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Accidental Poisoning

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Vilhjalmur Rafnsson – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Accidental Poisoning intentional self harm and event of undetermined intent mortality over 20 years in iceland a population based cohort study
    BMJ Open, 2020
    Co-Authors: Oddny S Gunnarsdottir, Vilhjalmur Rafnsson

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES The aim was to study mortality due to suicide, Accidental Poisoning, event of undetermined intent and drug-related deaths through 20 years in Iceland. DESIGN A population-based register study. PARTICIPANTS Individuals who died due to road traffic injury, suicide, Accidental Poisoning, event of undetermined intent and drug-related deaths in the population of Iceland during the years 1996-2015. Annual age-standardised rates were calculated, and the trend analysed by Pearson correlation and joinpoint regression. SETTING The population of Iceland framed the study material, and the data were obtained from nationwide registries for information on number of deaths and age-specific mean population in each year by gender. RESULTS The crude overall suicide rate during the last 10 years was 12.2 per 100 000 persons per year (95% CI 7.4 to 18.1), while the crude overall rate due to road traffic injuries was 4.6 per 100 000 persons per year (95% CI 2.0 to 8.3). Among men, suicide rates decreased, however not significantly (r(19)=-0.22, p=0.36), and for overdose by narcotics the rates increased significantly (r(19)=0.72, p<0.001) during the study period. Among women, the suicide rates increased, however not significantly (r(19)=0.35, p=0.13), for Accidental Poisoning, suicide and event of undetermined intent combined the rates increased significantly (r(19)=0.60, p=0.006); and the rates for overdose by sedative and overdose by narcotics both increased significantly r(19)=0.49, p=0.03, and r(19)=0.67, p=0.001, respectively. CONCLUSION The suicide rates have not changed during 1996 to 2015; however, the rates for the combined Accidental Poisoning, suicide and event of undetermined intent increased significantly for women. The rise of the overdose rates for sedative among women and for narcotics among both genders are consistent with reports elsewhere.

  • Accidental Poisoning, intentional self-harm and event of undetermined intent mortality over 20 years in Iceland: a population-based cohort study.
    BMJ Open, 2020
    Co-Authors: Oddny S Gunnarsdottir, Vilhjalmur Rafnsson

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study mortality due to suicide, Accidental Poisoning, event of undetermined intent and drug-related deaths through 20 years in Iceland. DESIGN: A population-based register study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals who died due to road traffic injury, suicide, Accidental Poisoning, event of undetermined intent and drug-related deaths in the population of Iceland during the years 1996-2015. Annual age-standardised rates were calculated, and the trend analysed by Pearson correlation and joinpoint regression. SETTING: The population of Iceland framed the study material, and the data were obtained from nationwide registries for information on number of deaths and age-specific mean population in each year by gender. RESULTS: The crude overall suicide rate during the last 10 years was 12.2 per 100 000 persons per year (95% CI 7.4 to 18.1), while the crude overall rate due to road traffic injuries was 4.6 per 100 000 persons per year (95% CI 2.0 to 8.3). Among men, suicide rates decreased, however not significantly (r(19)=-0.22, p=0.36), and for overdose by narcotics the rates increased significantly (r(19)=0.72, p

Oddny S Gunnarsdottir – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Accidental Poisoning intentional self harm and event of undetermined intent mortality over 20 years in iceland a population based cohort study
    BMJ Open, 2020
    Co-Authors: Oddny S Gunnarsdottir, Vilhjalmur Rafnsson

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES The aim was to study mortality due to suicide, Accidental Poisoning, event of undetermined intent and drug-related deaths through 20 years in Iceland. DESIGN A population-based register study. PARTICIPANTS Individuals who died due to road traffic injury, suicide, Accidental Poisoning, event of undetermined intent and drug-related deaths in the population of Iceland during the years 1996-2015. Annual age-standardised rates were calculated, and the trend analysed by Pearson correlation and joinpoint regression. SETTING The population of Iceland framed the study material, and the data were obtained from nationwide registries for information on number of deaths and age-specific mean population in each year by gender. RESULTS The crude overall suicide rate during the last 10 years was 12.2 per 100 000 persons per year (95% CI 7.4 to 18.1), while the crude overall rate due to road traffic injuries was 4.6 per 100 000 persons per year (95% CI 2.0 to 8.3). Among men, suicide rates decreased, however not significantly (r(19)=-0.22, p=0.36), and for overdose by narcotics the rates increased significantly (r(19)=0.72, p<0.001) during the study period. Among women, the suicide rates increased, however not significantly (r(19)=0.35, p=0.13), for Accidental Poisoning, suicide and event of undetermined intent combined the rates increased significantly (r(19)=0.60, p=0.006); and the rates for overdose by sedative and overdose by narcotics both increased significantly r(19)=0.49, p=0.03, and r(19)=0.67, p=0.001, respectively. CONCLUSION The suicide rates have not changed during 1996 to 2015; however, the rates for the combined Accidental Poisoning, suicide and event of undetermined intent increased significantly for women. The rise of the overdose rates for sedative among women and for narcotics among both genders are consistent with reports elsewhere.

