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ACTN3

The Experts below are selected from a list of 1311 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Alejandro Lucia – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • ACTN3 r577x genotype and exercise phenotypes in recreational marathon runners
    Genes, 2019
    Co-Authors: Juan Del Coso, Beatriz Lara, Victor Moreno, Jorge Gutierrezhellin, Gabriel Baltazarmartins, Carlos Ruizmoreno, Millan Aguilarnavarro, Alejandro Lucia

    Abstract:

    Background: Homozygosity for the X-allele in the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism results in the complete absence of α-actinin-3 in sarcomeres of fast-type muscle fibers. In elite athletes, the ACTN3 XX genotype has been related to inferior performance in speed and power-oriented sports; however, its influence on exercise phenotypes in recreational athletes has received less attention. We sought to determine the influence of ACTN3 genotypes on common exercise phenotypes in recreational marathon runners. Methods: A total of 136 marathoners (116 men and 20 women) were subjected to laboratory testing that included measurements of body composition, isometric muscle force, muscle flexibility, ankle dorsiflexion, and the energy cost of running. ACTN3 genotyping was performed using TaqMan probes. Results: 37 runners (27.2%) had the RR genotype, 67 (49.3%) were RX and 32 (23.5%) were XX. There was a difference in body fat percentage between RR and XX genotype groups (15.7 ± 5.8 vs. 18.8 ± 5.5%; effect size, ES, = 0.5 ± 0.4, p = 0.024), whereas the distance obtained in the sit-and-reach-test was likely lower in the RX than in the XX group (15.3 ± 7.8 vs. 18.4 ± 9.9 cm; ES = 0.4 ± 0.4, p = 0.046). Maximal dorsiflexion during the weight-bearing lunge test was different in the RR and XX groups (54.8 ± 5.8 vs. 57.7 ± 5.1 degree; ES = 0.5 ± 0.5, p = 0.044). Maximal isometric force was higher in the RR than in the XX group (16.7 ± 4.7 vs. 14.7 ± 4.0 N/kg; ES = −0.5 ± 0.3, p = 0.038). There was no difference in the energy cost of running between genotypes (~4.8 J/kg/min for all three groups, ES ~0.2 ± 0.4). Conclusions: The ACTN3 genotype might influence several exercise phenotypes in recreational marathoners. Deficiency in α-actinin-3 might be accompanied by higher body fatness, lower muscle strength and higher muscle flexibility and range of motion. Although there is not yet a scientific rationale for the use of commercial genetic tests to predict sports performance, recreational marathon runners who have performed such types of testing and have the ACTN3 XX genotype might perhaps benefit from personalized strength training to improve their performance more than their counterparts with other ACTN3 genotypes.

  • More than a ‘speed gene’: ACTN3 R577X genotype, trainability, muscle damage, and the risk for injuries
    European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Juan Del Coso, Nir Eynon, Laura M Perez, Danielle Hiam, Peter Houweling, Alejandro Lucia

    Abstract:

    A common null polymorphism (rs1815739; R577X) in the gene that codes for α-actinin-3 ( ACTN3 ) has been related to different aspects of exercise performance. Individuals who are homozygous for the X allele are unable to express the α-actinin-3 protein in the muscle as opposed to those with the RX or RR genotype. α-actinin-3 deficiency in the muscle does not result in any disease. However, the different ACTN3 genotypes can modify the functioning of skeletal muscle during exercise through structural, metabolic or signaling changes, as shown in both humans and in the mouse model. Specifically, the ACTN3 RR genotype might favor the ability to generate powerful and forceful muscle contractions. Leading to an overall advantage of the RR genotype for enhanced performance in some speed and power-oriented sports. In addition, RR genotype might also favor the ability to withstand exercise-induced muscle damage, while the beneficial influence of the XX genotype on aerobic exercise performance needs to be validated in human studies. More information is required to unveil the association of ACTN3 genotype with trainability and injury risk during acute or chronic exercise.

  • more than a speed gene ACTN3 r577x genotype trainability muscle damage and the risk for injuries
    European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Juan Del Coso, Peter J Houweling, Nir Eynon, Laura M Perez, Danielle Hiam, Alejandro Lucia

    Abstract:

    A common null polymorphism (rs1815739; R577X) in the gene that codes for α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) has been related to different aspects of exercise performance. Individuals who are homozygous for the X allele are unable to express the α-actinin-3 protein in the muscle as opposed to those with the RX or RR genotype. α-actinin-3 deficiency in the muscle does not result in any disease. However, the different ACTN3 genotypes can modify the functioning of skeletal muscle during exercise through structural, metabolic or signaling changes, as shown in both humans and in the mouse model. Specifically, the ACTN3 RR genotype might favor the ability to generate powerful and forceful muscle contractions. Leading to an overall advantage of the RR genotype for enhanced performance in some speed and power-oriented sports. In addition, RR genotype might also favor the ability to withstand exercise-induced muscle damage, while the beneficial influence of the XX genotype on aerobic exercise performance needs to be validated in human studies. More information is required to unveil the association of ACTN3 genotype with trainability and injury risk during acute or chronic exercise.

