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Acute Stress Reaction

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David Spiegel – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Acute Stress Reactions following the assassination of Mexican presidential candidate Colosio
    Journal of traumatic stress, 2002
    Co-Authors: José R. Maldonado, Cheryl Koopman, Kathy Page, Lisa D. Butler, Heather Stein, David Spiegel
    Abstract:

    Considerable evidence suggests that exposure to traumatic events increases the risk of developing anxiety-spectrum disorders in response to later traumatization. We conducted a survey in Guadalajara, Mexico to assess factors associated with Acute Stress Reactions to the assassination of a political figure. Participants included 86 adults who completed the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ) and measures of the perceived impact of the assassination, exhibited emotional behavior following the assassination, and had exposure to a specific prior disaster (a gas pipeline explosion). The results suggest that Acute Stress Reactions can occur in response to an assassination, and that those most susceptible are those most emotionally invested, those who engage in emotional behavioral responses, and those whose lives have been affected by a previous potentially traumatic event.

  • Psychometric properties of the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ): A valid and reliable measure of Acute Stress
    Journal of traumatic stress, 2000
    Co-Authors: Etzel Cardeña, Catherine C. Classen, Cheryl Koopman, Lynn C. Waelde, David Spiegel
    Abstract:

    A reliable and valid measure is needed for assessing the psychological symptoms experienced in the aftermath of a traumatic event. Previous research suggests that trauma victims typically experience dissociative, anxiety and other symptoms, during or shortly after a traumatic event. Although some of these symptoms may protect the trauma victim from pain, they may also lead to Acute Stress, posttraumatic Stress, or other disorders. The Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ) was developed to evaluate anxiety and dissociation symptoms in the aftermath of traumatic events, following DSM-IV criteria for Acute Stress disorder. We present data from multiple datasets and analyses supporting the reliability and construct, convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the SASRQ.

  • Acute Stress Disorder as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms
    American Journal of Psychiatry, 1998
    Co-Authors: Catherine C. Classen, Cheryl Koopman, Robert E. Hales, David Spiegel
    Abstract:

    Objective: Using the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Acute Stress disorder, the authors examined whether the Acute psychological effects of being a bystander to violence involving mass shootings in an office building predicted later posttraumatic Stress symptoms. Method: The participants in this study were 36 employees working in an office building where a gunman shot 14 persons (eight fatally). The Acute Stress symptoms were assessed within 8 days of the event, and posttraumatic Stress symptoms of 32 employees were assessed 7 to 10 months later. Results: According to the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, 12 (33%) of the employees met criteria for the diagnosis of Acute Stress disorder. Acute Stress symptoms were found to be an excellent predictor of the subjects’ posttraumatic Stress symptoms 7‐10 months after the traumatic event. Conclusions: These results suggest not only that being a bystander to violence is highly Stressful in the short run, but that Acute Stress Reactions to such an event further predict later posttraumatic Stress symptoms. (Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155:620‐624)

Jaimie L. Gradus – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • validity of Reaction to severe Stress and adjustment disorder diagnoses in the danish psychiatric central research registry
    Clinical Epidemiology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Elisabeth Svensson, Jens Georg Hansen, Timothy L Lash, Patricia A Resick, Jaimie L. Gradus
    Abstract:

    AIMS To assess the validity of Reaction to severe Stress and adjustment disorder diagnoses registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR), to examine the documentation of Stressful and traumatic events in the medical records, and to investigate the occurrence of Stress diagnoses among persons not registered in the DPCRR. METHODS Among 101,633 patients diagnosed with International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10) F43 diagnoses between 1995 and 2011, we selected 50 patients from two hospitals (100 total), comprising one above and one below median age for each diagnosis for five time periods, and reviewed their medical records. We calculated the positive predictive value, comparing registration in the DPCRR with the original medical records, and captured data on Stressful life events. Two general practitioners were queried about 50 patients without a Stress diagnosis in the DPCRR, regarding whether they had ever received a Stress diagnosis. RESULTS The positive predictive value was 58% for Acute Stress Reaction, 83% for posttraumatic Stress disorder, 94% for adjustment disorder, 71% for other Reactions to severe Stress, and 68% for Reaction to severe Stress, unspecified. In 80% of the records, a Stressful or traumatic event was noted. Of 100 patients without an F43 diagnosis in the DPCRR, seven had a Stress diagnosis. CONCLUSION The DPCRR represents a valid and comprehensive resource for research on Reaction to severe Stress and adjustment disorders, particularly for posttraumatic Stress disorder and adjustment disorder.

