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Wolfgang Bechmann – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Niina Vieno – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • elimination of pharmaceuticals in Sewage treatment plants in finland
    Water Research, 2007
    Co-Authors: Niina Vieno, Tuula Tuhkanen, Leif Kronberg
    Abstract:

    Abstract The occurrence of eight pharmaceuticals ( β -blockers: acebutolol, atenolol, metoprolol and sotalol; antiepileptic: carbamazepine; fluoroquinolone antiantibiotics: ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin) were assessed in the raw and treated Sewage of 12 Sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Finland. The average concentrations in the raw and treated Sewage ranged from 100 to 1060 ng L −1 and from −1 , respectively. The average daily loads ranged from 36 to 405 mg/1000 inh and from 2 to 302 mg/1000 inh, respectively. In the treatment plants, fluoroquinolones were eliminated by >80%. Carbamazepine was not eliminated during the treatment and in fact even higher concentrations were frequently found in the treated than in the raw Sewages. The increase in concentration was shown to be most likely due to enzymatic cleavage of the glucuronic conjugate of carbamazepine and release of the parent compound in the treatment plant. The β -blockers were eliminated in average by less than 65% and the elimination varied greatly between the treatment plants. Especially the dilution of raw Sewage by rainwater and a consequent decrease in the hydraulic retention time of a treatment plant was found to deteriorate the elimination of the β -blockers. The work shows that especially carbamazepine and the β -blockers may reach the recipient waters and there is a need to enhance their elimination in the Sewage treatment plants. In this attempt, a denitrifying biofilter as a tertiary treatment could be of minor importance since in this study it did not result in further elimination of the target compounds.

  • analysis of neutral and basic pharmaceuticals in Sewage treatment plants and in recipient rivers using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection
    Journal of Chromatography A, 2006
    Co-Authors: Niina Vieno, Tuula Tuhkanen, Leif Kronberg
    Abstract:

    Abstract Analytical method was developed which allowed for the detection of four beta blockers (acebutolol, atenolol, metoprolol and sotalol), an antiepileptic drug (carbamazepine) and three fluoroquinolone antiantibiotics (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and norfloxacin) with a single pre-treatment and chromatographic method. The method included an isolation and concentration procedure using solid phase extraction, a separation step using high performance liquid chrochromatography and a detection procedure applying triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, which was working in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated for ground, surface and Sewage influent and effluent waters. Due to ion suppression in the electrospray source, the signals monitored for the analytes were less intense in Sewage waters compared to ground and surface waters. The limits of quantification were as low as 1 ng L −1 in ground water and 3.5 ng L −1 in Sewage influent. The method was successfully applied to the determination of the target compounds in raw and treated Sewages of three treatment plants in Finland and in their recipient rivers. The results showed that many of the studied compounds pose a moderate to high persistency in Sewage treatment as well as in the recipient rivers. The analytical protocol presented may be used for more in-depth studies on the occurrence and fate of these commonly used pharmaceuticals in the Sewage treatment plants and in the aquatic environment.

Leif Kronberg – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • elimination of pharmaceuticals in Sewage treatment plants in finland
    Water Research, 2007
    Co-Authors: Niina Vieno, Tuula Tuhkanen, Leif Kronberg
    Abstract:

    Abstract The occurrence of eight pharmaceuticals ( β -blockers: acebutolol, atenolol, metoprolol and sotalol; antiepileptic: carbamazepine; fluoroquinolone antibiotics: ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin) were assessed in the raw and treated Sewage of 12 Sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Finland. The average concentrations in the raw and treated Sewage ranged from 100 to 1060 ng L −1 and from −1 , respectively. The average daily loads ranged from 36 to 405 mg/1000 inh and from 2 to 302 mg/1000 inh, respectively. In the treatment plants, fluoroquinolones were eliminated by >80%. Carbamazepine was not eliminated during the treatment and in fact even higher concentrations were frequently found in the treated than in the raw Sewages. The increase in concentration was shown to be most likely due to enzymatic cleavage of the glucuronic conjugate of carbamazepine and release of the parent compound in the treatment plant. The β -blockers were eliminated in average by less than 65% and the elimination varied greatly between the treatment plants. Especially the dilution of raw Sewage by rainwater and a consequent decrease in the hydraulic retention time of a treatment plant was found to deteriorate the elimination of the β -blockers. The work shows that especially carbamazepine and the β -blockers may reach the recipient waters and there is a need to enhance their elimination in the Sewage treatment plants. In this attempt, a denitrifying biofilter as a tertiary treatment could be of minor importance since in this study it did not result in further elimination of the target compounds.

  • analysis of neutral and basic pharmaceuticals in Sewage treatment plants and in recipient rivers using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection
    Journal of Chromatography A, 2006
    Co-Authors: Niina Vieno, Tuula Tuhkanen, Leif Kronberg
    Abstract:

    Abstract Analytical method was developed which allowed for the detection of four beta blockers (acebutolol, atenolol, metoprolol and sotalol), an antiepileptic drug (carbamazepine) and three fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and norfloxacin) with a single pre-treatment and chromatographic method. The method included an isolation and concentration procedure using solid phase extraction, a separation step using high performance liquid chromatography and a detection procedure applying triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, which was working in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated for ground, surface and Sewage influent and effluent waters. Due to ion suppression in the electrospray source, the signals monitored for the analytes were less intense in Sewage waters compared to ground and surface waters. The limits of quantification were as low as 1 ng L −1 in ground water and 3.5 ng L −1 in Sewage influent. The method was successfully applied to the determination of the target compounds in raw and treated Sewages of three treatment plants in Finland and in their recipient rivers. The results showed that many of the studied compounds pose a moderate to high persistency in Sewage treatment as well as in the recipient rivers. The analytical protocol presented may be used for more in-depth studies on the occurrence and fate of these commonly used pharmaceuticals in the Sewage treatment plants and in the aquatic environment.

A Friedrich – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analytical investigations on Sewage farm soils
    Journal of thermal analysis, 1996
    Co-Authors: A Friedrich, Karsten Grunewald, S. Klinnert, Wolfgang Bechmann
    Abstract:

    Soil substrates of Sewage farms (inflow of Sewage areas) and of closed Sewage farms were investigated by means of thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. The results were compared with those obtained for control samples from outside the Sewage farms. The organic matter of actively used Sewage areas (inflow) contains a remarkable amount of easily oxidizable compounds brought to the inflows by suspended matter. Beside these compounds, macromolecular organic substances predominate in the composition of the organic matter and are responsible for an immense heat release in the high temperature range of the thermal studies. In the substrates of closed Sewage farm inflows or of other Sewage farm areas which do not belong to the inflows, the amounts of volatile and easily oxidizable compounds decrease rapidly. The substrates hardly differ in their reaction temperatures from control samples. The influence of single macromolecules on the exothermic oxidation is reduced with increasing humification.

  • thermogravimetric and differential thermal analytical investigations on Sewage farm soils
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 1996
    Co-Authors: A Friedrich, Karsten Grunewald, S. Klinnert, Wolfgang Bechmann
    Abstract:

    Soil substrates of Sewage farms (inflow of Sewage areas) and of closed Sewage farms were investigated by means of thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. The results were compared with those obtained for control samples from outside the Sewage farms.

Ana Méndez – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.