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Hitoshi Sakakibara – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • lack of cytosolic glutamine synthetase1 2 activity reduces nitrogen dependent biosynthesis of cytokinin required for axillary bud outgrowth in rice seedlings
    Plant and Cell Physiology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Miwa Ohashi, Keiki Ishiyama, Soichi Kojima, Mikiko Kojima, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Tomoyuki Yamaya, Toshihiko Hayakawa
    Abstract:

    : A mutation abolishing cytosolic glutamine synthetase1;2 (GS1;2) activity impairs assimilation of ammonium into glutamine in both roots and basal portions of shoots, and severely decreases axillary bud outgrowth (tillering) in mutant rice seedlings. Although the gs1;2 mutant phenotype is independent of strigolactone, which inhibits tillering, it also demonstrates glutamine- or related metabolite-responsive biosynthesis of cytokinin (CK), which promotes tillering. Here, we examined the connection between GS1;2 and CK biosynthesis during tillering, focusing on basal portions of the shoots as well as apical and axillary bud meristems in the gs1;2 mutant. Despite a sufficient ammonium supply, decreases in precursor CK contents and a decrease in ammonium assimilation into glutamine were observed in basal portions of mutant shoots. Reintroducing expression of OsGS1;2 cDNA driven by its own promoter restored precursor CK contents and ammonium assimilation to wild-type levels. In basal portions of the shoots, glutamine-responsive Adenosine Phosphate-isopentenyltransferase4 (OsIPT4), which is also predominant in rice roots, was the predominant isogene for IPT, which synthesizes CK. Cell-specific expression of OsIPT4 in phloem companion cells in nodal vascular anastomoses connected to the axillary bud vasculature also decreased in the gs1;2 mutant. Expression of CK-responsive type-A response regulator genes as local indicators of active CKs was also abolished in the axillary bud meristem of the mutant. These results suggest that the lack of GS1;2 activity decreased levels of glutamine or a related metabolite required for CK biosynthesis, causing a deficiency in active CK in the axillary bud meristem necessary for tillering.

  • Regulation of cytokinin biosynthesis, compartmentalization and translocation
    Journal of experimental botany, 2007
    Co-Authors: Naoya Hirose, Kentaro Takei, Takeshi Kuroha, Tomoe Kamada-nobusada, Hiroaki Hayashi, Hitoshi Sakakibara
    Abstract:

    Cytokinins, a group of mobile phytohormones, play an important role in plant growth and development, and their activity is finely controlled by environmental factors in the control of morphogenic and metabolic adaptations. Inorganic nitrogen sources, such as nitrate, are a major factor regulating gene expression of Adenosine Phosphate-isopentenyltransferase (IPT), a key enzyme of cytokinin biosynthesis. Modulation of IPT and macronutrient transporter gene expression in response to nitrate, sulphate and Phosphate, and cytokinin-dependent repression of the transporter genes suggest that cytokinins play a critical role in balancing acquisition and distribution of macronutrients. Biased distribution of trans-zeatin (tZ)-type cytokinins in xylem and N 6 -(D 2 -isopentenyl)adenine (iP)-type cytokinins in phloem saps suggest that, in addition to acting as local signals, cytokinins communicate acropetal and systemic long-distance signals, and that structural side chain variations mediate different biological messages. The compartmentalization of tZ- and iP-type cytokinins implies the involvement of a selective transport system. Recent studies have raised the possibility of subsets of the purine permease family as a transporter of cytokinin nucleobases and equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT) for cytokinin nucleosides. These biochemical and transgenic data suggest that AtENT6, an Arabidopsis ENT, could also participate in cytokinin nucleoside transport with a preference for iP riboside in vascular tissue.

  • ectopic expression of knotted1 like homeobox protein induces expression of cytokinin biosynthesis genes in rice
    Plant Physiology, 2006
    Co-Authors: Tomoaki Sakamoto, Mikiko Kojima, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Yuko Yamamoto, Hiroshi Nagasaki, Yoshiaki Inukai, Yutaka Sato, Makoto Matsuoka
    Abstract:

