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Vanilla

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F Tateo - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • easy extraction method to evaluate δ13c vanillin by liquid chromatography isotopic ratio mass spectrometry in chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2015
    Co-Authors: M Bononi, Giancarlo Quaglia, F Tateo
    Abstract:

    An easy extraction method that permits the use of a liquid chromatography–isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (LC–IRMS) system to evaluate δ13C of vanillin in chocolate products and industrial flavorings is presented. The method applies the determination of stable isotopes of carbon to discriminate between natural vanillin from Vanilla beans and vanillin from other sources (mixtures from beans, synthesis, or biotechnology). A series of 13 chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods available on the Italian market and 8 Vanilla flavorings derived from industrial quality control processes were analyzed. Only 30% of products considered in this work that declared “Vanilla” on the label showed data that permitted the declaration “Vanilla” according to European Union (EU) Regulation 1334/2008. All samples not citing “Vanilla” or “natural flavoring” on the label gave the correct declaration. The extraction method is presented with data useful for statistical evaluation.

  • Easy Extraction Method To Evaluate δ13C Vanillin by Liquid Chromatography–Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry in Chocolate Bars and Chocolate Snack Foods
    2015
    Co-Authors: M Bononi, Giancarlo Quaglia, F Tateo
    Abstract:

    An easy extraction method that permits the use of a liquid chromatography–isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (LC–IRMS) system to evaluate δ13C of vanillin in chocolate products and industrial flavorings is presented. The method applies the determination of stable isotopes of carbon to discriminate between natural vanillin from Vanilla beans and vanillin from other sources (mixtures from beans, synthesis, or biotechnology). A series of 13 chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods available on the Italian market and 8 Vanilla flavorings derived from industrial quality control processes were analyzed. Only 30% of products considered in this work that declared “Vanilla” on the label showed data that permitted the declaration “Vanilla” according to European Union (EU) Regulation 1334/2008. All samples not citing “Vanilla” or “natural flavoring” on the label gave the correct declaration. The extraction method is presented with data useful for statistical evaluation

Michel Grisoni - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • microsatellite markers confirm self pollination and autogamy in wild populations of Vanilla mexicana mill syn v inodora orchidaceae in the island of guadeloupe
    Microsatellite Markers, 2016
    Co-Authors: Rodolphe Gigant, Michel Grisoni, Denis Da Silva, Narindra Rakotomanga, Chloe Goulie, Nicolas Barre, Gervais Citadelle, Daniel Silvestre, Pascale Besse
    Abstract:

    The study aimed at evaluating the mating system of Vanilla mexicana (Orchidaceae) in natural populations in the island of Guadeloupe. A total of 132 V. mexicana samples were collected from 12 sites in Guadeloupe (Basse-Terre). Five other samples coming from Martinique and Mexico completed our analyses. Reproductive biology experiments excluding pollinators with bagged flowers revealed 53.9% fruit set, a value identical to the natural fruit set measured in the populations. These results suggested that V. mexicana, unlike most Vanilla species, was reproducing by self‐pollination and autogamy. Due to lack of specific DNA markers for V. mexicana, microsatellite markers, previously developed in other Vanilla species, were used for the genetic analyses. Only 6 out of the 33 markers tested were transferable and polymorphic in V. mexicana. A panel of 51 V. mexicana samples genotyped with 3 polymorphic loci was finally retained for Guadeloupe population genetic analyses. A heterozygote deficiency was detected, and the selfing rate was estimated to 74%. These results confirmed the reproductive biology results as self‐pollination and autogamy were the most likely explanation for this deficit. Results were compared to those from allogamous wild Vanilla species and discussed in the light of suggested existence of a pollinator for V. mexicana in other areas (Mexico).

  • differential responses of Vanilla accessions to root rot and colonization by fusarium oxysporum f sp radicis Vanillae
    Frontiers in Plant Science, 2015
    Co-Authors: S Koyyappurath, Genevieve Conejero, Jean Bernard Dijoux, Fabienne Lapeyremontes, Katia Jade, Frederic Chiroleu, Frederic Gatineau, Jean Luc Verdeil, Pascale Besse, Michel Grisoni
    Abstract:

