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Joseph B Morton – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
Gigasporaceae versus Glomeraceae (phylum Glomeromycota): A biogeographic tale of dominance in maritime sand dunesFungal Ecology, 2018Co-Authors: Sidney L Sturmer, Laio Z. Oliveira, Joseph B MortonAbstract:
Abstract Community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is influenced by host, soil chemistry, and climatic conditions at the local and regional scale, but little is known about factors shaping community composition on a global scale. In this study, the pattern of dominance by families in Glomeromycota in maritime sand dunes worldwide was examined to test the hypothesis that soil pH is a major factor shaping AMF community structure. We analyzed 38 publications from the literature containing data on soil chemistry and species composition and calculated relative species richness (RSR) for each of the families Gigasporaceae, Glomeraceae, and Acaulosporaceae. Regression and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship and association of RSR of families with soil pH, temperature and precipitation and biogeographical realms. Of the 119 AMF species found in sand dunes, members of Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae dominated in all studies. In Nearctic dunes, Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae co-dominated fungal communities while Gigasporaceae dominated in Neotropical dunes and Glomeraceae dominated Palearctic and Oriental/Sino-Japanese realms. Overall, the proportion of species in Gigasporaceae was above 40% in soil pH 6.5. Soil pH was negatively correlated with RSR of Gigasporaceae but positively correlated with RSR of Glomeraceae. Thirteen species were detected in at least four biogeographical realms and are considered cosmopolitan. Redundancy analysis evidenced soil pH and one Moran’s spatial variable as significant predictors of Glomeromycota family composition. Moran’s I correlograms showed positive spatial autocorrelation only at distances
Taxonomic revision transferring species in Kuklospora to Acaulospora (Glomeromycota) and a description of Acaulospora colliculosa sp. nov. from field collected sporesMycologia, 2010Co-Authors: Wittaya Kaonongbua, Joseph B Morton, James D. BeverAbstract:
In a phylogenetic study of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species in Acaulospora (Acaulosporaceae, Glomeromycota) we discovered that species classified in genus Kuklospora, a supposed sister clade of Acaulospora, did not partition as a monophyletic clade. Species in these two genera can be distinguished only by the position of the spore relative to a precursor structure, the sporiferous saccule, as either within (entrophosporoid) or laterally (acaulosporoid) on the saccule subtending hypha. Subsequent spore differentiation follows identical patterns and organization. Molecular phylogeny reconstructed from nrLSU gene sequences, together with developmental data, support the hypothesis that the entrophosporoid mode of spore formation evolved many times and thus represents a convergent trait of little phylogenetic significance. Therefore genus Kuklospora is rejected as a valid monophyletic group and it is integrated taxonomically into genus Acaulospora. Thus Acaulospora colombiana and Acaulospora kentinensis a…
Patterns of species composition and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in arid regions of southwestern North America and Namibia, AfricaCanadian Journal of Botany, 2000Co-Authors: Jean C Stutz, Ruth Copeman, Chris A Martin, Joseph B MortonAbstract:
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities at 13 sampling sites in two arid regions (Chihuahuan and Sonoran Deserts) and semi-arid grasslands in North America were compared with each other and with AM fungal communities in the Namib Desert in Africa using successive trap cultures to induce sporulation. Twenty-one AM fungal species were recovered, eight of which were undescribed. Species richness at each sampling site ranged from 6 to 12 species. There was considerable overlap in the species composition of the two desert regions surveyed in North America. Glomus microaggregatum Koske, Gemma & Olexia, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd., Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe, Glomus spurcum Pfeiffer, Walker & Bloss, and two undescribed Glomus species (AZ112 and AZ123) were detected in over 50% of the sampling sites in North America. Similarities in species composition of arid regions of Namibia and North America also was high, ranging from 54 to 79%. The taxonomic range of AM fungi was limited mostly to small-spored fungi in Glomaceae and Acaulosporaceae. Acaulospora trappei Ames & Linderman, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus intraradices, Glomus occultum Walker, Glomus microaggregatum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus spurcum, and an undescribed Glomus species (AZ123) were detected in all three desert regions and in semi-arid grasslands. Gigaspora rosea Nicolson & Schenck was the only species in Gigasporaceae detected, and then only at one sampling site in North America. Scutellospora species were not found. These results indicate involvement of both historical processes such as dispersal and selective variables at the local level in determining species composition in arid environments.Key words: biogeography, Chihuahuan Desert, community structure, diversity, Glomales, Namib Desert, species richness, Sonoran Desert.
