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Adrenal Necrosis

The Experts below are selected from a list of 123 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

James T Harvey – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • ANTIBODIES TO PHOCINE HERPESVIRUS-1 ARE COMMON IN NORTH AMERICAN HARBOR SEALS (PHOCA VITULINA)
    Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2003
    Co-Authors: Tracey Goldstein, Frances M D Gulland, James T Harvey, Brian Michael Aldridge, Teri Rowles, Dyanna M. Lambourn, Steven J. Jeffries, Lena N. Measures, Pamela K. Yochem, Brent S. Stewart

    Abstract:

    Phocine herpesvirus-1 (PhHV-1) has been associated with morbidity and high mortality in neonatal harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) along the Pacific coast of California (USA) and in northern Europe. Seals dying with PhHV-1 associated disease in California primarily have histopathologic evidence of Adrenal Necrosis or Adrenalitis with herpesviral inclusion bodies. Little is known about prevalence of exposure to PhHV-1, modes of disease transmission, and viral pathogenesis in free-ranging harbor seal populations. To evaluate the prevalence in North America, 866 serum samples collected between 1994 and 2002 from harbor seals captured or stranded on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for evidence of PhHV-1 exposure. Samples from three harbor seal age classes (pre-weaned, weaned, and subadults/adults) were obtained from each of four regions to compare exposure among sex, age class, and region. We found increasing prevalence with age as 37.5% o…

  • Adrenal function in wild and rehabilitated pacific harbor seals phoca vitulina richardii and in seals with phocine herpesvirus associated Adrenal Necrosis
    Marine Mammal Science, 1999
    Co-Authors: Frances M D Gulland, Martin Haulena, Linda J Lowenstine, C Munro, Peter A Graham, J Bauman, James T Harvey

    Abstract:

    Adrenal function in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) was evaluated using adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests and fecal cortisol levels. The effect of ACTH administration on plasma cortisol and aldosterone levels in five free-living and 14 rehabilitated harbor seal pups was determined using enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. In free-living seals, injection of ACTH caused a significant increase in mean plasma cortisol but not of mean aldosterone levels 60 min postinjection. In these seals, mean initial plasma aldosterone was significantly higher than initial levels in rehabilitated seals, while initial cortisol levels were similar. Of the rehabilitated seals, eight died with Adrenal cortical Necrosis associated with herpesvirus inclusions, while six lived to be released. In the seals that were released, both mean initial cortisol levels and response to ACTH decreased through rehabilitation. In the seals that died, mean initial cortisol and response to ACTH increased through rehabilitation. The differences between initial cortisol levels in seals that lived and those that died were significant at weeks two and four of rehabilitation but not at the week of admission. There was considerable individual variation in initial plasma aldosterone levels and responses to ACTH, although initial aldosterone levels were significantly higher in rehabilitated seals that died than in seals that lived. Seals with Adrenal Necrosis associated with herpesvirus infection did not have decreased Adrenal hormone responses to ACTH. Differences between initial hormone levels and responses to ACTH in different groups of seals may be associated with differing stress levels. Fecal cortisol assays were not a useful method of assessing Adrenal function in these seals, as measured levels did not correlate with plasma cortisol levels.

Kaoru Nagata – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the first case of thrombocytopenia anasarca fever renal impairment or reticulin fibrosis and organomegaly tafro syndrome with unilateral Adrenal Necrosis a case report
    Journal of Medical Case Reports, 2018
    Co-Authors: Yu Fujiwara, Akito Takamura, Kaoru Nagata

    Abstract:

    TAFRO syndrome, which was first reported in 2010 in Japan, is a relatively rare disease characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, renal impairment, reticulin fibrosis, and organomegaly. Although this disease is considered similar to multicentric Castleman disease, some of the clinical features, such as thrombocytopenia, are different from typical cases of multicentric Castleman disease. In addition, the etiology of TAFRO syndrome remains unknown and controversial. There have only been a few cases of TAFRO syndrome complicated with Adrenal gland lesions, and all of them have had hemorrhagic involvement. This report describes the case of a 46-year-old Asian man who presented with fever, epigastric pain, and back pain for 1 month. A computed tomographic scan revealed ascites, mild lymphadenopathy, and left Adrenal Necrosis without hemorrhage. A blood test showed thrombocytopenia, anemia, and elevated C-reactive protein, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine levels. Based on the edema, severe thrombocytopenia, fever, reticulin myelofibrosis shown by bone marrow biopsy, mild lymphadenopathy, and progressive renal insufficiency, we diagnosed this patient as having TAFRO syndrome. He was successfully treated by immediate administration of glucocorticoids and tocilizumab. There have been no previous reports of a case of TAFRO syndrome complicated with Adrenal Necrosis. Because the biopsy of the left Adrenal gland revealed Necrosis without any evidence of hemorrhage, we concluded that the unilateral Adrenal Necrosis in this case was caused by either ischemia from infarction or organomegaly itself under severe hypercytokinemia. This unusual clinical course is useful for further analysis of the etiology of TAFRO syndrome.