  • severe Stress and adjustment disorder diagnoses in the population of denmark
    Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2014
    Co-Authors: Jaimie L. Gradus, Imre Bozi, Sussie Antonsen, Elisabeth Svensson, Timothy L Lash, Patricia A Resick, Jens Georg Hansen
    Abstract:

    We created a registry of Danish-born citizens of Denmark with incident International Classification of Diseases (10th ed.; ICD-10) severe Stress and adjustment disorder diagnoses between 1995 and 2011. A unique personal identifier was used to retrieve and merge data on demographic characteristics and diagnoses (ICD-10 codes F43.x). Here we report on the incidence of these disorders and the demographic characteristics of the subset of the Danish population who have received 1 of these diagnoses: 111,844 adults and children received a first diagnosis between 1995 and 2011. More women than men (60.1% vs. 39.9%) received a diagnosis. Diagnoses increased during the late teens through early 30s. Adjustment disorder was the most common diagnosis (65.7% of adults and 64% of children). Reaction to severe Stress unspecified was the second most common (19.8% of adults and 23.8% of children), and there was a large increase in both, as well as Acute Stress Reaction diagnoses, in 2007 (3,717–5,141, 1,248–2,520, and 348–1,024 in 2006 to 2007, respectively). Findings regarding gender and age of onset are similar to other westernized countries. This registry can be used for future research programs, contributing to the study of Stress and trauma.

  • Acute Stress Reaction and completed suicide
    International journal of epidemiology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Jaimie L. Gradus, Ping Qin, Alisa K. Lincoln, Matthew J. Miller, Elizabeth V. Lawler, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Timothy L Lash
    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Acute Stress Reaction is a diagnosis given immediately following the experience of an exceptional mental or physical Stressor. To the best of our knowledge, no study has examined the association between Acute Stress Reaction diagnosis and suicide. The current study examined this association in a population-based sample. In addition, we examined comorbid psychiatric diagnoses as modifiers of this association. METHODS: Data for the current study were obtained from the nationwide Danish health and administrative registries, which include data for all 5.4 million residents of Denmark. All suicides between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2006 were included and controls were selected from a sample of all Danish residents. Using this nested case-control design, we examined 9612 suicide cases and 199 306 controls matched to cases with respect to gender, date of birth and time. RESULTS: In total, 95 cases (0.99%) and 165 controls (0.08%) had a diagnosis of Acute Stress Reaction. Those diagnosed with Acute Stress Reaction had 10 times the rate of completed suicide compared with those without this diagnosis, adjusting for the control to case matching, depression and marital status (95% confidence interval 7.7-14). Additionally, persons with Acute Stress Reaction and depression, or Acute Stress Reaction and substance abuse, had a greater rate of suicide than expected based on their independent effects. CONCLUSIONS: Acute Stress Reaction is a risk factor for completed suicide. Language: en

Timothy L Lash – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • validity of Reaction to severe Stress and adjustment disorder diagnoses in the danish psychiatric central research registry
    Clinical Epidemiology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Elisabeth Svensson, Jens Georg Hansen, Timothy L Lash, Patricia A Resick, Jaimie L. Gradus
    Abstract:

