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Eduardo Raposo Monteiro – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Hemodynamic effects of incremental doses of Acepromazine in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.
    Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia, 2020
    Co-Authors: Julia P.p. Rangel, Eduardo Raposo Monteiro, Flavia S. Bitti, Juarez Simões Nunes Junior, Daniela Campagnol
    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of incremental doses of Acepromazine on hemodynamics in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. STUDY DESIGN Prospective, experimental study. ANIMALS Healthy, adult, mixed-breed dogs (two male and four female) weighing 16.8 ± 5.1 kg (mean ± standard deviation). METHODS Dogs were anesthetized with propofol (7 mg kg-1) intravenously (IV) and isoflurane. Thermodilution and arterial catheters were placed for hemodynamic monitoring and arterial blood sampling for blood gas analysis. Baseline measurements were performed with stable expired concentration of isoflurane (Fe’Iso) at 1.8%. Each dog was then administered four incremental Acepromazine injections (10, 15, 25 and 50 μg kg-1) IV, and measurements were repeated 20 minutes after each Acepromazine injection with Fe’Iso decreased to 1.2%. The four Acepromazine injections resulted in cumulative doses of 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg kg-1 (time points ACP10, ACP25, ACP50 and ACP100, respectively). RESULTS Compared with baseline, cardiac index (CI) increased significantly by 34%, whereas systemic vascvascular resiresistance index (SVRI) decreased by 25% at ACP50 and ACP100. Arterial oxygen content (CaO2) was significantly lower than baseline after all Acepromazine injections (maximum decreases of 11%) and was lower at ACP50 and ACP100 than at ACP10. No significant change was found in heart rate, stroke index, oxygen delivery index and systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressures. Hypotension (mean artearterial pressure < 60 mmHg) was observed in one dog at baseline, ACP10, ACP25 and ACP100, and in two dogs at ACP50. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Compared with isoflurane alone, anesthesia with Acepromazine-isoflurane resulted in increased CI and decreased SVRI and CaO2 values. These effects were dose-related, being more pronounced at ACP50 and ACP100. Under the conditions of this study, Acepromazine administration did not change blood pressure.

  • Sedative effects of Acepromazine in combination with nalbuphine or butorphanol, intramuscularly or intravenously, in healthy cats: a randomized, blinded clinical trial.
    Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 2020
    Co-Authors: Gabriela P Costa, Eduardo Raposo Monteiro, Éder J Marques, Rafael Colomé Beck, Rafael Krezter Carneiro, Fernanda Va Da Costa, Stella De Faria Valle
    Abstract:

    ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to compare the sedative effects in cats administered Acepromazinenalbuphine and Acepromazinebutorphanol, intramuscularly (IM) and intravenously (IV), and the o…

  • Hemodynamic, respiratory and sedative effects of progressively increasing doses of Acepromazine in conscious dogs.
    Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia, 2020
    Co-Authors: Julia P.p. Rangel, Eduardo Raposo Monteiro, Flavia S. Bitti, Juarez Simões Nunes Junior, Daniela Campagnol
    Abstract:

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effects of progressively increasing doses of Acepromazine on cardiopulmonary variables and sedation in conscious dogs. Study design Prospective, experimental study. Animals A group of six healthy, adult, mixed-breed dogs weighing 16.5 ± 5.0 kg (mean ± standard deviation). Methods Dogs were instrumented with thermodilution and arterial catheters for evaluation of hemodynamics and arterial blooblood gases. On a single occasion, Acepromazine was administered intravenously to each dog at 10, 15, 25 and 50 μg kg–1 at 20 minute intervals, resulting in cumulative Acepromazine doses of 10 μg kg–1 (ACP10), 25 μg kg–1 (ACP25), 50 μg kg–1 (ACP50) and 100 μg kg–1 (ACP100). Hemodynamic data and sedation scores were recorded before (baseline) and 20 minutes after each Acepromazine dose. Results Compared with baseline, all Acepromazine doses significantly decreased stroke index (SI), mean artearterial pressure (MAP) and arterial oxygen content (CaO2) with maximum decreases of 16%, 17% and 21%, respectively. Cardiac index (CI) decreased by up to 19% but not significantly. Decreases of 26–38% were recorded for oxygen delivery index (DO2I), with significant differences for ACP50 and ACP100. Systemic vascvascular resiresistance index (SVRI) and heart rate did not change significantly. No significant difference was found among Acepromazine doses for hemodynamic data. After ACP10, mild sedation was observed in five/six dogs and moderate sedation in one/six dogs, whereas after ACP25, ACP50 and ACP100, moderate sedation was observed in five/six or six/six dogs. Conclusions and clinical relevance In conscious dogs, Acepromazine decreased MAP, SI, CaO2 and DO2I, but no significant dose effect was detected. SVRI was not significantly changed, suggesting that the reduction in MAP resulted from decreased CI. The ACP25, ACP50 and ACP100 doses resulted in moderate sedation in most dogs; ACP10 resulted in only mild sedation.

Barton W Rohrbach – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • effects of Acepromazine and butorphanol on tiletamine zolazepam anesthesia in llamas
    American Journal of Veterinary Research, 2008
    Co-Authors: Tulio M Prado, Thomas J Doherty, Elizabeth B Boggan, Hanna M Airasmaa, Tomas Martinjimenez, Barton W Rohrbach
    Abstract:

    Objective—To evaluate sedative, antinociceptive, and physiologic effects of Acepromazine and butorphanol during tiletaminezolazepam (TZ) anesthesia in llamas. Animals—5 young adult llamas. Procedures—Llamas received each of 5 treatments IM (1-week intervals): A (Acepromazine, 0.05 mg/kg), B1 (butorphanol, 0.1 mg/kg), AB (Acepromazine, 0.05 mg/kg, and butorphanol, 0.1 mg/kg), B2 (butorphanol, 0.2 mg/kg), or C (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Sedation was evaluated during a 30-minute period prior to anesthesia with TZ (2 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia and recovery characteristics and selected cardiorespiratory variables were recorded at intervals. Antinociception was assessed via a toe-clamp technique. Results—Sedation was not evident following any treatment. Times to sternal and lateral recumbency did not differ among treatments. Duration of lateral recumbency was significantly longer for treatment AB than for treatment C. Duration of antinociception was significantly longer for treatments A and AB, compared with tre…

  • Effect of Acepromazine and butorphanol on halothane minimum alveolar concentration in ponies
    Equine veterinary journal, 1997
    Co-Authors: Thomas J Doherty, Dennis R Geiser, Barton W Rohrbach
    Abstract:

    The effect of i.v. Acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg bwt), butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg bwt) and a combination of Acepromazine and butorphanol on halothane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) was determined in 7 mixed-breed ponies. Ventilation was controlled, and blood pressure and temperature were maintained within normal limits. Following the determination of baseline MAC, treatments were administered to each pony in a random manner. The control treatment was normal saline. The baseline halothane dMAC for the control group was 0.91 +/- 0.04%, and no significant change occurred after saline administration. Acepromazine decreased (P = 0.0001) the halothane MAC from mean +/- s.e. 0.92 +/- 0.02% to 0.58 +/- 0.04%, and the combination of Acepromazine and butorphanol, decreased (P = 0.003) halothane MAC, from mean +/- s.e. 0.95 +/- 0.04% to 0.59 +/- 0.06%. This represents a decrease of 36.9 and 37.8%, respectively. However, the difference between these 2 treatments was not significant. Butorphanol did not significantly change the mean group value for MAC; nevertheless, 3 ponies had an increase, one a decrease, while the MAC did not change in the remaining 3 ponies following butorphanol treatment.