Christopher Walker – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
Environmental factors driving arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities associated with endemic woody plant Picconiaazorica on native forest of AzoresAnnals of Microbiology, 2020Co-Authors: Catarina Melo, Sara Luna, Claudia Krüger, Christopher Walker, D. Mendonça, Henrique M.a.c. Fonseca, Paulo A. V. Borges, Artur Da Câmara MachadoAbstract:
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play important key roles in the soil ecosystems as they link plants to the root-inaccessible part of soil. The aims of this study were to investigate which environmental factors influence the spatial and temporal structuring of AMF communities associated to Picconia azorica in two Azorean islands (Terceira and Sao Miguel islands), and investigate the seasonal variation in AMF communities between the two islands. Communities of AMF associated with P. azorica in native forest of two Azorean islands (Terceira and Sao Miguel) were characterised by spore morphology or molecular analysis. Forty-five AMF spore morphotypes were detected from the four fragments of P. azorica forest representing nine families of AMF. Acaulosporaceae (14) and Glomeraceae (9) were the most abundant families. AMF density and root colonisation varied significantly between islands and sampling sites. Root colonisation and spore density exhibited temporal patterns, which peaked in spring and were higher in Terceira than in Sao Miguel. The relative contribution of environmental factors showed that factors such as elevation, relative air humidity, soil pH, and soil available P, K, and Mg influenced AMF spore production and root colonisation. Different sporulation patterns exhibited by the members of the commonest families suggested different life strategies. Adaptation to a particular climatic and soil condition and host phenology may explain seasonal differences in sporulation patterns. Cohorts of AMF associated to P. azorica are shaped by regional processes including environmental filters such as soil properties and natural disturbance.
Distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in Terceira and São Miguel Islands (Azores)Biodiversity Data Journal, 2020Co-Authors: Catarina Melo, Artur Da Câmara Machado, Christopher Walker, Helena Freitas, Paulo A. V. BorgesAbstract:
The data, presented here, come from samples collected during three research projects which aimed to assess the impact of land-use type on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) diversity and community composition in pastures of Terceira Island (Azores, Macaronesia, Portugal) and also in the native forest of two Azorean Islands (Terceira and São Miguel; Azores, Macaronesia, Portugal). Both projects contributed to improving the knowledge of AMF community structure at both local and regional scales.
Little is known on the AMF communities from Azores islands and this study reports the first survey in two Azorean Islands (Terceira and São Miguel). A total of 18,733 glomeromycotan spores were classified at the species level from 244 field soil samples collected in three different habitat types – native forests (dominated by Juniperus brevifolia and Picconia azorica), semi-natural and intensively-managed pastures. Thirty-seven distinct spore morphotypes, representing ten glomeromycotan families, were detected. Species of the family Acaulosporaceae dominated the samples, with 13 species (38% of the taxa), followed by Glomeraceae (6 spp.), Diversisporaceae (4 spp.), Archaeosporaceae (3 spp.), Claroideoglomeraceae (3 spp.), Gigasporaceae (3 spp.), Ambisporaceae and Paraglomeraceae, both with the same number of AMF species (2 spp.), Sacculosporaceae (1 sp.) and Entrophospora (family insertae sedis). Members of the family Acaulosporaceae occurred almost exclusively in the native forests especially associated with the Picconia azorica rhizosphere, while members of Gigasporaceae family showed a high tendency to occupy the semi-natural pastures and the native forests of Picconia azorica. Members of Glomeraceae family were broadly distributed by all types of habitat which confirm the high ecological plasticity of this AMF family to occupy the more diverse habitats.
Catarina Drumonde Melo, Christopher Walker, Helena Freitas, Artur Câmara Machado, Paulo A. V. Borges.
Environmental factors driving arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities associated with endemic woody plant Picconiaazorica on native forest of AzoresAnnals of Microbiology, 2019Co-Authors: Catarina Drumonde Melo, Sara Luna, Claudia Krüger, Christopher Walker, Henrique M.a.c. Fonseca, Duarte Mendonça, Paulo A. V. Borges, Artur Câmara MachadoAbstract:
Purpose Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play important key roles in the soil ecosystems as they link plants to the root-inaccessible part of soil. The aims of this study were to investigate which environmental factors influence the spatial and temporal structuring of AMF communities associated to Picconia azorica in two Azorean islands (Terceira and São Miguel islands), and investigate the seasonal variation in AMF communities between the two islands. Methods Communities of AMF associated with P. azorica in native forest of two Azorean islands (Terceira and São Miguel) were characterised by spore morphology or molecular analysis. Results Forty-five AMF spore morphotypes were detected from the four fragments of P. azorica forest representing nine families of AMF. Acaulosporaceae (14) and Glomeraceae (9) were the most abundant families. AMF density and root colonisation varied significantly between islands and sampling sites. Root colonisation and spore density exhibited temporal patterns, which peaked in spring and were higher in Terceira than in São Miguel. The relative contribution of environmental factors showed that factors such as elevation, relative air humidity, soil pH, and soil available P, K, and Mg influenced AMF spore production and root colonisation. Conclusion Different sporulation patterns exhibited by the members of the commonest families suggested different life strategies. Adaptation to a particular climatic and soil condition and host phenology may explain seasonal differences in sporulation patterns. Cohorts of AMF associated to P. azorica are shaped by regional processes including environmental filters such as soil properties and natural disturbance.
