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Vagina

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Vagina - Free Register to Access Experts & Abstracts

Richard A Cone - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • nanoparticle based drug delivery to the Vagina a review
    Journal of Controlled Release, 2014
    Co-Authors: Laura M Ensign, Richard A Cone, Justin Hanes
    Abstract:

    Vaginal drug administration can improve prophylaxis and treatment of many conditions affecting the female reproductive tract, including sexually transmitted diseases, fungal and bacterial infections, and cancer. However, achieving sustained local drug concentrations in the Vagina can be challenging, due to the high permeability of the Vaginal epithelium and expulsion of conventional soluble drug dosage forms. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery platforms have received considerable attention for Vaginal drug delivery, as nanoparticles can provide sustained release, cellular targeting, and even intrinsic antimicrobial or adjuvant properties that can improve the potency and/or efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic modalities. Here, we review the use of polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, and inorganic nanoparticles for Vaginal drug delivery. Although most of the work toward nanoparticle-based drug delivery in the Vagina has been focused on HIV prevention, strategies for treatment and prevention of other sexually transmitted infections, treatment for reproductive tract cancer, and treatment of fungal and bacterial infections are also highlighted.

  • acid production by Vaginal flora in vitro is consistent with the rate and extent of Vaginal acidification
    Infection and Immunity, 1999
    Co-Authors: Elizabeth R Boskey, K M Telsch, Thomas R Moench, Kevin J. Whaley, Richard A Cone
    Abstract:

    Perinatally, and between menarche and menopause, increased levels of estrogen cause large amounts of glycogen to be deposited in the Vaginal epithelium. During these times, the anaerobic metabolism of the glycogen, by the epithelial cells themselves and/or by Vaginal flora, causes the Vagina to become acidic (pH ∼4). This study was designed to test whether the characteristics of acid production by Vaginal flora in vitro can account for Vaginal acidity. Eight Vaginal Lactobacillus isolates from four species— L. gasseri , L. Vaginalis , L. crispatus , and L. jensenii —acidified their growth medium to an asymptotic pH (3.2 to 4.8) that matches the range seen in the Lactobacillus -dominated human Vagina (pH 3.6 to 4.5 in most women) (B. Andersch, L. Forssman, K. Lincoln, and P. Torstensson, Gynecol. Obstet. Investig. 21:19–25, 1986; L. Cohen, Br. J. Vener. Dis. 45:241–246, 1969; J. Paavonen, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Suppl. 40:31–35, 1983; C. Tevi-Benissan, L. Belec, M. Levy, V. Schneider-Fauveau, A. Si Mohamed, M.-C. Hallouin, M. Matta, and G. Gresenguet, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 4:367–374, 1997). During exponential growth, all of these Lactobacillus species acidified their growth medium at rates on the order of 10 6 protons/bacterium/s. Such rates, combined with an estimate of the total number of lactobacilli in the Vagina, suggest that Vaginal lactobacilli could reacidify the Vagina at the rate observed postcoitally following neutralization by the male ejaculate (W. H. Masters and V. E. Johnson, Human sexual response, p. 93, 1966). During bacterial vaginosis (BV), there is a loss of Vaginal acidity, and the Vaginal pH rises to >4.5. This correlates with a loss of lactobacilli and an overgrowth of diverse bacteria. Three BV-associated bacteria, Gardnerella Vaginalis , Prevotella bivia , and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius , acidified their growth medium to an asymptotic pH (4.7 to 6.0) consistent with the characteristic elevated Vaginal pH associated with BV. Together, these observations are consistent with Vaginal flora, rather than epithelial cells, playing a primary role in creating the acidity of the Vagina.

E O Udosen - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Recto‐Vaginal fistula following coitus: an aftermath of Vaginal douching with aluminium potassium sulphate dodecahydrate (potassium alum)
    International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 1999
    Co-Authors: Edem J Udoma, M S Umoh, E O Udosen
    Abstract:

    This report delineates an incident of coital injury following douching of Vagina with aluminum potassium sulfate dodecahydrate (potassium alum) which is believed to promote greater sexual stimulation of the husband during sexual intercourse. A 28-year-old woman was admitted to the gynecological ward complaining of Vaginal pain bleeding and passage of fecal matter through the Vagina after douching it with potassium alum prior to coitus. Vaginal examination showed a lot of fecal matter with a septic edematous wound 2.5 cm at the fourchette a fistula about 5 cm in length. Treatment included daily perineal toileting a low residue diet antibiotics and advice against Vaginal douching with potassium alum.

