Scan Science and Technology

Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies

14,000,000 Leading Edge Experts on the ideXlab platform

14,000,000

Leading Edge Experts

on the ideXlab platform

Tomato

The Experts below are selected from a list of 258726 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Tomato - Free Register to Access Experts & Abstracts

Tadeu Araujo De ,souza - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Tomato chlorosis virus, alternative hosts and interaction with tospovirus in Tomato
    2016
    Co-Authors: Tadeu Araujo De ,souza
    Abstract:

    O tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicum) é um das hortaliças mais cultivadas em todo o mundo, inclusive no Brasil, principalmente pelas suas características nutricionais e pela sua importância sócio econômica. Essa cultura pode ser alvo de uma grande diversidade de pragas, incluindo alguns grupos de vírus. Entre os principais encontram-se as espécies dos gêneros Begomovirus, Tospovirus e Crinivirus. Os crinivírus são vírus emergentes, com duas espécies conhecidas em tomateiro Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) e Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) e que foram identificadas em meados da década de 90, nos Estados Unidos. No Brasil, até o momento, apenas ToCV foi relatado infectando o tomateiro. Geneticamente, o ToCV é composto por duas moléculas de RNA fita simples, encapsidadas em partículas virais longas e flexuosas. A transmissão é feita por três espécies de moscas-brancas: Bemisia tabaci, Trialeurodes vaporariorum e T. abutiloneus. Em tomateiro, o principal sintoma caracteriza-se por manchas cloróticas que desenvolvem uma clorose internerval intensa, visualizada principalmente nas folhas baixeiras. O primeiro relato de ToCV no Brasil ocorreu em 2008 e, desde então, este vírus tem sido encontrado nas principais regiões produtoras de tomate do país, porém ainda é pouco estudado. Devido a essa demanda de pesquisa, o objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar a gama de hospedeiros do ToCV no Brasil. Foram avaliadas 50 espécies dentre elas, plantas cultivadas e não cultivadas, inoculadas com ToCV pelo inseto vetor (B. tabaci biótipo B). Do total de plantas avaliadas, nove espécies foram suscetíveis ao isolado testado de ToCV, indicando a potencial capacidade dessas plantas de atuarem como hospedeiras alternativas de ToCV em campo. Concluiu-se então que é necessária maior preocupação com as plantas Amaranthus hibridus, Solanum americanum, Nicandra physaloides e Physalis angulata, pois além de suscetíveis a ToCV, são plantas altamente infestantes em lavouras de tomate e potenciais hospedeiras alternativas do vírus na ausência ou na presença da cultura. Na ausência de tomateiro nas áreas de produção, o virus pode permanecer nas hospedeiras alternativas e, na presença de tomateiro, tais hospedeiras são potencias fontes de inóculo de ToCV. O sinergismo entre ToCV e o tospovírus Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) foi recentemente relatado na Espanha. Nessa interação, há aparentemente um favorecimento da infecção de TSWV em plantas resistentes (com gene Sw-5), quando previamente infectadas por ToCV. Por se tratar de um relato preocupante, parte desse trabalho foi então desenvolvido para avaliar esse sinergismo entre ToCV e tospovírus em tomateiro. Foram selecionadas as cultivares resistentes a tospovírus, Predador e Viradoro, e a cultivar suscetível Dominador, utilizada como controle nos ensaios. As cultivares de tomateiro resistentes foram previamente infectadas por ToCV pelo inseto vetor e, posteriormente, inoculadas com os tospovírus Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) e Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). Após a inoculação, as plantas resistentes não foram infectadas pelos tospovírus, avaliadas visualmente e por teste sorológico (Dot-Elisa). Adicionalmente, foi utilizado outro modelo biológico com Nicotiana benthamina não transgênica e transgênica, transformada constitutivamente com o gene Sw-5. As plantas transgênicas resistentes previamente infectadas por ToCV e posteriomente inoculadas com os tospovírus apresentaram sintoma de lesão local, indicando resistência e ausência de infecção sistêmica. A infecção prévia de ToCV não alterou a expressão do gene Sw-5, responsável por conferir resistência a tospovírus em plantas de tomate e N. benthamiana. Estudos para identificar hospedeiras alternativas de ToCV e compreender o comportamento dos vírus em casos de infecção mista constituem ações indispensáveis para o sucesso de qualquer estratégia de controle. