Scan Science and Technology
Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies
The Experts below are selected from a list of 210 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform
Olof Dahlback – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
Accident Proneness and risk takingPersonality and Individual Differences, 1991Co-Authors: Olof DahlbackAbstract:
Accidents are unplanned or unforeseen injurious events. If an individual is prone to make decisions which lead to injurious consequences and is prone to make decisions which lead to consequences which were not planned or foreseen, then this individual can be assumed to be Accident-prone. The propensity to make decisions which lead to injurious consequences is affected by the propensity to take risks. Individuals who take greater risks more often meet with injurious consequences of their decisions. Individuals who are more prone to repress the anticipation of unpleasant things and who are less able to accept uncertainty more often make decisions which lead to unplanned or unforeseen consequences. Therefore, the coefficient for the regression of Accident–Proneness on the propensity to take risks will have a higher value for individuals more given to repression and for individuals who are less able to accept uncertainty. This hypothesis is tested with data from two independent investigations and is supported.
Thomas Blak – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
Self-Reported Head Injuries Before and After Age 13 in Pedophilic and Nonpedophilic Men Referred for Clinical AssessmentArchives of Sexual Behavior, 2003Co-Authors: Ray Blanchard, Bruce K. Christensen, James M. Cantor, Michael E. Kuban, Philip Klassen, Robert Dickey, Thomas BlakAbstract:
Previous research has found that pedophilic men referred for clinical assessment of their sexual behavior are more likely to report that they suffered head injuries before their 13th birthday than are nonpedophilic men referred for the same purpose. This study investigated whether pedophilic patients are also more likely to report head injuries after their 13th birthday. The 685 participants represented all patients with usable data from a consecutive series of men referred to a clinical laboratory specializing in phallometric assessment of erotic preferences. In addition to phallometric testing, participants were administered a brief neuropsychological test battery and a companion interview, which included questions on head injury, drug abuse, and childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The results showed that the pedophilic patients reported more head injuries before age 13 than did the nonpedophilic patients, but they did not report more head injuries after age 13. The association between pedophilia and childhood head injuries could mean either that subtle brain damage after birth increases a boy’s risk of pedophilia, or that neurodevelopmental problems before birth increase a boy’s Accident–Proneness along with his risk of pedophilia. Additional analyses showed that self-reported head injuries before age 13 were associated with attentional problems and with left-handedness; in contrast, head injuries after age 13 were associated with drug abuse and promiscuity. These analyses suggest that, among patients with primary presenting complaints of sexual rather than cognitive problems, childhood head injuries cluster with neuropsychological phenomena, whereas later head injuries cluster with lifestyle variables.
Retrospective Self-Reports of Childhood Accidents Causing Unconsciousness in Phallometrically Diagnosed PedophilesArchives of Sexual Behavior, 2002Co-Authors: Ray Blanchard, Bruce K. Christensen, Scott M. Strong, James M. Cantor, Michael E. Kuban, Philip Klassen, Robert Dickey, Thomas BlakAbstract:
The present study investigated whether head injuries in childhood might increase the risk of pedophilia in males. The subjects were 1206 patients referred to a clinical sexology service for assessment of their erotic preferences. These were classified, on the basis of phallometric test results, as pedophilic ( n = 413) or nonpedophilic ( n = 793). Information regarding early head injuries, other signs of possible neurodevelopmental problems, and parental histories of psychiatric treatment were collected with self-administered questionnaires. The results showed that childhood Accidents that resulted in unconsciousness were associated with pedophilia and with lower levels of intelligence and education. These associations were statistically significant for Accidents that occurred before the age of 6, but not for Accidents that occurred between the ages of 6 and 12. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental perturbations in early childhood may increase the risk of pedophilia. They are also, however, compatible with the alternative explanation that prior neurodevelopmental problems lead to Accident–Proneness and head injury, on the one hand, and to pedophilia, on the other, and that head injury has no causal influence on pedophilia. A secondary finding was that the pedophiles were more likely to report that their mothers had undergone psychiatric treatment. This finding suggests that pedophilia may be influenced by genetic factors, which are manifested in women as an increased risk of psychiatric problems, and in their sons, as an increased risk of erotic interest in children.
Dov Zohar – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
100 years of occupational safety research from basic protections and work analysis to a multilevel view of workplace safety and riskJournal of Applied Psychology, 2017Co-Authors: David A Hofmann, Michael J Burke, Dov ZoharAbstract:
Starting with initiatives dating back to the mid-1800s, we provide a high-level review of the key trends and developments in the application of applied psychology to the field of occupational safety. Factory laws, basic worker compensation, and research on Accident Proneness comprised much of the early work. Thus, early research and practice very much focused on the individual worker, the design of their work, and their basic protection. Gradually and over time, the focus began to navigate further into the organizational context. One of the early efforts to broaden beyond the individual worker was a significant focus on safety-related training during the middle of the 20th century. Toward the latter years of the 20th century and continuing the move from the individual worker to the broader organizational context, there was a significant increase in leadership and organizational climate (safety climate) research. Ultimately, this resulted in the development of a multilevel model of safety culture/climate. After discussing these trends, we identify key conclusions and opportunities for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record