Luigi Bertolotti – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Contemporary use of Acepromazine in the anaesthetic management of male horses and ponies: A retrospective study and opinion poll
    Equine veterinary journal, 2010
    Co-Authors: Bernd Driessen, L Zarucco, B. Kalir, Luigi Bertolotti
    Abstract:

    Summary Reason for performing study: Current use of Acepromazine in the anaesthetic management of male horses and ponies and associated risks are largely unknown. Objectives: To explore anaesthetic Acepromazine use and related adverse effects in the male horse. Methods: Of 8533 anaesthetised horses and ponies medical records of male animals treated perianaesthetically with Acepromazine were reviewed. Demographic data, time and dose of Acepromazine administration, co-administered drugs, quality of induction and recovery from anaesthesia, arterial blood pressures, and occurrence of penile dysfunction were recorded. Practising ACVA and ECVAA diplomates were polled on the use of Acepromazine and its effects on blood pressure and penile dysfunction in the equine. Results: Of all animals, 12% females and 11% males (n = 575 including 42% stallions) received perianaesthetic Acepromazine, predominantly for premedication. Anaesthetic induction was smooth in 566 animals. Lowest mean arterial pressures averaged 65 ± 9 mmHg. Recovery was good or very good in 70% of all animals and 74% stood after 1–2 attempts. In 14 horses (2.4%; 7 stallions, 7 geldings), penile prolapse occurred for 0.5–4 h and in one stallion (0.2%) for >12 but 12 h and only one recalls 3 cases of irreversible penile prolapse in 20 years of anaesthesia practice. Conclusions and potential relevance: The extremely low risk of permanent penile dysfunction (≤1 in 10,000 cases) does not justify more restricted use of Acepromazine in the intact male vs. geldings and mares.

Thomas J Doherty – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Minimum alveolar concentration: Key concepts and a review of its pharmacological reduction in dogs. Part 2.
    Research in veterinary science, 2018
    Co-Authors: Rachel Reed, Thomas J Doherty
    Abstract:

    Abstract Objective To outline the major components of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and review the literature regarding pharmacological manipulation of the MAC of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane, and desflurane in dogs. The pharmacological agents included are alpha-2 agonists, benzodiazepines, propofol, opioids, lidocaine, Acepromazine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), maropitant, and NMDA antagonists. Part 2 of this review will focus on the effect of opioids, lidocaine, NSAIDs, maropitant, Acepromazine, and NMDA antagonists on MAC. Databases used PubMed, Google Scholar, CAB Abstracts. Search terms used: minimum alveolar concentration, MAC, dog, canine, inhaled anesthetic potency, isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, enflurane, and halothane. Conclusions Opioids, lidocaine, NSAIDs, maropitant, Acepromazine, and NMDA antagonists have been shown to reduce the MAC of inhaled anesthetics in dogs and allow for clinically important decreases in inhalant anesthetic use. Thus, the use of these agents potentially decrease the adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary effects associated with the use of high concentrations of inhaled anesthetics.

  • effects of Acepromazine and butorphanol on tiletamine zolazepam anesthesia in llamas
    American Journal of Veterinary Research, 2008
    Co-Authors: Tulio M Prado, Thomas J Doherty, Elizabeth B Boggan, Hanna M Airasmaa, Tomas Martinjimenez, Barton W Rohrbach
    Abstract:

    Objective—To evaluate sedative, antinociceptive, and physiologic effects of Acepromazine and butorphanol during tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) anesthesia in llamas. Animals—5 young adult llamas. Procedures—Llamas received each of 5 treatments IM (1-week intervals): A (Acepromazine, 0.05 mg/kg), B1 (butorphanol, 0.1 mg/kg), AB (Acepromazine, 0.05 mg/kg, and butorphanol, 0.1 mg/kg), B2 (butorphanol, 0.2 mg/kg), or C (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Sedation was evaluated during a 30-minute period prior to anesthesia with TZ (2 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia and recovery characteristics and selected cardiorespiratory variables were recorded at intervals. Antinociception was assessed via a toe-clamp technique. Results—Sedation was not evident following any treatment. Times to sternal and lateral recumbency did not differ among treatments. Duration of lateral recumbency was significantly longer for treatment AB than for treatment C. Duration of antinociception was significantly longer for treatments A and AB, compared with tre…

