment of Lactobacilli in Calcium Alginate Gels
    Journal of Food Science, 1993
    Co-Authors: T. Y. Sheu, Robert T. Marshall
    Abstract:

    A procedure was developed to entrap culture bacteria using a two-phase (water/oil) system. It consisted of 3% sodium alginate mixed with microbial cells and suspended in an oil bath containing 0.2% Tween 80. While stirring at 200 rpm, calcium chloride (O.OSM) solution was added to break the water/oil emulsion and form calcium alginate gel. The calcium alginate beads containing microbial cells had mean diameters of 25–35 μm (range S-100 μm). The entrapped microbial cells were released completely from the drop shaped beads by gentle shaking in 0.lM phosphate solution (pH 7.5) for 10 min. About 40% more lactobacilli survived freezing of Ice Milk when they were entrapped in calcium alginate than when they were not entrapped.

  • Improving survival of culture bacteria in frozen desserts by microentrapment.
    Journal of dairy science, 1993
    Co-Authors: T. Y. Sheu, Robert T. Marshall, Hildegarde Heymann
    Abstract:

    Abstract Lactobacillus bulgaricus cells were entrapped in beads of calcium alginate and evaluated for their ability to survive freezing processes. Cells survived freezing (without agitation) in Ice Milk mix much better than in distilled water, and more entrapped cells survived than did cells that were not entrapped. Glycerol and mannitol were cryoprotective, but glucose was not, when each was added (6%) separately to the beads. Entrapment protected the lactobacilli in batch frozen and continuously frozen Ice Milk mixes. The percentage of survival for entrapped and unentrapped cells in continuously frozen Ice Milk approximated 90 and 40%, respectively. Lactobacilli survived better in beads with mean diameters >30 μ m than in those averaging 15 μ m. Addition of entrapped lactobacilli had no measurable effect on the sensory characteristics of the Ice Milk.