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACTThe Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most cultivated vegetables around the world, including Brazil, mainly by their nutritional characteristics and socio-economic importance. This crop is affected by a large variety of pests and pathogens, including some viruses. The major species are found within the genus Begomovirus, Tospovirus and Crinivirus. The criniviruses are emerging viruses, with two known species in Tomato Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV). They were identified in the mid 90s, in the United States. In Brazil, only ToCV was reported in Tomatoes. Genetically, ToCV consists of two single-stranded RNA molecules, encapsidated in long and flexuous viral particles. They are transmitted by three whitefly species: Bemisia tabaci, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and T. abutiloneus. In Tomato, the main symptoms are characterized by chlorotic spots, which evolve to strong internerval chlorosis, mainly visualized in the lower leaves. The first report of ToCV in Brazil was made in 2006 and since then the virus has been found in the main producing regions of Tomato of the country. However, it has been poorly studied. Due to this demand, the aim of this study was to determine the host range of ToCV in Brazil. A total of 50 species of cultivated and non-cultivated plants was tested in inoculation with ToCV by the insect vector (B. tabaci biotype B). Nine species were shown to be susceptible to ToCV infection, indicating the potential ability of these plants to act as alternative hosts of ToCV in the field. Therefore, it was concluded that the growers are concerned with the following plants: Amaranthus hibridus, Solanum americanum, Nicandra physaloides and Physalis angulata. They were all susceptible to ToCV, and are frequently found in Tomato crops. They are potential virus alternative hosts in the absence of Tomato plants, and when Tomatoes are present, they can act as inoculum source of ToCV to these plants. The possible synergism between ToCV and the tospovirus Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was recently reported. In this interaction, apparently a ToCV infection foster TSWV infection in TSWV-resistant plants (contatining the Sw-5 gene). The interaction between two or more viruses can result in unexpected pathological consequences and because of this possible impact in the Brazilian Tomato production, we evaluated this synergism between ToCV and tospovirus in Tomatoes in the Brazilian conditions. The tospovirus-resistant cultivars Predador and Viradoro were selected, and the susceptible cultivar Dominador was used as control in the assays. Resistant Tomato cultivars were previously infected with ToCV by the insect-vector and then inoculated with tospoviruses Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). After inoculation, the resistant plants were not infected, confirmed by visual inspection and a sorologic test (Dot-Elisa). In addition, a similas test was performed using transgenic and non-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants, which are constitutively transformed with the gene Sw-5. The resistant transgenic plants previously infected with ToCV and subsequently inoculated with TCSV and GRSV showed local lesion symptoms, indicating resistance and absence of systemic infection. The prior infection of the resistant plants with ToCV did not alter the expression of the Sw-5 gene. It is believed that this absence of resistance breakdown is possibly associated with the Tomato variety and the viral species that were used. The identification of alternative hosts of ToCV and undertanding the interaction of the viruses in cases of mixed infection are essential information to enable the success of any virus control strategy