Fritz Oehl – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Brazil’s Caatinga and experimental agroecosystemsBiotropica, 2017Co-Authors: Juliana Souza De Pontes, Fritz Oehl, Frederico Marinho, Danny Coyne, Danielle Karla Alves Da Silva, Adriana Mayumi Yano-melo, Leonor Costa MaiaAbstract:
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a nutritious legume crop for both its grain and leaves and comprises an important component in both human and animal nutrition. In Brazil, the use of mulch, such as coconut fiber, and organic fertilizers to maximize cowpea production offers an alternative to conventional mineral fertilizer strategies. Farming practices affect the diversity and activity of soil microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), important plant growth promoters for legumes. Our objective was to determine the effect of mulching with coconut fiber and manure on AMF diversity in cowpea. Soil samples were collected from an Experimental Station in Petrolina, NE Brazil: one Caatinga (natural dry-forest vegetation), one fallow, and one experimental site established in the fallow area and cultivated with cowpea receiving cattle manure and four doses (0, 12, 24, 48 t/ha) of coconut fiber. AMF species richness, abundance, and diversity were evaluated. Sixty-four AMF species were recorded, with predominance of Glomeraceae and Acaulosporaceae. Highest species richness (47) was recovered from the Caatinga but AMF diversity was also high in the cultivated sites, demonstrating the importance of mycotrophic plants, such as cowpea, in crop production systems for the maintenance of AMF species richness. Although several species, such as Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Glomus trufemii, and Paraglomus pernambucanum, revealed pronounced sporulation patterns, even high doses of coconut fiber did not affect AMF richness and diversity, compared to fallow. Consequently, cultivation of mycotrophic plants and use of organic manures are able to maintain high AMF species richness in tropical agroecosystems.
Acaulospora pustulata and Acaulospora tortuosa , two new species in the Glomeromycota from Sierra Nevada National Park (southern Spain)Nova Hedwigia, 2013Co-Authors: Javier Palenzuela, Gladstone Alves Da Silva, Concepción Azcón-aguilar, José Miguel Barea, Fritz OehlAbstract:
Two new Acaulospora species were found in two wet mountainous grassland ecosystems of Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain), living in the rhizosphere of two endangered plants, Ophioglossum vulgatum and Narcissus nevadensis, which co-occurred with other plants like Holcus lanatus, Trifolium repens, Mentha suaveolens and Carum verticillatum, in soils affected by ground water flow. The two fungi produced spores in pot cultures, using O. vulgatum, N. nevadensis, H. lanatus and T. repens as bait plants. Acaulospora pustulata has a pustulate spore ornamentation similar to that of Diversispora pustulata, while A. tortuosa has surface projections that resemble innumerous hyphae-like structures that are more rudimentary than the hyphae-like structures known for spores of Sacculospora baltica or Glomus tortuosum. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the ITS and partial LSU of the ribosomal genes reveal that both fungi are new species within the Acaulosporaceae. They are most closely related to A. alpina and undescribed Acaulospora species. With 45–72 μm spore size, Acaulospora pustulata is the smallest Acaulospora species known so far, while A. tortuosa has slightly larger spores (61–84(–94) μm), which is in the range known for several other Acaulospora species like A. longula, A. alpina, A. nivalis and A. sieverdingii that have either smooth or pitted spore surfaces. These two fungi might play an important role in helping their endangered hosts O. vulgatum and N. nevadensis to survive under the stressed environments of the high mountains of Sierra Nevada.
Revision of Entrophospora and description of Kuklospora and Intraspora, two new genera in the arbuscular mycorrhizal GlomeromycetesJournal of applied botany and food quality, 2012Co-Authors: Ewald Sieverding, Fritz OehlAbstract:
Five mycorrhizal fungal species of the Glomeromycetes which were organized in the genus Entrophospora are revised. They all form their spores within the hyphal stalk directly beneath or in some distance of a sporiferous saccule formed intercalary or terminally in the mycelium. Based on differences respective similarities in spore morphologies and root infection characteristics only Entrophospora infrequens and Entrophospora baltica remain in this genus. The genus is the type genus for the new family Entrophosporaceae. The other three species are organized in two new genera. Kuklospora gen. nov. with Kuklospora colombiana and Kuklospora kentinensis (formerly Entrophospora colombiana and Entrophospora kentiniensis ) is placed into the family of the Acaulosporaceae. Intraspora gen. nov. so far contains only Intraspora schenckii (the former Entrophospora schenckii ) and is included into the family of the Archaeosporaceae. The morphological differences between the genera and the distribution of these fungal species in ecosystems are discussed.