    Root and stem rot (RSR) disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-Vanillae (Forv) is the most damaging disease of Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia and V. ×tahitensis, Orchidaceae). Breeding programs aimed at developing resistant Vanilla varieties are hampered by the scarcity of sources of resistance to RSR and insufficient knowledge about the histopathology of Forv. In this work we have i) identified new genetic resources resistant to RSR including V. planifolia inbreds and Vanilla relatives, ii) thoroughly described the colonization pattern of Forv into selected Vanilla accessions, confirming its necrotic non-vascular behavior in roots, and iii) evidenced the key role played by hypodermis, and particularly lignin deposition onto hypodermal cell walls, for resistance to Forv in two highly resistant Vanilla accessions. Two hundred and fifty-four Vanilla accessions were evaluated in the field under natural conditions of infection and in controlled conditions using in-vitro plants root-dip inoculated by the highly pathogenic isolate Fo072. For the 26 accessions evaluated in both conditions, a high correlation was observed between field evaluation and in-vitro assay. The root infection process and plant response of one susceptible and two resistant accessions challenged with Fo072 were studied using wide field and multiphoton microscopy. In susceptible V. planifolia, hyphae penetrated directly into the rhizodermis in the hairy root region then invaded the cortex through the passage cells where it induced plasmolysis, but never reached the vascular region. In the case of the resistant accessions, the penetration was stopped at the hypodermal layer. Anatomical and histochemical observations coupled with spectral analysis of the hypodermis suggested the role of lignin deposition in the resistance to Forv. The thickness of lignin constitutively deposited onto outer cell walls of hypodermis was highly correlated with the level of resistance for 21 accessions tested. The accumulation of p-coumaric and sinapic acids, two phenolic precursors of lignin, was observed in the resistant plants inoculated with Fo072, but not in the susceptible one. Altogether, our analyses enlightened the mechanisms at work in RSR resistant genotypes and should enhance the development of novel breeding strategies aimed at improving the genetic control of RSR of Vanilla.

  • biodiversity and preservation of Vanilla present state of knowledge
    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 2008
    Co-Authors: Severine Bory, Michel Grisoni, Mariefrance Duval, Pascale Besse
    Abstract:

    The genus Vanilla belongs to the Orchidaceae family and Vanilla planifolia, probably endemic from tropical forests in Eastern Mexico, is the main source for commercial Vanilla. There has recently been an important number of publications covering Vanilla taxonomy, particularly using molecular genetics, but the taxonomy of the genus is still unclear and numerous synonyms remain. Recent studies showed that inter-specific hybridization and perhaps even polyploidization played an important role in the evolution of the genus. There has also been an important increase in the knowledge of the genetic diversity and reproductive biology of V. planifolia in natural conditions, showing that mating system diversity exists in Vanilla and that this genus could be a good model to study the role of fragrance in orchid evolution. Recent studies on the genetic consequences of V. planifolia domestication are also presented and raise major scientific questions regarding the origin of phenotypic diversity in a vegetatively propagated crop. Finally, all these studies have demonstrated the urgent need for preservation of the genetic resources of V. planifolia (primary and secondary gene pools, and cultivated resources) and current conservation efforts are presented.

  • rapd genetic diversity in cultivated Vanilla Vanilla planifolia and relationships with v tahitensis and v pompona
    Plant Science, 2004
    Co-Authors: Pascale Besse, Michel Grisoni, Severine Bory, Denis Da Silva, Fabrice Le Bellec, Mariefrance Duval
    Abstract:

    Abstract In Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) and other humid tropical areas, cultivated Vanilla is represented mainly by the species Vanilla planifolia G. Jackson, syn. V. fragrans (Salisb.) Ames, indigenous to Mexico and Central America. Other cultivated species are V. tahitensis J.W. Moore in South Pacific Islands and V. pompona Schiede in the West Indies. V. pompona is naturally distributed in Central and South America, and the origin of V. tahitensis is still questioned. The use of RAPD markers permitted to separate neatly individuals from the three species studied. Low levels of genetic diversity were detected in V. planifolia in cultivation areas such as Reunion Island and Polynesia (Pacific Ocean), in accordance with the vegetative mode of dispersion of Vanilla, and the history of recent introduction in these regions. Nevertheless, the occurrence of different introductions from which modern Vanilla cultivars have evolved in these areas was demonstrated. Species-specific RAPD markers were selected and used successfully to analyse putative V. planifolia × V. tahitensis hybrid specimens. Within the sampling limit of the present study, it was also suggested that V. tahitensis is probably not a species of direct hybrid origin ( V. planifolia × V. pompona ) but rather a species related to V. planifolia . These results are essential to guide further genetic analysis of cultivated Vanilla specimens in introduction areas.