  • Effect of Acepromazine and butorphanol on halothane minimum alveolar concentration in ponies
    Equine veterinary journal, 1997
    Co-Authors: Thomas J Doherty, Dennis R Geiser, Barton W Rohrbach
    Abstract:

    The effect of i.v. Acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg bwt), butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg bwt) and a combination of Acepromazine and butorphanol on halothane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) was determined in 7 mixed-breed ponies. Ventilation was controlled, and blood pressure and temperature were maintained within normal limits. Following the determination of baseline MAC, treatments were administered to each pony in a random manner. The control treatment was normal saline. The baseline halothane dMAC for the control group was 0.91 +/- 0.04%, and no significant change occurred after saline administration. Acepromazine decreased (P = 0.0001) the halothane MAC from mean +/- s.e. 0.92 +/- 0.02% to 0.58 +/- 0.04%, and the combination of Acepromazine and butorphanol, decreased (P = 0.003) halothane MAC, from mean +/- s.e. 0.95 +/- 0.04% to 0.59 +/- 0.06%. This represents a decrease of 36.9 and 37.8%, respectively. However, the difference between these 2 treatments was not significant. Butorphanol did not significantly change the mean group value for MAC; nevertheless, 3 ponies had an increase, one a decrease, while the MAC did not change in the remaining 3 ponies following butorphanol treatment.

Saied Bokaie – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • effect of Acepromazine or xylazine on tear production as measured by schirmer tear test in normal cats
    Veterinary Ophthalmology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Masoud Selk Ghaffari, Abdolali Malmasi, Saied Bokaie
    Abstract:

    Objective  To evaluate the effect of Acepromazine or xylazine on Schirmer tear test 1 results in clinically normal cats. Animals  Sixteen healthy cross-breed cats. Procedure  The animals were randomly divided into two groups of eight cats each. The first group was sedated with Acepromazine alone (0.2 mg/kg) and the second group received only xylazine (2 mg/kg). All cats had Schirmer tear test (STT) readings taken prior to sedation and at 15 and 25 min postsedation. Results  Sedation with Acepromazine or xylazine in cats with normal pre-sedation STT 1 values caused a statistically significant decrease in mean values of tear production in both groups. In Acepromazine group the mean ± SEM STT at T15 and T25 were 4.31 ± 0.98 (P < 0.001) and 5.18 ± 1.07 (P = 0.002). The post-treatment mean ± SEM values in xylazine group were 2.18 ± 0.97 (P < 0.001) and 2.62 ± 1.17 (P = 0.001) at 15 and 25 min respectively. Comparison between T15 and T25 in Acepromazine group (P = 0.49) and xylazine group (P = 0.56) revealed no significant differences. Conclusion  These observations indicate that both Acepromazine or xylazine significantly reduced tear production in clinically normal cats. In cats, clinicians should measure STT values prior to utilizing Acepromazine or xylazine as sedatives in order to accurately assess the results. Moreover, sterile ocular lubricant or tear replacement should be used as a corneal protectant during sedation with these drugs.

  • Effect of Acepromazine or xylazine on tear production as measured by Schirmer tear test in normal cats.
    Veterinary ophthalmology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Masoud Selk Ghaffari, Abdolali Malmasi, Saied Bokaie
    Abstract:

    Objective  To evaluate the effect of Acepromazine or xylazine on Schirmer tear test 1 results in clinically normal cats. Animals  Sixteen healthy cross-breed cats. Procedure  The animals were randomly divided into two groups of eight cats each. The first group was sedated with Acepromazine alone (0.2 mg/kg) and the second group received only xylazine (2 mg/kg). All cats had Schirmer tear test (STT) readings taken prior to sedation and at 15 and 25 min postsedation. Results  Sedation with Acepromazine or xylazine in cats with normal pre-sedation STT 1 values caused a statistically significant decrease in mean values of tear production in both groups. In Acepromazine group the mean ± SEM STT at T15 and T25 were 4.31 ± 0.98 (P