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Jane Wardle – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Socioeconomic status and Adiposity in childhood: A systematic review of cross-sectional studies 1990-2005
    OBESITY, 2008
    Co-Authors: Jane Wardle
    Abstract:

    Background: Sobal and Stunkard’s review (1989) of 34 studies from developed countries published after 1941, found inconsistent relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood Adiposity. Inverse associations (36%), no associations (38%), and positive associations (26%) were found in similar proportions. In view of the trends in pediatric obesity, the relationship between SES and Adiposity may have changed.Objective: To describe the cross-sectional association between SES and Adiposity in school-age children from western developed countries in epidemiological studies since 1989.Methods and Procedures: PubMed database was searched to identify potentially relevant publications. Epidemiological studies from western developed countries presenting cross-sectional data on the bivariate association between an SES indicator and objectively measured Adiposity in childhood (5-18 years), carried out after 1989 were included. SES indicators included parental education, parental occupation, family income, composite SES, and neighborhood SES.Results: Forty-five studies satisfied the review criteria. SES was inversely associated with Adiposity in 19 studies (42%), there was no association in 12 studies (27%), and in 14 studies (31%) there was a mixture of no associations and inverse associations across subgroups. No positive SES-Adiposity associations were seen in unadjusted analyses. With parental education as the SES indicator, inverse associations with Adiposity were found in 15 of 20 studies (75%).Discussion: Research carried out within the past 15 years finds that associations between SES and Adiposity in children are predominately inverse, and positive associations have all but disappeared. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which parental social class influences childhood Adiposity.

M. Grassi – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Jay M Baraban – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • deletion of translin tsn induces robust Adiposity and hepatic steatosis without impairing glucose tolerance
    International Journal of Obesity, 2020
    Co-Authors: Aparna Shah, Miranda D Johnson, Gretha J Boersma, Madhura Shah, Michael J Wolfgang, Kellie L K Tamashiro, Jay M Baraban
    Abstract:

    Objective Translin knockout (KO) mice display robust Adiposity. Recent studies indicate that translin and its partner protein, trax, regulate the microRNA and ATM kinase signaling pathways, both of which have been implicated in regulating metabolism. In the course of characterizing the metabolic profile of these mice, we found that they display normal glucose tolerance despite their elevated Adiposity. Accordingly, we investigated why translin KO mice display this paradoxical phenotype. Methods To help distinguish between the metabolic effects of increased Adiposity and those of translin deletion per se, we compared three groups: (1) wild-type (WT), (2) translin KO mice on a standard chow diet, and (3) Adiposity-matched WT mice that were placed on a high-fat diet until they matched translin KO Adiposity levels. All groups were scanned to determine their body composition and tested to evaluate their glucose and insulin tolerance. Plasma, hepatic, and adipose tissue samples were collected and used for histological and molecular analyses. Results Translin KO mice show normal glucose tolerance whereas Adiposity-matched WT mice, placed on a high-fat diet, do not. In addition, translin KO mice display prominent hepatic steatosis that is more severe than that of Adiposity-matched WT mice. Unlike Adiposity-matched WT mice, translin KO mice display three key features that have been shown to reduce susceptibility to insulin resistance: increased accumulation of subcutaneous fat, increased levels of circulating adiponectin, and decreased Tnfα expression in hepatic and adipose tissue. Conclusions The ability of translin KO mice to retain normal glucose tolerance in the face of marked adipose tisstissue expansion may be due to the three protective factors noted above. Further studies aimed at defining the molecular bases for this combination of protective phenotypes may yield new approaches to limit the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity.

  • deletion of translin tsn induces robust Adiposity and hepatic steatosis without impairing glucose tolerance
    International Journal of Obesity, 2019
    Co-Authors: Aparna Shah, Miranda D Johnson, Gretha J Boersma, Madhura Shah, Michael J Wolfgang, Kellie L K Tamashiro, Xiuping Fu, Jay M Baraban
    Abstract:

