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2009 H1N1 Influenza

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Paul Robert Ingram – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in severe 2009 H1N1 Influenza infection
    Intensive Care Medicine, 2010
    Co-Authors: Paul Robert Ingram, Tim Inglis, David Moxon, David Speers
    Abstract:

    Purpose To examine whether, in an adult intensive care unit (ICU), procalcitonin or C-reactive protein (CRP) levels discriminated between 2009 H1N1 Influenza infection and community-acquired pneumonia of bacterial origin. Methods A retrospective observational study performed at an Australian hospital over a 4-month winter period during the 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic. Levels on admission of procalcitonin and CRP were compared between patients admitted to the ICU with community-acquired pneumonia of bacterial and 2009 H1N1 origin. Results Compared to those with bacterial or mixed infection ( n  = 9), patients with 2009 H1N1 infection ( n  = 16) were significantly more likely to have bilateral chest X-ray infiltrates, lower APACHE scores, more prolonged lengths of stay in ICU and lower white cell count, procalcitonin and CRP levels. Using a cutoff of >0.8 ng/ml, the sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin for detection of patients with bacterial/mixed infection were 100 and 62%, respectively. A CRP cutoff of >200 mg/l best identified patients with bacterial/mixed infection (sensitivity 100%, specificity 87.5%). In combination, procalcitonin levels >0.8 ng/ml and CRP >200 mg/l had optimal sensitivity (100%), specificity (94%), negative predictive value (100%) and positive predictive value (90%). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis suggested the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin may be inferior to CRP in this setting. Conclusions Procalcitonin measurement potentially assists in the discrimination between severe lower respiratory tract infections of bacterial and 2009 H1N1 origin, although less effectively than CRP. Low values, particularly when combined with low CRP levels, suggested bacterial infection, alone or in combination with Influenza, was unlikely.

  • procalcitonin and c reactive protein in severe 2009 H1N1 Influenza infection
    Intensive Care Medicine, 2010
    Co-Authors: Paul Robert Ingram, David Moxon, Timothy J J Inglis, David J Speers
    Abstract:

    Purpose To examine whether, in an adult intensive care unit (ICU), procalcitonin or C-reactive protein (CRP) levels discriminated between 2009 H1N1 Influenza infection and community-acquired pneumonia of bacterial origin.

Janice K. Louie – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Infants hospitalized in intensive care units with 2009 H1N1 Influenza infection, California, 2009-2010.
    The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 2012
    Co-Authors: Cynthia Yen, Janice K. Louie, Robert Schechter
    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND The 2009 H1N1 Influenza virus emerged in April 2009 and primarily affected children and young adults. Few reports describe 2009 H1N1 Influenza infection in infants. This report describes the clinical and epidemiologic features of 2009 H1N1 Influenza in critically ill infants younger than 1 year of age. METHODS Laboratory-confirmed cases were reported to the California Department of Public Health as part of public health surveillance for 2009 H1N1 Influenza. Data were collected using standardized report forms and medical-chart abstractions. RESULTS From April 23, 2009 through May 1, 2010, 82 cases of infants hospitalized in the intensive care unit with 2009 H1N1 Influenza were reported in California. Medical charts were available for 77 of the infants, whose median age was 109 days (range: 1-361 days). Twenty-seven (35%) infants had a gestational age of 36 weeks or less. More than half (46; 60%) of the infants had at least 1 reported chronic medical condition. Thirty-five (45%) infants required mechanical ventilation; 7 (9%) died. Five infants were hospitalized since birth and acquired Influenza infection during their admission; 2 (40%) of these infants died. CONCLUSIONS Infants who are premature or with chronic conditions seem to be at increased risk for developing severe 2009 H1N1 Influenza infection. We encourage clinicians to maintain high suspicion for Influenza in infants when Influenza viruses are circulating. Vaccination should be encouraged among contacts of infants

  • Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection Concurrent with 2009 H1N1 Influenza
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 2010
    Co-Authors: Cynthia Jean, Janice K. Louie, Carol A. Glaser, Kathleen Harriman, Jill K. Hacker, Faisal Aranki, Elizabeth Bancroft, Susan Farley, Michele Ginsberg, Lisa B. Hernandez
    Abstract:

    We describe 10 patients with 2009 H1N1 Influenza and concurrent invasive group A streptococcal infection with marked associated morbidity and mortality. Seven patients required intensive care, 8 required mechanical ventilation, and 7 died. Five of the patients, including 4 of the fatalities, were previously healthy.