  • Tomato chlorosis virus, alternative hosts and interaction with tospovirus in Tomato
    'Biblioteca Central da UNB', 2016
    Co-Authors: Tadeu Araujo De ,souza
    Abstract:

    Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Fitopatologia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fitopatologia, 2016.O tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicum) é um das hortaliças mais cultivadas em todo o mundo, inclusive no Brasil, principalmente pelas suas características nutricionais e pela sua importância sócio econômica. Essa cultura pode ser alvo de uma grande diversidade de pragas, incluindo alguns grupos de vírus. Entre os principais encontram-se as espécies dos gêneros Begomovirus, Tospovirus e Crinivirus. Os crinivírus são vírus emergentes, com duas espécies conhecidas em tomateiro Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) e Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) e que foram identificadas em meados da década de 90, nos Estados Unidos. No Brasil, até o momento, apenas ToCV foi relatado infectando o tomateiro. Geneticamente, o ToCV é composto por duas moléculas de RNA fita simples, encapsidadas em partículas virais longas e flexuosas. A transmissão é feita por três espécies de moscas-brancas: Bemisia tabaci, Trialeurodes vaporariorum e T. abutiloneus. Em tomateiro, o principal sintoma caracteriza-se por manchas cloróticas que desenvolvem uma clorose internerval intensa, visualizada principalmente nas folhas baixeiras. O primeiro relato de ToCV no Brasil ocorreu em 2008 e, desde então, este vírus tem sido encontrado nas principais regiões produtoras de tomate do país, porém ainda é pouco estudado. Devido a essa demanda de pesquisa, o objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar a gama de hospedeiros do ToCV no Brasil. Foram avaliadas 50 espécies dentre elas, plantas cultivadas e não cultivadas, inoculadas com ToCV pelo inseto vetor (B. tabaci biótipo B). Do total de plantas avaliadas, nove espécies foram suscetíveis ao isolado testado de ToCV, indicando a potencial capacidade dessas plantas de atuarem como hospedeiras alternativas de ToCV em campo. Concluiu-se então que é necessária maior preocupação com as plantas Amaranthus hibridus, Solanum americanum, Nicandra physaloides e Physalis angulata, pois além de suscetíveis a ToCV, são plantas altamente infestantes em lavouras de tomate e potenciais hospedeiras alternativas do vírus na ausência ou na presença da cultura. Na ausência de tomateiro nas áreas de produção, o virus pode permanecer nas hospedeiras alternativas e, na presença de tomateiro, tais hospedeiras são potencias fontes de inóculo de ToCV. O sinergismo entre ToCV e o tospovírus Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) foi recentemente relatado na Espanha. Nessa interação, há aparentemente um favorecimento da infecção de TSWV em plantas resistentes (com gene Sw-5), quando previamente infectadas por ToCV. Por se tratar de um relato preocupante, parte desse trabalho foi então desenvolvido para avaliar esse sinergismo entre ToCV e tospovírus em tomateiro. Foram selecionadas as cultivares resistentes a tospovírus, Predador e Viradoro, e a cultivar suscetível Dominador, utilizada como controle nos ensaios. As cultivares de tomateiro resistentes foram previamente infectadas por ToCV pelo inseto vetor e, posteriormente, inoculadas com os tospovírus Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) e Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). Após a inoculação, as plantas resistentes não foram infectadas pelos tospovírus, avaliadas visualmente e por teste sorológico (Dot-Elisa). Adicionalmente, foi utilizado outro modelo biológico com Nicotiana benthamina não transgênica e transgênica, transformada constitutivamente com o gene Sw-5. As plantas transgênicas resistentes previamente infectadas por ToCV e posteriomente inoculadas com os tospovírus apresentaram sintoma de lesão local, indicando resistência e ausência de infecção sistêmica. A infecção prévia de ToCV não alterou a expressão do gene Sw-5, responsável por conferir resistência a tospovírus em plantas de tomate e N. benthamiana. Estudos para identificar hospedeiras alternativas de ToCV e compreender o comportamento dos vírus em casos de infecção mista constituem ações indispensáveis para o sucesso de qualquer estratégia de controle.The Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most cultivated vegetables around the world, including Brazil, mainly by their nutritional characteristics and socio-economic importance. This crop is affected by a large variety of pests and pathogens, including some viruses. The major species are found within the genus Begomovirus, Tospovirus and Crinivirus. The criniviruses are emerging viruses, with two known species in Tomato Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV). They were identified in the mid 90s, in the United States. In Brazil, only ToCV was reported in Tomatoes. Genetically, ToCV consists of two single-stranded RNA molecules, encapsidated in long and flexuous viral particles. They are transmitted by three whitefly species: Bemisia tabaci, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and T. abutiloneus. In Tomato, the main symptoms are characterized by chlorotic spots, which evolve to strong internerval chlorosis, mainly visualized in the lower leaves. The first report of ToCV in Brazil was made in 2006 and since then the virus has been found in the main producing regions of Tomato of the country. However, it has been poorly studied. Due to this demand, the aim of this study was to determine the host range of ToCV in Brazil. A total of 50 species of cultivated and non-cultivated plants was tested in inoculation with ToCV by the insect vector (B. tabaci biotype B). Nine species were shown to be susceptible to ToCV infection, indicating the potential ability of these plants to act as alternative hosts of ToCV in the field. Therefore, it was concluded that the growers are concerned with the following plants: Amaranthus hibridus, Solanum americanum, Nicandra physaloides and Physalis angulata. They were all susceptible to ToCV, and are frequently found in Tomato crops. They are potential virus alternative hosts in the absence of Tomato plants, and when Tomatoes are present, they can act as inoculum source of ToCV to these plants. The possible synergism between ToCV and the tospovirus Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was recently reported. In this interaction, apparently a ToCV infection foster TSWV infection in TSWV-resistant plants (contatining the Sw-5 gene). The interaction between two or more viruses can result in unexpected pathological consequences and because of this possible impact in the Brazilian Tomato production, we evaluated this synergism between ToCV and tospovirus in Tomatoes in the Brazilian conditions. The tospovirus-resistant cultivars Predador and Viradoro were selected, and the susceptible cultivar Dominador was used as control in the assays. Resistant Tomato cultivars were previously infected with ToCV by the insect-vector and then inoculated with tospoviruses Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). After inoculation, the resistant plants were not infected, confirmed by visual inspection and a sorologic test (Dot-Elisa). In addition, a similas test was performed using transgenic and non-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants, which are constitutively transformed with the gene Sw-5. The resistant transgenic plants previously infected with ToCV and subsequently inoculated with TCSV and GRSV showed local lesion symptoms, indicating resistance and absence of systemic infection. The prior infection of the resistant plants with ToCV did not alter the expression of the Sw-5 gene. It is believed that this absence of resistance breakdown is possibly associated with the Tomato variety and the viral species that were used. The identification of alternative hosts of ToCV and undertanding the interaction of the viruses in cases of mixed infection are essential information to enable the success of any virus control strategy

