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F J Cabanes – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

S M Shane – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • preliminary findings of salmonella spp in captive green Iguanas Iguana Iguana and their environment
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 2000
    Co-Authors: Mark A Mitchell, S M Shane
    Abstract:

    Captive reptiles are routinely identified as reservoirs of Salmonella spp. and reports of reptileassociated salmonellosis are increasing. Unfortunately, little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella spp. and green Iguanas. We did a limited survey of a green-Iguana farm in El Salvador to identify sources of Salmonella spp. in green Iguanas and their environment. A limited number of samples for microbiological culture were collected from Iguanas (adult, hatchling, and embryos) and their environment (food, water, soil, shelter, insects, and wild-caught lizards). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the intestine of both adult (3/20) and hatchling Iguanas (8/20). There was no evidence of Salmonella spp. in the reproductive tracts of female Iguanas (0/10). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the surface of 40% (7/16) of the egg surfaces tested. Salmonella spp. was not identified from the externalized yolk-sac of the Iguana embryos tested. Soil samples from a breeding pen and a nest were both positive for Salmonella spp. Eight different Salmonella spp. serotypes were identified in this survey. These results suggest that horizontal transmission of Salmonella spp. is a potential source of exposure to hatchling Iguanas at this facility. # 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Preliminary findings of Salmonella spp. in captive green Iguanas (Iguana Iguana) and their environment.
    Preventive veterinary medicine, 2000
    Co-Authors: M A Mitchell, S M Shane
    Abstract:

    Captive reptiles are routinely identified as reservoirs of Salmonella spp. and reports of reptile-associated salmonellosis are increasing. Unfortunately, little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella spp. and green Iguanas. We did a limited survey of a green-Iguana farm in El Salvador to identify sources of Salmonella spp. in green Iguanas and their environment. A limited number of samples for microbiological culture were collected from Iguanas (adult, hatchling, and embryos) and their environment (food, water, soil, shelter, insects, and wild-caught lizards). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the intestine of both adult (3/20) and hatchling Iguanas (8/20). There was no evidence of Salmonella spp. in the reproductive tracts of female Iguanas (0/10). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the surface of 40% (7/16) of the egg surfaces tested. Salmonella spp. was not identified from the externalized yolk-sac of the Iguana embryos tested. Soil samples from a breeding pen and a nest were both positive for Salmonella spp. Eight different Salmonella spp. serotypes were identified in this survey. These results suggest that horizontal transmission of Salmonella spp. is a potential source of exposure to hatchling Iguanas at this facility.

Michel Breuil – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • a story of nasal horns two new subspecies of Iguana laurenti 1768 squamata iguanidae in saint lucia st vincent amp the grenadines and grenada southern lesser antilles
    Zootaxa, 2019
    Co-Authors: Michel Breuil, Jennifer C Daltry, Barbara Vuillaume, David Schikorski, Ulrike Krauss, Matthew N Morton, Pius Haynes, Elizabeth Corry, Glenroy Gaymes, Joanne Gaymes
    Abstract:

    : The Lesser Antilles, in the Eastern Caribbean, were long considered to have only two species in the genus Iguana Laurenti 1768: the Lesser Antillean Iguana Iguana delicatissima, which is endemic to parts of the Lesser Antilles, and the Common green Iguana Iguana Iguana, which also occurs throughout Central and South America. No subspecies are currently recognised. However, herpetologists and reptile collectors have pointed out strong physical differences between some of the island populations of Iguana Iguana and those from the continent. Drawing on both morphological and genetic data, this paper describes two subspecies of the Common green Iguana Iguana Iguana from the southern Lesser Antilles, specifically the countries of Saint Lucia Iguana Iguana sanctaluciae and Iguana Iguana insularis from St Vincent the Grenadines, and Grenada. The form on the island of Saint Vincent has not been identified. The new subssubspecies are described based on the following unique combination of characters: Presence of high median and medium to small lateral horns on the snout; Small subtympanic plate not exceeding 20% of the eardrum size; Two or three scales of decreasing size anterior to the subtympanic plate; Fewer than ten small to medium triangular gular spikes; Medium sized dewlap; Low number of small to medium dispersed nuchal tubercles; Dark brown iris, with the white of the eye visible; Oval, prominent nostril; Short and relatively flat head; High dorsal spines; No swelling of the jowls in reproductively active males.                Iguana Iguana sanctaluciae has in adults vertical black stripes on body and tail and a black dewlap whereas Iguana Iguana insularis is pale grey or creamy white in adults.                Both subspecies are globally threatened by unsustainable hunting (including the pet trade) and by invasive alien species, including hybridization from invasive Iguanas from South and Central America (I. Iguana Iguana and I. rhinolopha, considered here as full species) that have become established in all three countries. The authors call for stronger measures to conserve the remaining purebred Iguana i. insularis and Iguana i. sanctaluciae ssp. nov. throughout their ranges and for further research to identify other cryptic species and subspecies of Iguana in the Lesser Antilles.