    Some phytohormones such as gibberellins (GAs) and cytokinins (CKs) are potential targets of the KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) protein. To enhance our understanding of KNOX protein function in plant development, we identified rice (Oryza sativa) genes for Adenosine Phosphate isopentenyltransferase (IPT), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of CK biosynthesis. Molecular and biochemical studies revealed that there are eight IPT genes, OsIPT1 to OsIPT8, in the rice genome, including a pseudogene, OsIPT6. Overexpression of OsIPTs in transgenic rice inhibited root development and promoted axillary bud growth, indicating that OsIPTs are functional in vivo. Phenotypes of OsIPT overexpressers resembled those of KNOX-overproducing transgenic rice, although OsIPT overexpressers did not form roots or ectopic meristems, both of which are observed in KNOX overproducers. Expression of two OsIPT genes, OsIPT2 and OsIPT3, was up-regulated in response to the induction of KNOX protein function with similar kinetics to those of down-regulation of GA 20-oxidase genes, target genes of KNOX proteins in dicots. However, expression of these two OsIPT genes was not regulated in a feedback manner. These results suggest that OsIPT2 and OsIPT3 have unique roles in the developmental process, which is controlled by KNOX proteins, rather than in the maintenance of bioactive CK levels in rice. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that KNOX protein simultaneously decreases GA biosynthesis and increases de novo CK biosynthesis through the induction of OsIPT2 and OsIPT3 expression, and the resulting high-CK and low-GA condition is required for formation and maintenance of the meristem.

Tingting Tang – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Kentaro Takei – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Regulation of cytokinin biosynthesis, compartmentalization and translocation
    Journal of experimental botany, 2007
    Co-Authors: Naoya Hirose, Kentaro Takei, Takeshi Kuroha, Tomoe Kamada-nobusada, Hiroaki Hayashi, Hitoshi Sakakibara
    Abstract:

    Cytokinins, a group of mobile phytohormones, play an important role in plant growth and development, and their activity is finely controlled by environmental factors in the control of morphogenic and metabolic adaptations. Inorganic nitrogen sources, such as nitrate, are a major factor regulating gene expression of Adenosine Phosphate-isopentenyltransferase (IPT), a key enzyme of cytokinin biosynthesis. Modulation of IPT and macronutrient transporter gene expression in response to nitrate, sulphate and Phosphate, and cytokinin-dependent repression of the transporter genes suggest that cytokinins play a critical role in balancing acquisition and distribution of macronutrients. Biased distribution of trans-zeatin (tZ)-type cytokinins in xylem and N 6 -(D 2 -isopentenyl)adenine (iP)-type cytokinins in phloem saps suggest that, in addition to acting as local signals, cytokinins communicate acropetal and systemic long-distance signals, and that structural side chain variations mediate different biological messages. The compartmentalization of tZ- and iP-type cytokinins implies the involvement of a selective transport system. Recent studies have raised the possibility of subsets of the purine permease family as a transporter of cytokinin nucleobases and equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT) for cytokinin nucleosides. These biochemical and transgenic data suggest that AtENT6, an Arabidopsis ENT, could also participate in cytokinin nucleoside transport with a preference for iP riboside in vascular tissue.

  • auxin controls local cytokinin biosynthesis in the nodal stem in apical dominance
    Plant Journal, 2006
    Co-Authors: Mina Tanaka, Mikiko Kojima, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Kentaro Takei, Hitoshi Mori
    Abstract:

    Summary In intact plants, the shoot apex grows predominantly and inhibits outgrowth of axillary buds. After decapitation of the shoot apex, outgrowth of axillary buds begins. This phenomenon is called an apical dominance. Although the involvement of auxin, which represses outgrowth of axillary buds, and cytokinin (CK), which promotes outgrowth of axillary buds, has been proposed, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In the present study, we demonstrated that auxin negatively regulates local CK biosynthesis in the nodal stem by controlling the expression level of the pea (Pisum sativumL.) gene Adenosine Phosphate–isopentenyltransferase (PsIPT), which encodes a key enzyme in CK biosynthesis. Before decapitation, PsIPT1 and PsIPT2 transcripts were undetectable; after decapitation, they were markedly induced in the nodal stem along with accumulation of CK. Expression of PsIPT was repressed by the application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In excised nodal stem, PsIPT expression and CK levels also increased under IAA-free conditions. Furthermore, β-glucuronidase expression, under the control of the PsIPT2 promoter region in transgenic Arabidopsis, was repressed by an IAA. Our results indicate that in apical dominance one role of auxin is to repress local biosynthesis of CK in the nodal stem and that, after decapitation, CKs, which are thought to be derived from the roots, are locally biosynthesized in the nodal stem rather than in the roots.

  • auxin controls local cytokinin biosynthesis in the nodal stem in apical dominance
    Plant Journal, 2006
    Co-Authors: Mina Tanaka, Mikiko Kojima, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Kentaro Takei, Hitoshi Mori
    Abstract:

    In intact plants, the shoot apex grows predominantly and inhibits outgrowth of axillary buds. After decapitation of the shoot apex, outgrowth of axillary buds begins. This phenomenon is called an apical dominance. Although the involvement of auxin, which represses outgrowth of axillary buds, and cytokinin (CK), which promotes outgrowth of axillary buds, has been proposed, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In the present study, we demonstrated that auxin negatively regulates local CK biosynthesis in the nodal stem by controlling the expression level of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) gene Adenosine Phosphate-isopentenyltransferase (PsIPT), which encodes a key enzyme in CK biosynthesis. Before decapitation, PsIPT1 and PsIPT2 transcripts were undetectable; after decapitation, they were markedly induced in the nodal stem along with accumulation of CK. Expression of PsIPT was repressed by the application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In excised nodal stem, PsIPT expression and CK levels also increased under IAA-free conditions. Furthermore, beta-glucuronidase expression, under the control of the PsIPT2 promoter region in transgenic Arabidopsis, was repressed by an IAA. Our results indicate that in apical dominance one role of auxin is to repress local biosynthesis of CK in the nodal stem and that, after decapitation, CKs, which are thought to be derived from the roots, are locally biosynthesized in the nodal stem rather than in the roots.