Peter J Houweling – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • more than a speed gene ACTN3 r577x genotype trainability muscle damage and the risk for injuries
    European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Juan Del Coso, Peter J Houweling, Nir Eynon, Laura M Perez, Danielle Hiam, Alejandro Lucia

    Abstract:

    A common null polymorphism (rs1815739; R577X) in the gene that codes for α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) has been related to different aspects of exercise performance. Individuals who are homozygous for the X allele are unable to express the α-actinin-3 protein in the muscle as opposed to those with the RX or RR genotype. α-actinin-3 deficiency in the muscle does not result in any disease. However, the different ACTN3 genotypes can modify the functioning of skeletal muscle during exercise through structural, metabolic or signaling changes, as shown in both humans and in the mouse model. Specifically, the ACTN3 RR genotype might favor the ability to generate powerful and forceful muscle contractions. Leading to an overall advantage of the RR genotype for enhanced performance in some speed and power-oriented sports. In addition, RR genotype might also favor the ability to withstand exercise-induced muscle damage, while the beneficial influence of the XX genotype on aerobic exercise performance needs to be validated in human studies. More information is required to unveil the association of ACTN3 genotype with trainability and injury risk during acute or chronic exercise.

  • is evolutionary loss our gain the role of ACTN3 p arg577ter r577x genotype in athletic performance ageing and disease
    Human Mutation, 2018
    Co-Authors: Peter J Houweling, Kathryn N North, Jane T Seto, Alejandro Lucia, Ioannis Papadimitriou, Juan Del Coso, Laura M Perez, Nir Eynon

    Abstract:

    : A common null polymorphism in the ACTN3 gene (rs1815739:C>T) results in replacement of an arginine (R) with a premature stop codon (X) at amino acid 577 in the fast muscle protein α-actinin-3. The ACTN3 p.Arg577Ter allele (aka p.R577* or R577X) has undergone positive selection, with an increase in the X allele frequency as modern humans migrated out of Africa into the colder, less species-rich Eurasian climates suggesting that the absence of α-actinin-3 may be beneficial in these conditions. Approximately 1.5 billion people worldwide are completely deficient in α-actinin-3. While the absence of α-actinin-3 influences skeletal muscle function and metabolism this does not result in overt muscle disease. α-Actinin-3 deficiency (ACTN3 XX genotype) is constantly underrepresented in sprint/power performance athletes. However, recent findings from our group and others suggest that the ACTN3 R577X genotype plays a role beyond athletic performance with effects observed in ageing, bone health, and inherited muscle disorders such as McArdle disease and Duchenne muscle dystrophy. In this review, we provide an update on the current knowledge regarding the influence of ACTN3 R577X on skeletal muscle function and its potential biological and clinical implications. We also outline future research directions to explore the role of α-actinin-3 in healthy and diseased populations.

  • the effect of ACTN3 gene doping on skeletal muscle performance
    American Journal of Human Genetics, 2018
    Co-Authors: Peter J Houweling, Marshall W Hogarth, Fleur Garton, Damjan Vukcevic, Lyra R Meehan, Kelly N Roeszler, Chrystal F Tiong, Diana Zannino, Nan Yang

    Abstract:

    Loss of expression of ACTN3, due to homozygosity of the common null polymorphism (p.Arg577X), is underrepresented in elite sprint/power athletes and has been associated with reduced muscle mass and strength in humans and mice. To investigate ACTN3 gene dosage in performance and whether expression could enhance muscle force, we performed meta-analysis and expression studies. Our general meta-analysis using a Bayesian random effects model in elite sprint/power athlete cohorts demonstrated a consistent homozygous-group effect across studies (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.3–1.6) but substantial heterogeneity in heterozygotes. In mouse muscle, rAAV-mediated gene transfer overexpressed and rescued α-actinin-3 expression. Contrary to expectation, in vivo “doping” of ACTN3 at low to moderate doses demonstrated an absence of any change in function. At high doses, ACTN3 is toxic and detrimental to force generation, to demonstrate gene doping with supposedly performance-enhancing isoforms of sarcomeric proteins can be detrimental for muscle function. Restoration of α-actinin-3 did not enhance muscle mass but highlighted the primary role of α-actinin-3 in modulating muscle metabolism with altered fatiguability. This is the first study to express a Z-disk protein in healthy skeletal muscle and measure the in vivo effect. The sensitive balance of the sarcomeric proteins and muscle function has relevant implications in areas of gene doping in performance and therapy for neuromuscular disease.