    AIMS To assess the validity of Reaction to severe Stress and adjustment disorder diagnoses registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR), to examine the documentation of Stressful and traumatic events in the medical records, and to investigate the occurrence of Stress diagnoses among persons not registered in the DPCRR. METHODS Among 101,633 patients diagnosed with International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10) F43 diagnoses between 1995 and 2011, we selected 50 patients from two hospitals (100 total), comprising one above and one below median age for each diagnosis for five time periods, and reviewed their medical records. We calculated the positive predictive value, comparing registration in the DPCRR with the original medical records, and captured data on Stressful life events. Two general practitioners were queried about 50 patients without a Stress diagnosis in the DPCRR, regarding whether they had ever received a Stress diagnosis. RESULTS The positive predictive value was 58% for Acute Stress Reaction, 83% for posttraumatic Stress disorder, 94% for adjustment disorder, 71% for other Reactions to severe Stress, and 68% for Reaction to severe Stress, unspecified. In 80% of the records, a Stressful or traumatic event was noted. Of 100 patients without an F43 diagnosis in the DPCRR, seven had a Stress diagnosis. CONCLUSION The DPCRR represents a valid and comprehensive resource for research on Reaction to severe Stress and adjustment disorders, particularly for posttraumatic Stress disorder and adjustment disorder.

  • severe Stress and adjustment disorder diagnoses in the population of denmark
    Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2014
    Co-Authors: Jaimie L. Gradus, Imre Bozi, Sussie Antonsen, Elisabeth Svensson, Timothy L Lash, Patricia A Resick, Jens Georg Hansen
    Abstract:

    We created a registry of Danish-born citizens of Denmark with incident International Classification of Diseases (10th ed.; ICD-10) severe Stress and adjustment disorder diagnoses between 1995 and 2011. A unique personal identifier was used to retrieve and merge data on demographic characteristics and diagnoses (ICD-10 codes F43.x). Here we report on the incidence of these disorders and the demographic characteristics of the subset of the Danish population who have received 1 of these diagnoses: 111,844 adults and children received a first diagnosis between 1995 and 2011. More women than men (60.1% vs. 39.9%) received a diagnosis. Diagnoses increased during the late teens through early 30s. Adjustment disorder was the most common diagnosis (65.7% of adults and 64% of children). Reaction to severe Stress unspecified was the second most common (19.8% of adults and 23.8% of children), and there was a large increase in both, as well as Acute Stress Reaction diagnoses, in 2007 (3,717–5,141, 1,248–2,520, and 348–1,024 in 2006 to 2007, respectively). Findings regarding gender and age of onset are similar to other westernized countries. This registry can be used for future research programs, contributing to the study of Stress and trauma.

  • Acute Stress Reaction and completed suicide
    International journal of epidemiology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Jaimie L. Gradus, Ping Qin, Alisa K. Lincoln, Matthew J. Miller, Elizabeth V. Lawler, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Timothy L Lash
    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Acute Stress Reaction is a diagnosis given immediately following the experience of an exceptional mental or physical Stressor. To the best of our knowledge, no study has examined the association between Acute Stress Reaction diagnosis and suicide. The current study examined this association in a population-based sample. In addition, we examined comorbid psychiatric diagnoses as modifiers of this association. METHODS: Data for the current study were obtained from the nationwide Danish health and administrative registries, which include data for all 5.4 million residents of Denmark. All suicides between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2006 were included and controls were selected from a sample of all Danish residents. Using this nested case-control design, we examined 9612 suicide cases and 199 306 controls matched to cases with respect to gender, date of birth and time. RESULTS: In total, 95 cases (0.99%) and 165 controls (0.08%) had a diagnosis of Acute Stress Reaction. Those diagnosed with Acute Stress Reaction had 10 times the rate of completed suicide compared with those without this diagnosis, adjusting for the control to case matching, depression and marital status (95% confidence interval 7.7-14). Additionally, persons with Acute Stress Reaction and depression, or Acute Stress Reaction and substance abuse, had a greater rate of suicide than expected based on their independent effects. CONCLUSIONS: Acute Stress Reaction is a risk factor for completed suicide. Language: en

Etzel Cardeña – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Acute Stress Disorder Revisited
    Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Etzel Cardeña, Eve B. Carlson
    Abstract:

    Acute Stress disorder (ASD) was introduced into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) taxonomy in 1994 to address the lack of a specific diagnosis for Acute pathological Reactions to trauma and the role that dissociative phenomena play both in the short- and long-term Reactions to trauma. In this review, we discuss the history and goals of the diagnosis and compare it with the diagnoses of Acute Stress Reaction, combat Stress Reaction, and posttraumatic Stress disorder (PTSD). We also evaluate the research on the validity and limitations of ASD as a diagnosis, the relationship between peritraumatic dissociation and other symptomatology, the extent to which PTSD is predicted by previous ASD or peritraumatic dissociation, and other important issues such as impairment and risk factors related to ASD. We conclude with our recommendations for changes in DSM-5 criteria and the development of more sophisticated research that considers ASD as but one of two or possibly three common Acute posttraumatic syndromes.

