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The Experts below are selected from a list of 264 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform
Marcin świtoniak – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
use of soil profile truncation to estimate influence of Accelerated Erosion on soil cover transformation in young morainic landscapes north eastern polandCatena, 2014Co-Authors: Marcin świtoniakAbstract:
Abstract Human-induced Erosion is one of the key factors leading to the soil degradation. Agricultural, undulating or hilly morainic areas of North-Eastern Poland are exposed to this negative process. This paper elucidates the influence of Accelerated soil Erosion on soil cover in young morainic landscapes of North-Eastern Poland (Brodnica Lake District). Detailed pedological investigation (21 soil pits and 375 augerholes) were carried out within two study sites (forest and agricultural). A comparison of fully developed forest reference soil pedons with arable soil has been made. Five classes of soil truncation have been distinguished. According to the identified degrees of truncation, maps of soil cover transformation, caused by Accelerated Erosion, were generated and overlapped on Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Eroded soils overlap 39.5% of agricultural area and 2.5% of forest site. The widespread occurrence of strongly and completely eroded pedons (respectively 7.4% and 5.4%), only in the agricultural areas, provides intense anthropogenic impact on soil cover in the agriculture areas of North-Eastern Poland. The average values of soil reduction are about 40–50 cm. In the case of completely eroded soils it exceeds even 100 cm. Truncation of pedons with abrupt textural change due to the slope processes leads to the disappearance of vertical textural contrasts and the formation of new soil units. The evidence of Erosion from the topsoils is mainly the decrease in the content of organic matter and calcium carbonate enrichment. The effect of intensive slope processes is widespread occurrence of thick (up to 3 m) colluvial deposits.
transformation of vertical texture contrasted soils due to Accelerated Erosion in young glacial landscapes north eastern polandProceedings of the 19th World Congress of Soil Science: Soil solutions for a changing world Brisbane Australia 1-6 August 2010. Symposium 1.1.2 Soil m, 2010Co-Authors: Marcin świtoniak, R J Gilkes, N PrakongkepAbstract:
The purpose of the present paper is to elucidate the influence of Accelerated soil Erosion on vertical texture contrasted soils (VTC-s) in young glacial landscapes of North-Eastern Poland. To solve the problem, a comparison of non eroded forest reference VTC pedons with arable soil has been made. On the basis of the results, five classes of VTC-soil truncation have been distinguished. According to the identified degrees of truncation, maps of soil cover transformation, caused by Accelerated Erosion, were generated and overlapped on Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The widespread occurence of strongly and completely eroded investigated soils provides intense anthropical pressure on soil cover in the agriculture areas of NorthEastern Poland.
Bal Ram Singh – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
soil quality effects of Accelerated Erosion and management systems in three eco regions of tanzaniaSoil & Tillage Research, 1999Co-Authors: F B S Kaihura, I K Kullaya, Method Kilasara, J B Aune, Bal Ram SinghAbstract:
Abstract Soil Erosion can adversely influence soil quality, especially in tropical soils. Thus, a multi-location field experiment was conducted on eight major agricultural soils with different degrees of Erosion, in three eco-regions in Tanzania. The objective was to assess the impact of topsoil depth (TSD) and management on soil properties. Three eco-regions comprising of humid at Kilimanjaro, sub-humid at Tanga and sub-humid/semi-arid at Morogoro were selected. There were a total of eight locations within three eco-regions comprising two at Kilimanjaro (e.g., Kirima Boro and Xeno Helena), two at Tanga (Mlingano 1 and Mlingano 2) and four at Morogoro (Misufini 1, Misufini 2, Misufini 3, and Mindu). The soil management treatments consisted of farmyard manure (FYM), N and P fertilizer, tie-ridging and farmers’ practice. Plant nutrient content was generally lowest on severely eroded and the highest on least eroded soil classes. Soil pH decreased with increasing severity of Erosion on soils with higher content of Ca +2 in the sub-surface. In general, there occurred a decline in soil organic carbon (SOC) and P with the decrease in TSD. The SOC content decreased on severely eroded soil class by 0.16%, 0.39% and 0.13% at Misufini 1, Mlingano 1 and Kirima Boro, respectively, compared to slightly or least eroded soil class. Corresponding decline in available P at these sites was 41%, 62% and 61%, respectively. Application of FYM significantly increased soil pH at some sites. Soil content of SOC, N, P, K and Mg were significantly increased by FYM application. Significant effects of N and P fertilizers on SOC and P were observed at most sites. In comparison with farmer’s practice, FYM application increased SOC by 0.55%, N by 0.03%, P by six-fold and K by two-fold. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers had comparable effects for SOC and P only at some sites. The results indicate that FYM is a better soil input than N and P fertilizers in improving soil quality. The data show that SOC, N and P are most adversely affected with Accelerated Erosion and that FYM fertilizer applications have the potential to improve fertility of eroded soils.