Tomoyuki Yamaya – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • lack of cytosolic glutamine synthetase1 2 activity reduces nitrogen dependent biosynthesis of cytokinin required for axillary bud outgrowth in rice seedlings
    Plant and Cell Physiology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Miwa Ohashi, Keiki Ishiyama, Soichi Kojima, Mikiko Kojima, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Tomoyuki Yamaya, Toshihiko Hayakawa
    Abstract:

    : A mutation abolishing cytosolic glutamine synthetase1;2 (GS1;2) activity impairs assimilation of ammonium into glutamine in both roots and basal portions of shoots, and severely decreases axillary bud outgrowth (tillering) in mutant rice seedlings. Although the gs1;2 mutant phenotype is independent of strigolactone, which inhibits tillering, it also demonstrates glutamine- or related metabolite-responsive biosynthesis of cytokinin (CK), which promotes tillering. Here, we examined the connection between GS1;2 and CK biosynthesis during tillering, focusing on basal portions of the shoots as well as apical and axillary bud meristems in the gs1;2 mutant. Despite a sufficient ammonium supply, decreases in precursor CK contents and a decrease in ammonium assimilation into glutamine were observed in basal portions of mutant shoots. Reintroducing expression of OsGS1;2 cDNA driven by its own promoter restored precursor CK contents and ammonium assimilation to wild-type levels. In basal portions of the shoots, glutamine-responsive Adenosine Phosphate-isopentenyltransferase4 (OsIPT4), which is also predominant in rice roots, was the predominant isogene for IPT, which synthesizes CK. Cell-specific expression of OsIPT4 in phloem companion cells in nodal vascular anastomoses connected to the axillary bud vasculature also decreased in the gs1;2 mutant. Expression of CK-responsive type-A response regulator genes as local indicators of active CKs was also abolished in the axillary bud meristem of the mutant. These results suggest that the lack of GS1;2 activity decreased levels of glutamine or a related metabolite required for CK biosynthesis, causing a deficiency in active CK in the axillary bud meristem necessary for tillering.

  • agrobacterium tumefaciens increases cytokinin production in plastids by modifying the biosynthetic pathway in the host plant
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2005
    Co-Authors: Hitoshi Sakakibara, Mikiko Kojima, Kentaro Takei, Hiroyuki Kasahara, Nanae Ueda, Shojiro Hishiyama, Yuji Kamiya, Tadao Asami, Kazunori Okada, Tomoyuki Yamaya
    Abstract:

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects plants and induces the formation of tumors called “crown galls” by integrating the transferred-DNA (T-DNA) region of the Ti-plasmid into the plant nuclear genome. Tumors are formed because the T-DNA encodes enzymes that modify the synthesis of two plant growth hormones, auxin and cytokinin (CK). Here, we show that a CK biosynthesis enzyme, Tmr, which is encoded by the Agrobacterium T-DNA region, is targeted to and functions in plastids of infected plant cells, despite having no typical plastid-targeting sequence. Evidence is provided that Tmr is an Adenosine Phosphate-isopentenyltransferase (IPT) that creates a new CK biosynthesis bypass by using 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diPhosphate (HMBDP) as a substrate. Unlike in the conventional CK biosynthesis pathway in plants, trans-zeatin-type CKs are produced directly without the requirement for P450 monooxygenase-mediated hydroxylation. Consistent with the plastid localization of Tmr, HMBDP is an intermediate in the methylerythritol Phosphate pathway, a plastid-localized biosynthesis route for universal isoprenoid precursors. These results demonstrate that A. tumefaciens modifies CK biosynthesis by sending a key enzyme into plastids of the host plant to promote tumorigenesis.

