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11beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase

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Alex Odermatt – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • 11beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1 inhibiting constituents from eriobotrya japonica revealed by bioactivity guided isolation and computational approaches
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2010
    Co-Authors: Judith M Rollinger, Daniela Schuster, Gerhard Wolber, Denise V Kratschmar, Petra H Pfisterer, Christel Gumy, Evelyne M Aubry, Sarah Brandstotter, Hermann Stuppner, Alex Odermatt

    Abstract:

    The inhibition of 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1 (11beta-HSD1), which catalyzes the conversion of inactive 11-ketoglucocorticoids to active 11beta-hydroxyglucocorticoids, emerged as promising strategy to treat symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study the leaves of the anti-diabetic medicinal plant loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) were phytochemically investigated following hints from a pharmacophore-based virtual screening and a bioactivity-guided approach. Determination of the 11beta-HSD1 and 11beta-HSD2 inhibitory activities in cell lysates revealed triterpenes from the ursane type as selective, low micro-molar inhibitors of 11beta-HSD1, that is, corosolic acid (1), 3-epicorosolic acid methyl ester (4), 2-alpha hydroxy-3-oxo urs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), tormentic acid methyl ester (8), and ursolic acid (9). Importantly, a mixture of loquat constituents with moderate activities displayed a pronounced additive effect. By means of molecular modeling studies and the identification of the 11beta-HSD1-inhibiting 11-keto-ursolic acid (17) and 3-acetyl-11-keto-ursolic acid (18) a structure-activity relationship was deduced for this group of pentacyclic triterpenes. The mechanism of action elucidated in the present work together with the previously determined pharmacological activities provides these natural products with an astonishing multi-targeted anti-diabetic profile.

  • The glucocorticoid-activating enzyme 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 has broad substrate specificity: Physiological and toxicological considerations.
    The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Alex Odermatt, Lyubomir G Nashev

    Abstract:

    The primary function of 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) is to catalyze the conversion of inactive to active glucocorticoid hormones and to modulate local glucocorticoid-dependent gene expression. Thereby 11beta-HSD1 plays a key role in the regulation of metabolic functions and in the adaptation of the organism to energy requiring situations. Importantly, elevated 11beta-HSD1 activity has been associated with metabolic disorders, and recent investigations with rodent models of obesity and type 2 diabetes provided evidence for beneficial effects of 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors, making this enzyme a promising therapeutic target. Several earlier and recent studies, mainly performed in vitro, revealed a relatively broad substrate spectrum of 11beta-HSD1 and suggested that this enzyme has additional functions in the metabolism of some neurosteroids (7-oxy- and 11-oxyandrogens and -progestins) and 7-oxysterols, as well as in the detoxification of various xenobiotics that contain reactive carbonyl groups. While there are many studies on the effect of inhibitors on cortisone reduction and circulating glucocorticoid levels and on the transcriptional regulation of 11beta-HSD1 in obesity and diabetes, only few address the so-called alternative functions of this enzyme. We review recent progress on the biochemical characterization of 11beta-HSD1, with a focus on cofactor and substrate specificity and on possible alternative functions of this enzyme.

  • Diazepane-acetamide derivatives as selective 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors.
    Expert opinion on therapeutic patents, 2009
    Co-Authors: Alex Odermatt

    Abstract:

    WO2008052638 describes the identification and synthesis of diazepane- acetamide derivatives as a novel class of selective small molecule inhibitors of 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. The generic structure of the disclosed diazepane-acetamide derivatives offers considerable possibilities for modifications that allow optimizing compound properties. Further studies to assess target selectivity, species-specificity, modulation of tissue-specific functions of 11beta-HSD1 as well as interference with alternative functions of this enzyme are needed to explore the therapeutic potential of these chemicals.

Paul M. Stewart – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • a novel selective 11beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor prevents human adipogenesis
    Journal of Endocrinology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Iwona J. Bujalska, Laura Gathercole, Jeremy W. Tomlinson, C Darimont, J Ermolieff, Andrea Fanjul, Pa Rejto, Paul M. Stewart

    Abstract:

    Glucocorticoid excess increases fat mass, preferentially within omental depots; yet circulating cortisol concentrations are normal in most patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). At a pre-receptor level, 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) activates cortisol from cortisone locally within adipose tissue, and inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 in liver and adipose tissue has been proposed as a novel therapy to treat MS by reducing hepatic glucose output and adiposity. Using a transformed human subcutaneous preadipocyte cell line (Chub-S7) and human primary preadipocytes, we have defined the role of glucocorticoids and 11beta-HSD1 in regulating adipose tissue differentiation. Human cells were differentiated with 1.0 microM cortisol (F), or cortisone (E) with or without 100 nM of a highly selective 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor PF-877423. 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression increased across adipocyte differentiation (P<0.001, n=4), which was paralleled by an increase in 11beta-HSD1 oxo-reductase activity (from nil on day 0 to 5.9+/-1.9 pmol/mg per h on day 16, P<0.01, n=7). Cortisone enhanced adipocyte differentiation; fatty acid-binding protein 4 expression increased 312-fold (P<0.001) and glycerol-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase 47-fold (P<0.001) versus controls. This was abolished by co-incubation with PF-877423. In addition, cellular lipid content decreased significantly. These findings were confirmed in the primary cultures of human subcutaneous preadipocytes. The increase in 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression and activity is essential for the induction of human adipogenesis. Blocking adipogenesis with a novel and specific 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor may represent a novel approach to treat obesity in patients with MS.