Nikolaos I. Katis - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • first report of pepino mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cherry Tomatoes in greece
    Plant Disease, 2011
    Co-Authors: K Efthimiou, A P Gatsios, K C Aretakis, L C Papayiannis, Nikolaos I. Katis
    Abstract:

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) (genus Potexvirus, family Flexiviridae) is a mechanically transmitted virus that has emerged as a significant problem of greenhouse Tomato crops in Europe and around the world during the past 10 years (1). In spring of 2010, mosaic symptoms were observed on leaves of cherry Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) greenhouse crops (hybrids Shiren, Tomito, and Rubino top) in the areas of Drymos and Vonitsa, located at Aitoloakarnania Prefecture, in Greece. A total of 63 Tomato samples (55 from symptomatic and 8 from asymptomatic plants) were collected from 11 greenhouses where disease incidence ranged from 10 to 20%. All samples were tested by double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA using polyclonal antibodies from BIOREBA, AG (Reinach, Switzerland) for the presence of PepMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). Leaf tissue from PepMV-, CMV-, and ToMV-infected samples and virus-free Tomato plants were included in all tests as positive and negative c...

Francia E. - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Biostimulants and cherry rootstock increased Tomato fruit yield and quality in sustainable farming systems
    2020
    Co-Authors: Caradonia F., Ronga D., Fiore A., Barbieri R., Moulin Lionel, Francia E.
    Abstract:

    Nowadays one of the main challenges in agriculture is to increase crop yield and quality in a sustainable way. Organic farming system (OFS) is considered more eco-friendly than the conventional farming system (CFS). However, cash crops showed a reduced yield when cultivated in OFS, and among them processing Tomato reported the highest yield gap between OFS and CFS. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate, both in greenhouse and field experiments, the combined effects of a cherry rootstock, genotype 'Tomito', and the applications of different microbial biostimulants (single species and consortia). The agronomic performance of a commercial processing Tomato genotype, 'H3402', was assessed in order to increase fruit yield and quality in sustainable farming systems. In greenhouse experiment, the use of 'Tomito' as rootstock highlighted both the highest plant height (35 cm) and leaf chlorophyll content (25.20), while plants inoculated with A. brasiliensis showed the highest number of flowers (4.5). In field experiment, the combined use of grafting and microbial biostimulants increased marketable (on average 2.3 kg plant(-1)) and total yields (on average 2.5 kg plant-1) in comparison with the genotype 'H3402'. All the investigated treatments reduced the number of fruits affected by blossom-end rot (on average -4.7 fruits plant-1), and A. brasiliensis also improved the fruit solid soluble content, recording values of 6.23 degrees Brix and 3.54 of Brix t ha(-1)

  • Biostimulants and cherry rootstock increased Tomato fruit yield and quality in sustainable farming systems
    'PAGEPress Publications', 2020
    Co-Authors: Caradonia F., Ronga D., Flore A., Arbieri R., Mouli L., Francia E.
    Abstract:

    Nowadays one of the main challenges in agriculture is to increase crop yield and quality in a sustainable way. Organic farming system (OFS) is considered more eco-friendly than the conventional farming system (CFS). However, cash crops showed a reduced yield when cultivated in OFS, and among them processing Tomato reported the highest yield gap between OFS and CFS. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate, both in greenhouse and field experiments, the combined effects of a cherry rootstock, genotype ‘Tomito’, and the applications of different microbial biostimulants (single species and consortia). The agronomic performance of a commercial processing Tomato genotype, ‘H3402’, was assessed in order to increase fruit yield and quality in sustainable farming systems. In greenhouse experiment, the use of ‘Tomito’ as rootstock highlighted both the highest plant height (35 e cm) and leaf chlorophyll content (25.20), while plants inoculated with A. brasiliensis showed the highest number of flowers (4.5). In field experiment, the combined use of grafting and microbial biostimulants increased marketable (on average 2.3 kg plant–1) and total yields (on average 2.5 kg plant–1) in comparison with the genotype ‘H3402’. All the investigated treatments reduced the number of fruits affected by blossom-end rot (on average-4.7 fruits plant–1), and A. brasiliensis also improved the fruit solid soluble content, recording values of 6.23 °Brix and 3.54 of Brix t ha–1