  • arabidopsis cyp735a1 and cyp735a2 encode cytokinin hydroxylases that catalyze the biosynthesis of trans zeatin
    Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2004
    Co-Authors: Kentaro Takei, Tomoyuki Yamaya, Hitoshi Sakakibara
    Abstract:

    Cytokinins (CKs), a group of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives that carry either an isoprene-derived or an aromatic side chain at the N6 terminus. trans-Zeatin (tZ), an isoprenoid CK, is assumed to play a central physiological role because of its general occurrence and high activity in bioassays. Although hydroxylation of isopentenyladenine-type CKs is a key step of tZ biosynthesis, the catalyzing enzyme has not been characterized yet. Here we demonstrate that CYP735A1 and CYP735A2 are cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) that catalyze the biosynthesis of tZ. We identified the genes from Arabidopsis using an Adenosine Phosphate-isopentenyltransferase (AtIPT4)/P450 co-expression system in yeast. Co-expression of AtIPT4 and CYP735A enabled yeast to excrete tZ and the nucleosides to the culture medium. In vitro, both CYP735As preferentially utilized isopentenyladenine nucleotides rather than the nucleoside and free base forms and produced tZ nucleotides but not the cis-isomer. The expression of CYP735A1 and CYP735A2 was differentially regulated in terms of organ specificity and response to CK. Root-specific induction of CYP735A2 expression by CK suggests that the trans-hydroxylation is involved in the regulation of CK metabolism and signaling in roots.

Han Qiao – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Structural simulation of Adenosine Phosphate via plumbagin and zoledronic acid competitively targets JNK/Erk to synergistically attenuate osteoclastogenesis in a breast cancer model.
    Cell death & disease, 2016
    Co-Authors: Han Qiao, Tingting Wang, Xiuguo Han, Xuqiang Liu, Yuming Wang, Qiming Fan, An Qin, Tingting Tang
    Abstract:

    The treatment of breast cancer-induced osteolysis remains a challenge in clinical settings. Here, we explored the effect and mechanism of combined treatment with zoledronic acid (ZA) and plumbagin (PL), a widely investigated component derived from Plumbago zeylanica, against breast cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis. We found that the combined treatment with PL and ZA suppressed cell viability of precursor osteoclasts and synergistically inhibited MDA-MB-231-induced osteoclast formation (combination index=0.28) with the abrogation of recombinant mouse receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of NF-κB/MAPK (nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways. Molecular docking suggested a putative binding area within c-Jun N-terminal kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (JNK/Erk) protease active sites through the structural mimicking of Adenosine Phosphate (ANP) by the spatial combination of PL with ZA. A homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay further illustrated the direct competitiveness of the dual drugs against ANP docking to phosphorylated JNK/Erk, contributing to the inhibited downstream expression of c-Jun/c-Fos/NFATc-1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1). Then, in vivo testing demonstrated that the combined administration of PL and ZA attenuated breast cancer growth in the bone microenvironment. Additionally, these molecules prevented the destruction of proximal tibia, with significant reduction of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP)-positive osteoclast cells and potentiation of apoptotic cancer cells, to a greater extent when combined than when the drugs were applied independently. Altogether, the combination treatment with PL and ZA could significantly and synergistically suppress osteoclastogenesis and inhibit tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo by simulating the spatial structure of ANP to inhibit competitively phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (JNK/Erk).

  • structural simulation of Adenosine Phosphate via plumbagin and zoledronic acid competitively targets jnk erk to synergistically attenuate osteoclastogenesis in a breast cancer model
    Cell Death and Disease, 2016
    Co-Authors: Han Qiao, Tingting Wang, Xiuguo Han, Xuqiang Liu, Yuming Wang, Qiming Fan, An Qin, Tingting Tang
    Abstract:

    The treatment of breast cancer-induced osteolysis remains a challenge in clinical settings. Here, we explored the effect and mechanism of combined treatment with zoledronic acid (ZA) and plumbagin (PL), a widely investigated component derived from Plumbago zeylanica, against breast cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis. We found that the combined treatment with PL and ZA suppressed cell viability of precursor osteoclasts and synergistically inhibited MDA-MB-231-induced osteoclast formation (combination index=0.28) with the abrogation of recombinant mouse receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of NF-κB/MAPK (nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways. Molecular docking suggested a putative binding area within c-Jun N-terminal kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (JNK/Erk) protease active sites through the structural mimicking of Adenosine Phosphate (ANP) by the spatial combination of PL with ZA. A homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay further illustrated the direct competitiveness of the dual drugs against ANP docking to phosphorylated JNK/Erk, contributing to the inhibited downstream expression of c-Jun/c-Fos/NFATc-1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1). Then, in vivo testing demonstrated that the combined administration of PL and ZA attenuated breast cancer growth in the bone microenvironment. Additionally, these molecules prevented the destruction of proximal tibia, with significant reduction of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP)-positive osteoclast cells and potentiation of apoptotic cancer cells, to a greater extent when combined than when the drugs were applied independently. Altogether, the combination treatment with PL and ZA could significantly and synergistically suppress osteoclastogenesis and inhibit tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo by simulating the spatial structure of ANP to inhibit competitively phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (JNK/Erk).