  • Psychometric properties of the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ): A valid and reliable measure of Acute Stress
    Journal of traumatic stress, 2000
    Co-Authors: Etzel Cardeña, Catherine C. Classen, Cheryl Koopman, Lynn C. Waelde, David Spiegel
    Abstract:

    A reliable and valid measure is needed for assessing the psychological symptoms experienced in the aftermath of a traumatic event. Previous research suggests that trauma victims typically experience dissociative, anxiety and other symptoms, during or shortly after a traumatic event. Although some of these symptoms may protect the trauma victim from pain, they may also lead to Acute Stress, posttraumatic Stress, or other disorders. The Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ) was developed to evaluate anxiety and dissociation symptoms in the aftermath of traumatic events, following DSM-IV criteria for Acute Stress disorder. We present data from multiple datasets and analyses supporting the reliability and construct, convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the SASRQ.

Cheryl Koopman – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Acute Stress Reactions following the assassination of Mexican presidential candidate Colosio
    Journal of traumatic stress, 2002
    Co-Authors: José R. Maldonado, Cheryl Koopman, Kathy Page, Lisa D. Butler, Heather Stein, David Spiegel
    Abstract:

    Considerable evidence suggests that exposure to traumatic events increases the risk of developing anxiety-spectrum disorders in response to later traumatization. We conducted a survey in Guadalajara, Mexico to assess factors associated with Acute Stress Reactions to the assassination of a political figure. Participants included 86 adults who completed the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ) and measures of the perceived impact of the assassination, exhibited emotional behavior following the assassination, and had exposure to a specific prior disaster (a gas pipeline explosion). The results suggest that Acute Stress Reactions can occur in response to an assassination, and that those most susceptible are those most emotionally invested, those who engage in emotional behavioral responses, and those whose lives have been affected by a previous potentially traumatic event.

  • Psychometric properties of the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ): A valid and reliable measure of Acute Stress
    Journal of traumatic stress, 2000
    Co-Authors: Etzel Cardeña, Catherine C. Classen, Cheryl Koopman, Lynn C. Waelde, David Spiegel
    Abstract:

    A reliable and valid measure is needed for assessing the psychological symptoms experienced in the aftermath of a traumatic event. Previous research suggests that trauma victims typically experience dissociative, anxiety and other symptoms, during or shortly after a traumatic event. Although some of these symptoms may protect the trauma victim from pain, they may also lead to Acute Stress, posttraumatic Stress, or other disorders. The Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ) was developed to evaluate anxiety and dissociation symptoms in the aftermath of traumatic events, following DSM-IV criteria for Acute Stress disorder. We present data from multiple datasets and analyses supporting the reliability and construct, convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the SASRQ.

  • Acute Stress Disorder as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms
    American Journal of Psychiatry, 1998
    Co-Authors: Catherine C. Classen, Cheryl Koopman, Robert E. Hales, David Spiegel
    Abstract:

    Objective: Using the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Acute Stress disorder, the authors examined whether the Acute psychological effects of being a bystander to violence involving mass shootings in an office building predicted later posttraumatic Stress symptoms. Method: The participants in this study were 36 employees working in an office building where a gunman shot 14 persons (eight fatally). The Acute Stress symptoms were assessed within 8 days of the event, and posttraumatic Stress symptoms of 32 employees were assessed 7 to 10 months later. Results: According to the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, 12 (33%) of the employees met criteria for the diagnosis of Acute Stress disorder. Acute Stress symptoms were found to be an excellent predictor of the subjects’ posttraumatic Stress symptoms 7‐10 months after the traumatic event. Conclusions: These results suggest not only that being a bystander to violence is highly Stressful in the short run, but that Acute Stress Reactions to such an event further predict later posttraumatic Stress symptoms. (Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155:620‐624)