  • A novel selective 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor prevents human adipogenesis.
    The Journal of endocrinology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Iwona J. Bujalska, Laura Gathercole, Jeremy W. Tomlinson, C Darimont, J Ermolieff, Andrea Fanjul, Pa Rejto, Paul M. Stewart

    Abstract:

    Glucocorticoid excess increases fat mass, preferentially within omental depots; yet circulating cortisol concentrations are normal in most patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). At a pre-receptor level, 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) activates cortisol from cortisone locally within adipose tissue, and inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 in liver and adipose tissue has been proposed as a novel therapy to treat MS by reducing hepatic glucose output and adiposity. Using a transformed human subcutaneous preadipocyte cell line (Chub-S7) and human primary preadipocytes, we have defined the role of glucocorticoids and 11beta-HSD1 in regulating adipose tissue differentiation. Human cells were differentiated with 1.0 microM cortisol (F), or cortisone (E) with or without 100 nM of a highly selective 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor PF-877423. 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression increased across adipocyte differentiation (P

  • mechanisms of disease selective inhibition of 11beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 as a novel treatment for the metabolic syndrome
    Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2005
    Co-Authors: Jeremy W. Tomlinson, Paul M. Stewart

    Abstract:

    The magnitude of the obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemic has heightened the need for the development of new and effective treatments. Although circulating cortisol concentrations are not elevated in obesity or in the metabolic syndrome, decreasing the tissue-specific generation of cortisol through inhibition of 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) has been postulated as a therapeutic strategy. Observations in cohorts of obese patients, in comparison with those with type 2 diabetes, have suggested that the ability to decrease tissue-specific cortisol production might represent a protective mechanism to improve insulin sensitivity and prevent diabetes. In rodents, pharmacologic exploitation of this mechanism, through the development of inhibitors selective for 11beta-HSD1 (in preference to the type 2 isoform), dramatically improves insulin sensitivity. Here we review the published data and the rationale for treatment in humans, as well as discussing potential problems and adverse effects of future selective 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors.

Jonathan R Seckl – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The role and regulation of 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 in the inflammatory response.
    Molecular and cellular endocrinology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Karen E Chapman, James S Gilmour, Agnes E Coutinho, John S Savill, Mohini Gray, Jonathan R Seckl

    Abstract:

    Cortisone, a glucocorticoid hormone, was first used to treat rheumatoid arthritis in humans in the late 1940s, for which Hench, Reichstein and Kendall were awarded a Nobel Prize in 1950 and which led to the discovery of the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. To be effective, the intrinsically inert cortisone must be converted to the active glucocorticoid, cortisol, by the intracellular action of 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1). Whilst orally administered cortisone is rapidly converted to the active hormone, cortisol, by first pass metabolism in the liver, recent work has highlighted an anti-inflammatory role for 11beta-HSD1 within specific tissues, including in leukocytes. Here, we review recent evidence pertaining to the anti-inflammatory role of 11beta-HSD1 and describe how inhibition of 11beta-HSD1, as widely proposed for treatment of metabolic disease, may impact upon inflammation. Finally, the mechanisms that regulate 11beta-HSD1 transcription will be discussed.

  • Inhibition of 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 as a promising therapeutic target.
    Drug discovery today, 2007
    Co-Authors: Malgorzata Wamil, Jonathan R Seckl

    Abstract:

    Chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels cause obesity, diabetes, heart disease, mood disorders and memory impairments. 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) catalyses intracellular regeneration of active glucocorticoids (cortisol, corticosterone) from inert 11-keto forms in liver, adipose and brain, amplifying local action. Obese humans and rodents show increased 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue. Transgenic mice overexpressing 11beta-HSD1 selectively in adipose tissue faithfully recapitulate metabolic syndrome. Conversely, 11beta-HSD1 knockout mice have a ‘cardioprotective’ phenotype, whose effects are also seen with 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors in rodents. However, any major metabolic effects of 11beta-HSD1 inhibition in humans are, as yet, unreported. 11beta-HSD1 null mice also resist cognitive decline with ageing, and this is seen in humans with a prototypic inhibitor. Thus 11beta-HSD1 inhibition is an emerging pleiotropic therapeutic target.

  • 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1–a role in inflammation?
    Molecular and cellular endocrinology, 2006
    Co-Authors: Karen E Chapman, James S Gilmour, Agnes E Coutinho, John S Savill, Jonathan R Seckl

    Abstract:

    Glucocorticoids are widely used for their potent anti-inflammatory effects. Endogenous glucocorticoids are immunomodulatory and shape both adaptive and innate immune responses. Over the past decade, it has become apparent that an important level of control over endogenous glucocorticoid action is exerted by the 11betaHydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase enzymes. The type 1 enzyme, 11beta-HSD1, reduces inert glucocorticoids into active forms, thereby increasing intracellular ligand availability to receptors. Although 11beta-HSD1 activity has been shown to play an important role in the metabolic actions of glucocorticoids, its role in the immune response has, until recently, remained unclear. Here we review recent evidence pertaining to the role of 11beta-HSD1 in the inflammatory response.