  • Severe 2009 H1N1 Influenza in Pregnant and Postpartum Women in California
    Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 2010
    Co-Authors: Janice K. Louie, Meileen Acosta, Denise J. Jamieson, Margaret A. Honein
    Abstract:

    ABSTRACTPregnant women with 2009 pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) appear to be at increased risk of severe disease. Over a span of 4 months in 2009, a total of 10% of the 1088 patients identified with 2009 H1N1 Influenza who died or were hospitalized for this infection were pregnant. The frequency of hos

Mini Kamboj – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • 2009 H1N1 Influenza infection in cancer patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients
    Journal of Infection, 2010
    Co-Authors: Gil Redelmansidi, Kent A Sepkowitz, Chiung Kang Huang, Steven Park, Jeffrey Stiles, Janet Eagan, David S. Perlin, Eric G. Pamer, Mini Kamboj
    Abstract:

    Summary Objectives: Although usually mild, 2009 H1N1 Influenza has caused up to 6000 deaths in the US. To determine outcome in patients with cancer and/or hematopoietic stemstem cell transplant (HSCT), we reviewed our recent experience at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC). Methods: During the initial NYC outbreak (May 19eJune 30, 2009), all respiratory samples at MSKCC were tested for 2009 H1N1 Influenza by DFA, culture, and RT-PCR. Medical records were reviewed for all cases. Results: During the 6-week period, 45(11%) of 394 tested patients were diagnosed with 2009 H1N1 Influenza. These included 29(17%) of 167 patients with hematologic conditions compared to 16(7%) of 226 with solid tumors (P < 0.01). 21(22%) of 96 tested HSCTrecipients were positive. Cough (93%) and fever (91%) were common. Of 29 patients who were radiographically assessed, 8(27%) had lower airway disease. 17(37%) were hospitalized. None required mechanical ventilation. No deaths were attributed to Influenza. All treated patients tolerated antiviral medication. Conclusions: 2009 H1N1 Influenza caused mild symptoms in most patients with cancer and/or HSCT. None died or required mechanical ventilation. Immunosuppression from cancer or its

Ted M Ross – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • seroprevalence following the second wave of pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza in pittsburgh pa usa
    PLOS ONE, 2010
    Co-Authors: Shanta M Zimmer, Corey J Crevar, Donald M Carter, James H Stark, Brendan M Giles, Richard K Zimmerman, Stephen M Ostroff, Bruce Y Lee, Donald S Burke, Ted M Ross
    Abstract:

    Background: In April 2009, a new pandemic strain of Influenza infected thousands of persons in Mexico and the United States and spread rapidly worldwide. During the ensuing summer months, cases ebbed in the Northern Hemisphere while the Southern Hemisphere experienced a typical Influenza season dominated by the novel strain. In the fall, a second wave of pandemic H1N1 swept through the United States, peaking in most parts of the country by mid October and returning to baseline levels by early December. The objective was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against the pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza strain by decade of birth among Pittsburgh-area residents. Methods and Findings: Anonymous blood samples were obtained from clinical laboratories and categorized by decade of birth from 1920-2009. Using hemagglutination-inhibition assays, approximately 100 samples per decade (n = 846) were tested from blood samples drawn on hospital and clinic patients in mid-November and early December 2009. Age specific seroprevalences against pandemic H1N1 (A/California/7/2009) were measured and compared to seroprevalences against H1N1 strains that had previously circulated in the population in 2007, 1957, and 1918. (A/Brisbane/59/2007, A/Denver/1/ 1957, and A/South Carolina/1/1918). Stored serum samples from healthy, young adults from 2008 were used as a control group (n = 100). Seroprevalences against pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza varied by age group, with children age 10-19 years having the highest seroprevalence (45%), and persons age 70-79 years having the lowest (5%). The baseline seroprevalence among control samples from 18-24 year-olds was 6%. Overall seroprevalence against pandemic H1N1 across all age groups was approximately 21%. Conclusions: After the peak of the second wave of 2009 H1N1, HAI seroprevalence results suggest that 21% of persons in the Pittsburgh area had become infected and developed immunity. Extrapolating to the entire US population, we estimate that at least 63 million persons became infected in 2009. As was observed among clinical cases, this sero-epidemiological study revealed highest infection rates among school-age children. © 2010 Zimmer et al.

  • seroprevalence following the second wave of pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza
    PLOS Currents, 2010
    Co-Authors: Ted M Ross, Shanta M Zimmer, Corey J Crevar, Donald M Carter, James H Stark, Brendan M Giles, Richard K Zimmerman, Stephen M Ostroff, Donald S Burke, Bruce Y Lee
    Abstract:

    Background In April 2009, a new pandemic strain of Influenza infected thousands of persons in Mexico and the United States and spread rapidly worldwide. During the ensuing summer months, cases ebbed in the Northern Hemisphere while the Southern Hemisphere experienced a typical Influenza season dominated by the novel strain. In the fall, a second wave of pandemic H1N1 swept through the United States, peaking in most parts of the country by mid October and returning to baseline levels by early December. The objective was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against the pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza strain by decade of birth among Pittsburgh-area residents. Methods and findings Anonymous blood samples were obtained from clinical laboratories and categorized by decade of birth from 1920-2009. Using hemagglutination-inhibition assays, approximately 100 samples per decade (n= 846) were tested from blood samples drawn on hospital and clinic patients in mid-November and early December 2009. Age specific seroprevalences against pandemic H1N1 (A/California/7/2009) were measured and compared to seroprevalences against H1N1 strains that had previously circulated in the population in 2007, 1957, and 1918. (A/Brisbane/59/2007, A/Denver/1/1957, and A/South Carolina/1/1918). Stored serum samples from healthy, young adults from 2008 were used as a control group (n=100). Seroprevalences against pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza varied by age group, with children age 10-19 years having the highest seroprevalence (45%), and persons age 70-79 years having the lowest (5%). The baseline seroprevalence among control samples from 18-24 year-olds was 6%. Overall seroprevalence against pandemic H1N1 across all age groups was approximately 21%. Conclusions After the peak of the second wave of 2009 H1N1, HAI seroprevalence results suggest that 21% of persons in the Pittsburgh area had become infected and developed immunity. Extrapolating to the entire US population, we estimate that at least 63 million persons became infected in 2009. As was observed among clinical cases, this sero-epidemiological study revealed highest infection rates among school-age children.