  • Accidental Poisoning, intentional self-harm and event of undetermined intent mortality over 20 years in Iceland: a population-based cohort study.
    BMJ Open, 2020
    Co-Authors: Oddny S Gunnarsdottir, Vilhjalmur Rafnsson

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study mortality due to suicide, Accidental Poisoning, event of undetermined intent and drug-related deaths through 20 years in Iceland. DESIGN: A population-based register study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals who died due to road traffic injury, suicide, Accidental Poisoning, event of undetermined intent and drug-related deaths in the population of Iceland during the years 1996-2015. Annual age-standardised rates were calculated, and the trend analysed by Pearson correlation and joinpoint regression. SETTING: The population of Iceland framed the study material, and the data were obtained from nationwide registries for information on number of deaths and age-specific mean population in each year by gender. RESULTS: The crude overall suicide rate during the last 10 years was 12.2 per 100 000 persons per year (95% CI 7.4 to 18.1), while the crude overall rate due to road traffic injuries was 4.6 per 100 000 persons per year (95% CI 2.0 to 8.3). Among men, suicide rates decreased, however not significantly (r(19)=-0.22, p=0.36), and for overdose by narcotics the rates increased significantly (r(19)=0.72, p

Jonathan Richard Sibert – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Procedures, placement, and risks of further abuse after Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-Accidental Poisoning, and non-Accidental suffocation.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1998
    Co-Authors: P. M. Davis, R J Mcclure, Kim Rolfe, N. Chessman, Scott Pearson, Jonathan Richard Sibert, Richard Meadow

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate outcome, management, and prevention in Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-Accidental Poisoning, and non-Accidental suffocation.
    DESIGN—Ascertainment through British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and questionnaires to responding paediatricians.
    SETTING—The UK and Republic of Ireland, September 1992 to August 1994.
    SUBJECTS—Children under 14 years diagnosed with the above.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Placement and child protection measures for victims and siblings; morbidity and reabuse rates for victims; abuse of siblings; prosecution of perpetrators.
    RESULTS—Outcome data for 119 with median follow up of 24 months (range 12 to 44 months). No previously diagnosed factitious disease was found to have been caused by genuine disease. Forty six children were allowed home without conditions at follow up. Children who had suffered from suffocation, non-Accidental Poisoning, direct harm, and those under 5 years were less likely to go home.
    Twenty seven (24%) children still had symptoms or signs as a result of the abuse at follow up; 108/120 were originally on a child protection register and 35/111 at follow up. Twenty nine per cent (34/118) of the perpetrators had been prosecuted and most convicted; 17% of the milder cases of Munchausen syndrome by proxy allowed home were reabused. Evidence in siblings suggests that in 50% of families with a suffocated child and 40% with non-Accidental Poisoning there would be further abuse, some fatal.
    CONCLUSIONS—This type of abuse is severe with high mortality, morbidity, family disruption, reabuse, and harm to siblings. A very cautious approach for child protection with reintroduction to home only if circumstances are especially favourable is advised. Paediatric follow up by an expert in child protection should also occur.

  • epidemiology of munchausen syndrome by proxy non Accidental Poisoning and non Accidental suffocation
    Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1996
    Co-Authors: R J Mcclure, P. M. Davis, S. R. Meadow, Jonathan Richard Sibert

    Abstract:

    A two year prospective study was performed to determine the epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-Accidental Poisoning, and non-Accidental suffocation in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Cases were notified to the British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit from September 1992 to August 1994 if a formal case conference had been held for the first time during that period to discuss any of the above conditions. A total of 128 cases were identified: 55 suffered Munchausen syndrome by proxy alone, 15 Poisoning, and 15 suffocation; 43 suffered more than one type of abuse. The majority of children were aged under 5 years, the median age being 20 months. On 85% of occasions the perpetrator was the child’s mother. In 42% of families with more than one child, a sibling had previously suffered some form of abuse. Eighty five per cent of notifying paediatricians considered the probability of their diagnosis as virtually certain before a case conference was convened. The commonest drugs used to poison were anticonvulsants; opiates were the second commonest. Sixty eight children suffered severe illness of whom eight died. The combined annual incidence of these conditions in children aged under 16 years is at least 0.5/100,000, and for children aged under 1, at least 2.8/100,000.

  • bittering agents in the prevention of Accidental Poisoning children s reactions to denatonium benzoate bitrex
    Emergency Medicine Journal, 1991
    Co-Authors: Jonathan Richard Sibert, N Frude

    Abstract:

    The responses of young children to Denatonium Benzoate (Bitrex) were observed, in order to assess the potential of this bittering agent in the prevention of Accidental Poisoning. Thirty-three children aged 17-36 months were offered orange juice containing Bitrex (in a concentration of 10 parts per million). Of the 30 children who took some of this juice, only seven were willing to take more than 10 gm. A variety of negative verbal and non-verbal responses were noted. It is suggested that the highly unpalatable nature of Bitrex makes this compound a useful additive that could well prevent Accidental Poisoning from household products of mild to moderate toxicity.