    Translin knockout (KO) mice display robust Adiposity. Recent studies indicate that translin and its partner protein, trax, regulate the microRNA and ATM kinase signaling pathways, both of which have been implicated in regulating metabolism. In the course of characterizing the metabolic profile of these mice, we found that they display normal glucose tolerance despite their elevated Adiposity. Accordingly, we investigated why translin KO mice display this paradoxical phenotype. To help distinguish between the metabolic effects of increased Adiposity and those of translin deletion per se, we compared three groups: (1) wild-type (WT), (2) translin KO mice on a standard chow diet, and (3) Adiposity-matched WT mice that were placed on a high-fat diet until they matched translin KO Adiposity levels. All groups were scanned to determine their body composition and tested to evaluate their glucose and insulin tolerance. Plasma, hepatic, and adipose tissue samples were collected and used for histological and molecular analyses. Translin KO mice show normal glucose tolerance whereas Adiposity-matched WT mice, placed on a high-fat diet, do not. In addition, translin KO mice display prominent hepatic steatosis that is more severe than that of Adiposity-matched WT mice. Unlike Adiposity-matched WT mice, translin KO mice display three key features that have been shown to reduce susceptibility to insulin resistance: increased accumulation of subcutaneous fat, increased levels of circulating adiponectin, and decreased Tnfα expression in hepatic and adipose tissue. The ability of translin KO mice to retain normal glucose tolerance in the face of marked adipose tisstissue expansion may be due to the three protective factors noted above. Further studies aimed at defining the molecular bases for this combination of protective phenotypes may yield new approaches to limit the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity.

Jillianne Leigh Cook – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • is Adiposity an under recognized risk factor for tendinopathy a systematic review
    Arthritis & Rheumatism, 2009
    Co-Authors: James Edmund Gaida, Maureen C Ashe, Shona Bass, Jillianne Leigh Cook
    Abstract:

    Objective Tendon injuries have been reported to occur more frequently in individuals with increased Adiposity. Treatment also appears to have poorer outcomes among these individuals. Our objective was to examine the extent and consistency of associations between Adiposity and tendinopathy. Methods A systematic review of observational studies was conducted. Eight electronic databases were searched (Allied and Complementary Medicine, Biological Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents, EMBase, Medline, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) and citation tracking was performed on included reports. Studies were included if they compared Adiposity between subjects with and without tendon injury or examined Adiposity as a predictor of conservative treatment success. Results Four longitudinal cohorts, 14 cross-sectional studies, 8 case–control studies, and 2 interventional studies (28 in total) met the inclusion criteria, providing a total of 19,949 individuals. Forty-two subpopulations were identified, 18 of which showed elevated Adiposity to be associated with tendon injury (43%). Sensitivity analyses indicated a clustering of positive findings among studies that included clinical patients (81% positive) and among case–control studies (77% positive). Conclusion Elevated Adiposity is frequently associated with tendon injury. Published reports suggest that elevated Adiposity is a risk factor for tendon injury, although this association appears to vary depending on aspects of study design and measurement. Adiposity is of particular interest in tendon research because, unlike a number of other reported risk factors for tendon injury, it is somewhat preventable and modifiable. Further research is required to determine if reducing Adiposity will reduce the risk of tendon injury or improve the results of treatment.

Fahimeh Haghighatdoost – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • anthropometric indicators of Adiposity related to body weight and body shape as cardiometabolic risk predictors in british young adults superiority of waist to height ratio
    Journal of Obesity, 2018
    Co-Authors: F Amirabdollahian, Fahimeh Haghighatdoost
    Abstract:

    Frequently reported poor dietary habits of young adults increase their risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Excess Adiposity is the most established predictor of MetS, and numerous anthropometric measures have been proposed as proxy indicators of Adiposity. We aimed to assess prevalence of MetS in young adult population and to make comparison between weight- and shape-oriented measures of Adiposity to identify the best index in association with measured body fat and as a risk predictor for MetS. Healthy males and females aged 18-25 years from the Northwest of England were recruited using convenience sampling (n=550). As part of the assessment of the overall health of young adults, the biochemical variables and Adiposity measures BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), new BMI, Body Adiposity Index (BAI), Clinica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE), and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) were assessed. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between the proxy indices of Adiposity and measured percentage body fat. The odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to investigate the relationship between cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors and proxy measures of Adiposity. The discriminatory power of these measures for diagnosis of MetS was investigated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Body weight-related indicators of Adiposity, particularly CUN-BAE, had stronger association with measured body fat compared with body shape-related indices. In relation with MetS, body shape-related indices, particularly elevated WC and WHtR, had stronger associations with CM risk compared with body weight-related measures. Amongst all indices, the best predictor for CM risk was WHtR, while ABSI had the weakest correlation with body fat, MetS, and CM risk. Indices directly associated with WC and specifically WHtR had greater diagnostic power in detection of CM risk in young adults.