Nir Eynon – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • More than a ‘speed gene’: ACTN3 R577X genotype, trainability, muscle damage, and the risk for injuries
    European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Juan Del Coso, Nir Eynon, Laura M Perez, Danielle Hiam, Peter Houweling, Alejandro Lucia

    Abstract:

    A common null polymorphism (rs1815739; R577X) in the gene that codes for α-actinin-3 ( ACTN3 ) has been related to different aspects of exercise performance. Individuals who are homozygous for the X allele are unable to express the α-actinin-3 protein in the muscle as opposed to those with the RX or RR genotype. α-actinin-3 deficiency in the muscle does not result in any disease. However, the different ACTN3 genotypes can modify the functioning of skeletal muscle during exercise through structural, metabolic or signaling changes, as shown in both humans and in the mouse model. Specifically, the ACTN3 RR genotype might favor the ability to generate powerful and forceful muscle contractions. Leading to an overall advantage of the RR genotype for enhanced performance in some speed and power-oriented sports. In addition, RR genotype might also favor the ability to withstand exercise-induced muscle damage, while the beneficial influence of the XX genotype on aerobic exercise performance needs to be validated in human studies. More information is required to unveil the association of ACTN3 genotype with trainability and injury risk during acute or chronic exercise.

  • more than a speed gene ACTN3 r577x genotype trainability muscle damage and the risk for injuries
    European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Juan Del Coso, Peter J Houweling, Nir Eynon, Laura M Perez, Danielle Hiam, Alejandro Lucia

    Abstract:

    A common null polymorphism (rs1815739; R577X) in the gene that codes for α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) has been related to different aspects of exercise performance. Individuals who are homozygous for the X allele are unable to express the α-actinin-3 protein in the muscle as opposed to those with the RX or RR genotype. α-actinin-3 deficiency in the muscle does not result in any disease. However, the different ACTN3 genotypes can modify the functioning of skeletal muscle during exercise through structural, metabolic or signaling changes, as shown in both humans and in the mouse model. Specifically, the ACTN3 RR genotype might favor the ability to generate powerful and forceful muscle contractions. Leading to an overall advantage of the RR genotype for enhanced performance in some speed and power-oriented sports. In addition, RR genotype might also favor the ability to withstand exercise-induced muscle damage, while the beneficial influence of the XX genotype on aerobic exercise performance needs to be validated in human studies. More information is required to unveil the association of ACTN3 genotype with trainability and injury risk during acute or chronic exercise.

  • is evolutionary loss our gain the role of ACTN3 p arg577ter r577x genotype in athletic performance ageing and disease
    Human Mutation, 2018
    Co-Authors: Peter J Houweling, Kathryn N North, Jane T Seto, Alejandro Lucia, Ioannis Papadimitriou, Juan Del Coso, Laura M Perez, Nir Eynon

    Abstract:

    : A common null polymorphism in the ACTN3 gene (rs1815739:C>T) results in replacement of an arginine (R) with a premature stop codon (X) at amino acid 577 in the fast muscle protein α-actinin-3. The ACTN3 p.Arg577Ter allele (aka p.R577* or R577X) has undergone positive selection, with an increase in the X allele frequency as modern humans migrated out of Africa into the colder, less species-rich Eurasian climates suggesting that the absence of α-actinin-3 may be beneficial in these conditions. Approximately 1.5 billion people worldwide are completely deficient in α-actinin-3. While the absence of α-actinin-3 influences skeletal muscle function and metabolism this does not result in overt muscle disease. α-Actinin-3 deficiency (ACTN3 XX genotype) is constantly underrepresented in sprint/power performance athletes. However, recent findings from our group and others suggest that the ACTN3 R577X genotype plays a role beyond athletic performance with effects observed in ageing, bone health, and inherited muscle disorders such as McArdle disease and Duchenne muscle dystrophy. In this review, we provide an update on the current knowledge regarding the influence of ACTN3 R577X on skeletal muscle function and its potential biological and clinical implications. We also outline future research directions to explore the role of α-actinin-3 in healthy and diseased populations.