  • osteological differentiation of the Iguana laurenti 1768 squamata iguanidae species Iguana Iguana linnaeus 1758 and Iguana delicatissima laurenti 1768 with some comments on their hybrids
    Journal of Herpetology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Corentin Bochaton, Sandrine Grouard, Ivan Ineich, Anne Tresset, Michel Breuil, Salvador Bailon
    Abstract:

    Abstract The origins of the two Iguana species (Iguana delicatissima [Lesser Antillean Iguana] and Iguana Iguana [Green Iguana]) occurring today in the Lesser Antilles are frequently questioned using mostly historical and genetic data. Osteological remains of Iguanas are common in archaeological and paleontological deposits in the Lesser Antilles, however, and they could be important for understanding the past colonization processes of these two Iguana species and subsequent sympatry. Unfortunately, although numerous questions exist about the past occurrence of those two species and their respective arrival dates, no osteological study has led to proper identification of subfossil Iguana skeletal elements. Here we present a series of characters that allow for distinguishing the two species using isolated bones and emphasize the reliability of each recognized specific character. We also provide some comments about skeletal morphology of hybrids between both species and their identification based on osteology.

  • genetic evidence of hybridization between the endangered native species Iguana delicatissima and the invasive Iguana Iguana reptilia iguanidae in the lesser antilles management implications
    PLOS ONE, 2015
    Co-Authors: Barbara Vuillaume, Victorien Valette, Olivier Lepais, Frederic Grandjean, Michel Breuil
    Abstract:

    The worldwide increase of hybridization in different groups is thought to have become more important with the loss of isolating barriers and the introduction of invasive species. This phenomenon could result in the extinction of endemic species. This study aims at investigating the hybridization dynamics between the endemic and threatened Lesser Antillean Iguana (Iguana delicatissima) and the invasive common green Iguana (Iguana Iguana) in the Lesser Antilles, as well as assessing the impact of interspecific hybrhybridization on the decline of I. delicatissima. 59 I. delicatissima (5 localities), 47 I. Iguana (12 localities) and 27 hybrids (5 localities), who were all identified based on morphological characters, have been genotyped at 15 microsatellites markers. We also sequenced hybrids using ND4 mitochondrial loci to further investigate mitochondrial introgression. The genetic clustering of species and hybrid genetic assignment were performed using a comparative approach, through the implementation of a Discriminant Analysis of Principal Component (DAPC) based on statistics, as well as genetic clustering approaches based on the genetic models of several populations (Structure, NewHybrids and HIest), in order to get full characterization of hybridization patterns and introgression dynamics across the islands. The Iguanas identified as hybrids in the wild, thanks to morphological analysis, were all genetically F1, F2, or backcrosses. A high proportion of individuals were also the result of a longer-term admixture. The absence of reproductive barriers between species leads to hybridization when species are in contact. Yet morphological and behavioral differences between species could explain why males I. Iguana may dominate I. delicatissima, thus resulting in short-term species displacement and extinction by hybridization and recurrent introgression from I. Iguana toward I. delicatissima. As a consequence, I. delicatissima gets eliminated through introgression, as observed in recent population history over several islands. These results have profound implications for species management of the endangered I. delicatissima and practical conservation recommendations are being discussed in the light of these findings.

Harry Hariharan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Occurrence of Antibiotic Resistant Escherichia Coli in Green Iguanas (Iguana Iguana ) in Grenada, West Indies
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: W. R. B. Sylvester, Victor A. Amadi, C. Hegamin-younger, Rhonda Pinckney, Calum N. L. Macpherson, John S. Mckibben, R. Bruhl-day, K. D. John-sylvester, Harry Hariharan, West Indies
    Abstract:

    Cloacal swabs from 62 green Iguanas ( Iguana Iguana ) from five parishes of Grenada were sampled during the period January to April 2013, and examined by culture for presence of Escherichia coli. Forty percent of the green Iguanas were positive for E. coli . This organism is documented to cause health problems in wildlife species, but it is rare. Isolates were further tested for the presence of E. coli O157:H7, a serotype known to cause severe zoonotic illnesses globally. None of the isolates tested positive for this serotype. The results of this study indicate that green Iguanas are not important reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests conducted by a disk diffusion method against amoxicillinclavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime,