  • recto Vaginal fistula following coitus an aftermath of Vaginal douching with aluminium potassium sulphate dodecahydrate potassium alum
    International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 1999
    Co-Authors: Edem J Udoma, M S Umoh, E O Udosen
    Abstract:

    This report delineates an incident of coital injury following douching of Vagina with aluminum potassium sulfate dodecahydrate (potassium alum) which is believed to promote greater sexual stimulation of the husband during sexual intercourse. A 28-year-old woman was admitted to the gynecological ward complaining of Vaginal pain bleeding and passage of fecal matter through the Vagina after douching it with potassium alum prior to coitus. Vaginal examination showed a lot of fecal matter with a septic edematous wound 2.5 cm at the fourchette a fistula about 5 cm in length. Treatment included daily perineal toileting a low residue diet antibiotics and advice against Vaginal douching with potassium alum.

Fakhrul Ahsan - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the Vagina as a route for systemic drug delivery
    Journal of Controlled Release, 2005
    Co-Authors: Abid Hussain, Fakhrul Ahsan
    Abstract:

    Exhaustive efforts have been made toward the administration of drugs, via alternative routes, that are poorly absorbed after the oral administration. The Vagina as a route of drug delivery has been known since ancient times. In recent years, the Vaginal route has been rediscovered as a potential route for systemic delivery of peptides and other therapeutically important macromolecules. However, successful delivery of drugs through the Vagina remains a challenge, primarily due to the poor absorption across the Vaginal epithelium. The rate and extent of drug absorption after intraVaginal administration may vary depending on formulation factors, Vaginal physiology, age of the patient and menstrual cycle. Suppositories, creams, gels, tablets and Vaginal rings are commonly used Vaginal drug delivery systems. The purpose of this communication is to provide the reader with a summary of advances made in the field of Vaginal drug delivery. This report, therefore, summarizes various Vaginal drug delivery systems with an introduction to Vaginal physiology and factors affecting drug absorption from the Vaginal route.

Margit Hornof - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • IntraVaginal drug delivery systems
    American Journal of Drug Delivery, 2003
    Co-Authors: Andreas Bernkop-schnürch, Margit Hornof
    Abstract:

    Within recent years the level of interest in both local and systemic Vaginal drug delivery systems has increased considerably. The Vagina offers numerous advantages as a site for drug delivery, such as convenient access, prolonged retention of formulations, a great permeation area, high vascularization, relatively low enzymatic activity, and the avoidance of first-pass metabolism. The development of novel products for female health, comprising therapeutic substances such as peptides, proteins, antigens, or antisense oligonucleotides, necessitates the design of high performance intraVaginal drug delivery systems. In the case of local treatment, it is challenging to design delivery systems providing high drug concentrations in the Vagina for a prolonged period of time, while in the case of systemic treatment, the major challenge is to gain high drug bioavailabilities. On the basis of knowledge of the relevant anatomical and physiologic features of the Vagina, and on the fate of Vaginal drug delivery systems after application, various auxiliary agents have been developed for Vaginal use. They include permeation enhancers, such as bile salts, benzalkonium chloride, or palmitoylcarnitine chloride, solubility-enhancing agents, such as cyclodextrins, and enzyme inhibitors such as glycocholate, aprotinin or edetic acid (EDTA). Furthermore, multifunctional polymers exhibiting bioadhesive and/or in situ gelling properties, such as thiolated polyacrylates and poloxamer, represent useful tools for the design of Vaginal drug delivery systems. Dosage forms comprising such auxiliary agents include Vaginal tablets, inserts, microparticles, Vaginal rings, suppositories/pessaries, hydrogels, creams, and liquid formulations. Vaginal administration of drugs, which are specifically used for the treatment of osteoporosis, hormone replacement therapy, contraception, infections, infertility, and other female-related conditions, is a feasible alternative to oral or parenteral administration.

Justin Hanes - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • nanoparticle based drug delivery to the Vagina a review
    Journal of Controlled Release, 2014
    Co-Authors: Laura M Ensign, Richard A Cone, Justin Hanes
    Abstract:

    Vaginal drug administration can improve prophylaxis and treatment of many conditions affecting the female reproductive tract, including sexually transmitted diseases, fungal and bacterial infections, and cancer. However, achieving sustained local drug concentrations in the Vagina can be challenging, due to the high permeability of the Vaginal epithelium and expulsion of conventional soluble drug dosage forms. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery platforms have received considerable attention for Vaginal drug delivery, as nanoparticles can provide sustained release, cellular targeting, and even intrinsic antimicrobial or adjuvant properties that can improve the potency and/or efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic modalities. Here, we review the use of polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, and inorganic nanoparticles for Vaginal drug delivery. Although most of the work toward nanoparticle-based drug delivery in the Vagina has been focused on HIV prevention, strategies for treatment and prevention of other sexually transmitted infections, treatment for reproductive tract cancer, and treatment of fungal and bacterial infections are also highlighted.