Jennifer A J Dungait – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
carbon and macronutrient losses during Accelerated Erosion under different tillage and residue managementEuropean Journal of Soil Science, 2015Co-Authors: Joshua W Beniston, M J Shipitalo, E A Dayton, D W Hopkins, F S Jones, A Joynes, Jennifer A J DungaitAbstract:
There have been many studies on the effects of tillage on Erosional losses from soil, but rarely have soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses been quantified simultaneously during a single Erosion event. We applied a simulated rainfall event (70 mm hour−1) to plots within a gently sloping field (6%) in Ohio, USA, on which maize (C4) cultivation had replaced C3 vegetation several decades earlier. The plots were under different tillage management: (i) no till (NT100) for 42 years; (ii) NT100 plots from which 50% (NT50) or (iii) 100% (NT0) of crop residues were removed annually for 8 years; (iv) NT100 plots tilled 24 hours previously (TNT); and (v) conventional tillage (CT) for 28 years. Relationships between SOC, N and P concentrations and natural abundance 13C : 15N stable isotope values in the topsoils and sediments suggested that eroded SOC and TN were associated with the Erosion of soil organic matter, whilst P losses were driven by the transport of the mineral fraction. Stable 13C isotope analyses revealed that tillage and residue removal both increased the proportion of older (C3), rather than new (C4, maize-derived), SOC in eroded sediments. This study therefore demonstrated that a single tillage event after 42 years of continuous no-till caused larger Erosional fluxes than 8 years of continuous removal of all maize residues, and that long-term conventional tillage resulted in the loss of a greater amount of older (> 28 years) SOC in eroded sediments, compared with continuous NT management.
woody plant encroachment into grasslands leads to Accelerated Erosion of previously stable organic carbon from dryland soilsJournal of Geophysical Research, 2014Co-Authors: Alan Puttock, Jennifer A J Dungait, C J A Macleod, Richard E BrazierAbstract:
Drylands worldwide are experiencing rapid and extensive environmental change, concomitant with the encroachment of woody vegetation into grasslands. Woody encroachment leads to changes in both the structure and function of dryland ecosystems and has been shown to result in Accelerated soil Erosion and loss of soil nutrients. Covering 40% of the terrestrial land surface, dryland environments are of global importance, both as a habitat and a soil carbon store. Relationships between environmental change, soil Erosion, and the carbon cycle are uncertain. There is a clear need to further our understanding of dryland vegetation change and impacts on carbon dynamics. Here two grass-to-woody ecotones that occur across large areas of the southwestern United States are investigated. This study takes a multidisciplinary approach, combining ecohydrological monitoring of structure and function and a dual-proxy biogeochemical tracing approach using the unique natural biochemical signatures of the vegetation. Results show that following woody encroachment, not only do these drylands lose significantly more soil and organic carbon via Erosion but that this includes significant amounts of legacy organic carbon which would previously have been stable under grass cover. Results suggest that these dryland soils may not act as a stable organic carbon pool, following encroachment and that Accelerated Erosion of carbon, driven by vegetation change, has important implications for carbon dynamics.