S A Gamiel - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • first record of the Tomato leafminer tuta absoluta meyrick lepidoptera gelechiidae in sudan
    Eppo Bulletin, 2012
    Co-Authors: E S I Mohamed, M E Mohamed, S A Gamiel
    Abstract:

    An outbreak of larvae and adults of a devastating moth was noted to be causing severe damage in Tomato grown in greenhouses at Khartoum State, Sudan during June 2010. Symptoms included foliage mining and leaves drying. Photographs of symptoms and larvae and adults of the pest (and subsequently specimens) were sent to Russell IPM, UK and the Finnish Museum of Natural History for identification. The pest was identified as Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). This is the first official record of T. absoluta in Sudan, based on surveys in Tomato production areas in Khartoum, Gezira, Red Sea and North Kordofan States and eggplant and potato in Khartoum State. Severe yield loss due to the serious feeding damage on foliage and fruits infestation was reported on Tomato and eggplant fields at Khartoum State. Premier signalement de la mineuse de la tomate, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) au Soudan Il a ete note qu'un foyer de larves et d'adultes d'un papillon devastateur causait d'importants degâts dans des cultures de tomate sous serres dans l'Etat de Khartoum au Soudan au cours du mois de juin 2010. Les symptomes comprenaient des mines dans les feuilles et un dessechement des feuilles. Des photographies de symptomes, des adultes et des larves de l'insecte (et plus tard des specimens) ont ete envoyees a Russell IPM, Royaume-Uni et au Musee finlandais d'Histoire Naturelle pour identification. Le ravageur a ete identifie comme etant Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Ceci est le premier signalement officiel de T. absoluta au Soudan, sur la base de prospections dans les zones de production de tomate dans les Etats de Khartoum, Al Djazirah, mer Rouge, et Kordofan du Nord et sur aubergine et pomme de terre dans l'Etat de Khartoum. D'importantes pertes de rendement causees par des degâts severes sur le feuillage et des infestations des fruits ont ete signalees dans des champs de tomates et d'aubergines de l'Etat de Khartoum.

Brahim Chermiti - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the Tomato leafminer tuta absoluta meyrick in tunisia current status and management strategies
    Eppo Bulletin, 2012
    Co-Authors: Khaled Abbes, Ahlem Harbi, Brahim Chermiti
    Abstract:

    The Tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) was first identified in the region of Akkouda in October 2008 before it spread to all Tomato-producing areas in Tunisia. The introduction of this pest disturbed existing pest control programmes in greenhouses and open fields, forcing Tunisian growers to use more chemicals to reduce its impact on their crops. A national programme was adopted to control T. absoluta, including cultural practices, the use of pheromones, the installation of insect-proof screens in greenhouses, and the use of organic insecticides including Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki (Bt) and plant extract-based products. In addition, a few experiments in biological control, using the predatory Mirid Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter (Heteroptera: Miridae) and the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), were conducted in greenhouses and open-field crops (producing Tomatoes for fresh consumption as well as for processing). This paper describes the status of T. absoluta in Tunisia, including data collected from sex pheromone traps installed in six Tomato-producing areas (Takelssa, Korba, Teboulba, Bekalta, Sousse and Kairouan) between 2009 and 2011, and control strategies in greenhouses and open fields. La mineuse de la tomate Tuta absoluta Meyrick en Tunisie: situation actuelle et strategies de lutte La mineuse de la tomate Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) a ete identifiee pour la premiere fois dans la region d'Akkouda en octobre 2008 avant qu'elle ne se dissemine a toutes les zones de production de tomates en Tunisie. L'introduction de ce ravageur a perturbee les programme de lutte existants sous serres et en plein champ, ce qui a force les agriculteurs tunisiens a utiliser plus de produits chimiques pour reduite son impact sur leur cultures. Un programme national a ete adopte pour lutter contre T. absoluta et comprend la lutte culturale, l'utilisation de pheromones, l'installation de filets insect-proof dans les serres, l'utilisation d'insecticides biologiques comme Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki (Bt) et des produits bases sur des extraits vegetaux. En outre, plusieurs experimentations de lutte biologique utilisant la punaise predatrice Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter (Heteropteta: Miridae) et la guepe parasitoide Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) ont ete menees sous serres et en plein champ (produisant a la fois des tomates pour la consommation en frais ou pour la transformation). Cet article decrit la situation de T. absoluta en Tunisie et comprend des donnees collectees a partir de pieges a pheromone installes dans six regions productrices de tomate (Takelssa, Korba, Teboulba, Bekalta, Sousse et Kairouan) entre 2009 et 2011, et les strategies de lutte sous serres et en plein champ.