Bruce Y Lee – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • seroprevalence following the second wave of pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza in pittsburgh pa usa
    PLOS ONE, 2010
    Co-Authors: Shanta M Zimmer, Corey J Crevar, Donald M Carter, James H Stark, Brendan M Giles, Richard K Zimmerman, Stephen M Ostroff, Bruce Y Lee, Donald S Burke, Ted M Ross
    Abstract:

    Background: In April 2009, a new pandemic strain of Influenza infected thousands of persons in Mexico and the United States and spread rapidly worldwide. During the ensuing summer months, cases ebbed in the Northern Hemisphere while the Southern Hemisphere experienced a typical Influenza season dominated by the novel strain. In the fall, a second wave of pandemic H1N1 swept through the United States, peaking in most parts of the country by mid October and returning to baseline levels by early December. The objective was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against the pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza strain by decade of birth among Pittsburgh-area residents. Methods and Findings: Anonymous blood samples were obtained from clinical laboratories and categorized by decade of birth from 1920-2009. Using hemagglutination-inhibition assays, approximately 100 samples per decade (n = 846) were tested from blood samples drawn on hospital and clinic patients in mid-November and early December 2009. Age specific seroprevalences against pandemic H1N1 (A/California/7/2009) were measured and compared to seroprevalences against H1N1 strains that had previously circulated in the population in 2007, 1957, and 1918. (A/Brisbane/59/2007, A/Denver/1/ 1957, and A/South Carolina/1/1918). Stored serum samples from healthy, young adults from 2008 were used as a control group (n = 100). Seroprevalences against pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza varied by age group, with children age 10-19 years having the highest seroprevalence (45%), and persons age 70-79 years having the lowest (5%). The baseline seroprevalence among control samples from 18-24 year-olds was 6%. Overall seroprevalence against pandemic H1N1 across all age groups was approximately 21%. Conclusions: After the peak of the second wave of 2009 H1N1, HAI seroprevalence results suggest that 21% of persons in the Pittsburgh area had become infected and developed immunity. Extrapolating to the entire US population, we estimate that at least 63 million persons became infected in 2009. As was observed among clinical cases, this sero-epidemiological study revealed highest infection rates among school-age children. © 2010 Zimmer et al.

  • seroprevalence following the second wave of pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza
    PLOS Currents, 2010
    Co-Authors: Ted M Ross, Shanta M Zimmer, Corey J Crevar, Donald M Carter, James H Stark, Brendan M Giles, Richard K Zimmerman, Stephen M Ostroff, Donald S Burke, Bruce Y Lee
    Abstract:

    Background In April 2009, a new pandemic strain of Influenza infected thousands of persons in Mexico and the United States and spread rapidly worldwide. During the ensuing summer months, cases ebbed in the Northern Hemisphere while the Southern Hemisphere experienced a typical Influenza season dominated by the novel strain. In the fall, a second wave of pandemic H1N1 swept through the United States, peaking in most parts of the country by mid October and returning to baseline levels by early December. The objective was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against the pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza strain by decade of birth among Pittsburgh-area residents. Methods and findings Anonymous blood samples were obtained from clinical laboratories and categorized by decade of birth from 1920-2009. Using hemagglutination-inhibition assays, approximately 100 samples per decade (n= 846) were tested from blood samples drawn on hospital and clinic patients in mid-November and early December 2009. Age specific seroprevalences against pandemic H1N1 (A/California/7/2009) were measured and compared to seroprevalences against H1N1 strains that had previously circulated in the population in 2007, 1957, and 1918. (A/Brisbane/59/2007, A/Denver/1/1957, and A/South Carolina/1/1918). Stored serum samples from healthy, young adults from 2008 were used as a control group (n=100). Seroprevalences against pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza varied by age group, with children age 10-19 years having the highest seroprevalence (45%), and persons age 70-79 years having the lowest (5%). The baseline seroprevalence among control samples from 18-24 year-olds was 6%. Overall seroprevalence against pandemic H1N1 across all age groups was approximately 21%. Conclusions After the peak of the second wave of 2009 H1N1, HAI seroprevalence results suggest that 21% of persons in the Pittsburgh area had become infected and developed immunity. Extrapolating to the entire US population, we estimate that at least 63 million persons became infected in 2009. As was observed among clinical cases, this sero-epidemiological study revealed highest infection rates among school-age children.