M Bononi - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • easy extraction method to evaluate δ13c vanillin by liquid chromatography isotopic ratio mass spectrometry in chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2015
    Co-Authors: M Bononi, Giancarlo Quaglia, F Tateo
    Abstract:

    An easy extraction method that permits the use of a liquid chromatography–isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (LC–IRMS) system to evaluate δ13C of vanillin in chocolate products and industrial flavorings is presented. The method applies the determination of stable isotopes of carbon to discriminate between natural vanillin from Vanilla beans and vanillin from other sources (mixtures from beans, synthesis, or biotechnology). A series of 13 chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods available on the Italian market and 8 Vanilla flavorings derived from industrial quality control processes were analyzed. Only 30% of products considered in this work that declared “Vanilla” on the label showed data that permitted the declaration “Vanilla” according to European Union (EU) Regulation 1334/2008. All samples not citing “Vanilla” or “natural flavoring” on the label gave the correct declaration. The extraction method is presented with data useful for statistical evaluation.

  • Easy Extraction Method To Evaluate δ13C Vanillin by Liquid Chromatography–Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry in Chocolate Bars and Chocolate Snack Foods
    2015
    Co-Authors: M Bononi, Giancarlo Quaglia, F Tateo
    Abstract:

    An easy extraction method that permits the use of a liquid chromatography–isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (LC–IRMS) system to evaluate δ13C of vanillin in chocolate products and industrial flavorings is presented. The method applies the determination of stable isotopes of carbon to discriminate between natural vanillin from Vanilla beans and vanillin from other sources (mixtures from beans, synthesis, or biotechnology). A series of 13 chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods available on the Italian market and 8 Vanilla flavorings derived from industrial quality control processes were analyzed. Only 30% of products considered in this work that declared “Vanilla” on the label showed data that permitted the declaration “Vanilla” according to European Union (EU) Regulation 1334/2008. All samples not citing “Vanilla” or “natural flavoring” on the label gave the correct declaration. The extraction method is presented with data useful for statistical evaluation

Henrik Lauritz Frandsen - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • authenticity and traceability of Vanilla flavors by analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and hydrogen
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2014
    Co-Authors: Annemette Solvbjerg Hansen, Arvid Fromberg, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen
    Abstract:

    Authenticity and traceability of Vanilla flavors were investigated using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). Vanilla flavors produced by chemical synthesis (n = 2), fermentation (n = 1), and extracted from two different species of the Vanilla orchid (n = 79) were analyzed. The authenticity of the flavor compound vanillin was evaluated on the basis of measurements of ratios of carbon stable isotopes (δ(13)C). It was found that results of δ(13)C for vanillin extracted from Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla tahitensis were significantly different (t test) and that it was possible to differentiate these two groups of natural vanillin from vanillin produced otherwise. Vanilla flavors were also analyzed for ratios of hydrogen stable isotopes (δ(2)H). A graphic representation of δ(13)C versus δ(2)H revealed that vanillin extracted from pods grown in adjacent geographic origins grouped together. Accordingly, values of δ(13)C and δ(2)H can be used for studies of authenticity and traceability of Vanilla flavors.

Giancarlo Quaglia - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • easy extraction method to evaluate δ13c vanillin by liquid chromatography isotopic ratio mass spectrometry in chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2015
    Co-Authors: M Bononi, Giancarlo Quaglia, F Tateo
    Abstract:

    An easy extraction method that permits the use of a liquid chromatography–isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (LC–IRMS) system to evaluate δ13C of vanillin in chocolate products and industrial flavorings is presented. The method applies the determination of stable isotopes of carbon to discriminate between natural vanillin from Vanilla beans and vanillin from other sources (mixtures from beans, synthesis, or biotechnology). A series of 13 chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods available on the Italian market and 8 Vanilla flavorings derived from industrial quality control processes were analyzed. Only 30% of products considered in this work that declared “Vanilla” on the label showed data that permitted the declaration “Vanilla” according to European Union (EU) Regulation 1334/2008. All samples not citing “Vanilla” or “natural flavoring” on the label gave the correct declaration. The extraction method is presented with data useful for statistical evaluation.

  • Easy Extraction Method To Evaluate δ13C Vanillin by Liquid Chromatography–Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry in Chocolate Bars and Chocolate Snack Foods
    2015
    Co-Authors: M Bononi, Giancarlo Quaglia, F Tateo
    Abstract:

    An easy extraction method that permits the use of a liquid chromatography–isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (LC–IRMS) system to evaluate δ13C of vanillin in chocolate products and industrial flavorings is presented. The method applies the determination of stable isotopes of carbon to discriminate between natural vanillin from Vanilla beans and vanillin from other sources (mixtures from beans, synthesis, or biotechnology). A series of 13 chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods available on the Italian market and 8 Vanilla flavorings derived from industrial quality control processes were analyzed. Only 30% of products considered in this work that declared “Vanilla” on the label showed data that permitted the declaration “Vanilla” according to European Union (EU) Regulation 1334/2008. All samples not citing “Vanilla” or “natural flavoring” on the label gave the correct declaration. The extraction method is presented with data useful for statistical evaluation