  • prevalence serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella spp from wild and domestic green Iguanas Iguana Iguana in grenada west indies
    Zoonoses and Public Health, 2014
    Co-Authors: Wayne Sylvester, Victor A. Amadi, Rhonda Pinckney, John S. Mckibben, C N L Macpherson, R Bruhlday, Roger P Johnson, Harry Hariharan
    Abstract:

    Summary Cloacal swabs from 62 green Iguanas (Iguana Iguana), including 47 wild and 15 domestic ones from five parishes of Grenada, were sampled during a 4-month period of January to April 2013 and examined by enrichment and selective culture for the presence of Salmonella spp. Fifty-five per cent of the animals were positive, and eight serovars of Salmonella were isolated. The most common serovar was Rubislaw (58.8%), a serovar found recently in many cane toads in Grenada, followed by Oranienburg (14.7%), a serovar that has been causing serious human disease outbreaks in Japan. Serovar IV:48:g,z51:- (formerly, S. Marina) highly invasive and known for serious infections in children in the United States, constituted 11.8% of the isolates, all of them being from domestic green Iguanas. Salmonella Newport, a serovar recently found in a blue land crab in Grenada, comprised 11.8% of the isolates from the green Iguanas. The remaining four less frequent serovars included S. Javiana and S. Glostrup. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests conducted by a disc diffusion method against amoxicillinclavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal, with intermediate susceptibility, mainly to streptomycin, tetracycline and cefotaxime. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars from wild and domestic green Iguanas in Grenada, West Indies.

Chiharu Okumura – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • First Report of Co-invasion by the Reptile Nematode Ozolaimus megatyphlon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) with Invasive Green Iguanas (Iguana Iguana) in the Asia–Pacific
    Acta Parasitologica, 2020
    Co-Authors: Mackenzie L. Kwak, Chiharu Okumura
    Abstract:

    Purpose Co-invasion of naïve ecosystems by non-native parasites is a serious threat to global biodiversity, though such events are difficult to detect early in the invasion process. Green Iguanas ( Iguana Iguana ) are an emerging invasive species and have colonised several countries in the Asia–Pacific. A survey was undertaken to determine whether parasites of the green Iguana had co-invaded naïve ecosystems with their introduced host. Methods Over a 10-month period, wild green Iguanas were trapped and euthanised in Singapore. All animals were necropsied and sampled for parasites. Parasites were then identified morphologically and subsequently characterised molecularly at the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) locus. Results The reptile nematode Ozolaimus megatyphlon was found in 38% of the sampled green Iguanas, with burdens of 100 + worms in all infected animals. This represents the first recorded co-invasion of this species with wild green Iguanas in the Asia–Pacific. Based on the molecular characterisation of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) locus, the first DNA barcode is provided for O. megatyphlon . Conclusion For the first time, the reptile nematode Ozolaimus megatyphlon is shown to be invasive and to have colonised the Asia–Pacific region with its introduced host, the green Iguana. The DNA barcode provided here will facilitate future monitoring programmes as O. megatyphlon invades new habitats and countries.

  • first report of co invasion by the reptile nematode ozolaimus megatyphlon nematoda pharyngodonidae with invasive green Iguanas Iguana Iguana in the asia pacific
    Acta Parasitologica, 2020
    Co-Authors: Mackenzie L. Kwak, Chiharu Okumura
    Abstract:

    PURPOSE: Co-invasion of naive ecosystems by non-native parasites is a serious threat to global biodiversity, though such events are difficult to detect early in the invasion process. Green Iguanas (Iguana Iguana) are an emerging invasive species and have colonised several countries in the Asia-Pacific. A survey was undertaken to determine whether parasites of the green Iguana had co-invaded naive ecosystems with their introduced host. METHODS: Over a 10-month period, wild green Iguanas were trapped and euthanised in Singapore. All animals were necropsied and sampled for parasites. Parasites were then identified morphologically and subsequently characterised molecularly at the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) locus. RESULTS: The reptile nematode Ozolaimus megatyphlon was found in 38% of the sampled green Iguanas, with burdens of 100 + worms in all infected animals. This represents the first recorded co-invasion of this species with wild green Iguanas in the Asia-Pacific. Based on the molecular characterisation of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) locus, the first DNA barcode is provided for O. megatyphlon. CONCLUSION: For the first time, the reptile nematode Ozolaimus megatyphlon is shown to be invasive and to have colonised the Asia-Pacific region with its introduced host, the green Iguana. The DNA barcode provided here will facilitate future monitoring programmes as O. megatyphlon invades new habitats and countries.