  • The first case of thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, renal impairment or reticulin fibrosis, and organomegaly (TAFRO) syndrome with unilateral Adrenal Necrosis: a case report
    Journal of Medical Case Reports, 2018
    Co-Authors: Yu Fujiwara, Akito Takamura, Kaoru Nagata

    Abstract:

    Background TAFRO syndrome, which was first reported in 2010 in Japan, is a relatively rare disease characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, renal impairment, reticulin fibrosis, and organomegaly. Although this disease is considered similar to multicentric Castleman disease, some of the clinical features, such as thrombocytopenia, are different from typical cases of multicentric Castleman disease. In addition, the etiology of TAFRO syndrome remains unknown and controversial. There have only been a few cases of TAFRO syndrome complicated with Adrenal gland lesions, and all of them have had hemorrhagic involvement. Case presentation This report describes the case of a 46-year-old Asian man who presented with fever, epigastric pain, and back pain for 1 month. A computed tomographic scan revealed ascites, mild lymphadenopathy, and left Adrenal Necrosis without hemorrhage. A blood test showed thrombocytopenia, anemia, and elevated C-reactive protein, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine levels. Based on the edema, severe thrombocytopenia, fever, reticulin myelofibrosis shown by bone marrow biopsy, mild lymphadenopathy, and progressive renal insufficiency, we diagnosed this patient as having TAFRO syndrome. He was successfully treated by immediate administration of glucocorticoids and tocilizumab. Conclusions There have been no previous reports of a case of TAFRO syndrome complicated with Adrenal Necrosis. Because the biopsy of the left Adrenal gland revealed Necrosis without any evidence of hemorrhage, we concluded that the unilateral Adrenal Necrosis in this case was caused by either ischemia from infarction or organomegaly itself under severe hypercytokinemia. This unusual clinical course is useful for further analysis of the etiology of TAFRO syndrome.

Frances M D Gulland – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • ANTIBODIES TO PHOCINE HERPESVIRUS-1 ARE COMMON IN NORTH AMERICAN HARBOR SEALS (PHOCA VITULINA)
    Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2003
    Co-Authors: Tracey Goldstein, Frances M D Gulland, James T Harvey, Brian Michael Aldridge, Teri Rowles, Dyanna M. Lambourn, Steven J. Jeffries, Lena N. Measures, Pamela K. Yochem, Brent S. Stewart

    Abstract:

    Phocine herpesvirus-1 (PhHV-1) has been associated with morbidity and high mortality in neonatal harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) along the Pacific coast of California (USA) and in northern Europe. Seals dying with PhHV-1 associated disease in California primarily have histopathologic evidence of Adrenal Necrosis or Adrenalitis with herpesviral inclusion bodies. Little is known about prevalence of exposure to PhHV-1, modes of disease transmission, and viral pathogenesis in free-ranging harbor seal populations. To evaluate the prevalence in North America, 866 serum samples collected between 1994 and 2002 from harbor seals captured or stranded on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for evidence of PhHV-1 exposure. Samples from three harbor seal age classes (pre-weaned, weaned, and subadults/adults) were obtained from each of four regions to compare exposure among sex, age class, and region. We found increasing prevalence with age as 37.5% o…

  • Adrenal function in wild and rehabilitated pacific harbor seals phoca vitulina richardii and in seals with phocine herpesvirus associated Adrenal Necrosis
    Marine Mammal Science, 1999
    Co-Authors: Frances M D Gulland, Martin Haulena, Linda J Lowenstine, C Munro, Peter A Graham, J Bauman, James T Harvey

    Abstract:

    Adrenal function in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) was evaluated using adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests and fecal cortisol levels. The effect of ACTH administration on plasma cortisol and aldosterone levels in five free-living and 14 rehabilitated harbor seal pups was determined using enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. In free-living seals, injection of ACTH caused a significant increase in mean plasma cortisol but not of mean aldosterone levels 60 min postinjection. In these seals, mean initial plasma aldosterone was significantly higher than initial levels in rehabilitated seals, while initial cortisol levels were similar. Of the rehabilitated seals, eight died with Adrenal cortical Necrosis associated with herpesvirus inclusions, while six lived to be released. In the seals that were released, both mean initial cortisol levels and response to ACTH decreased through rehabilitation. In the seals that died, mean initial cortisol and response to ACTH increased through rehabilitation. The differences between initial cortisol levels in seals that lived and those that died were significant at weeks two and four of rehabilitation but not at the week of admission. There was considerable individual variation in initial plasma aldosterone levels and responses to ACTH, although initial aldosterone levels were significantly higher in rehabilitated seals that died than in seals that lived. Seals with Adrenal Necrosis associated with herpesvirus infection did not have decreased Adrenal hormone responses to ACTH. Differences between initial hormone levels and responses to ACTH in different groups of seals may be associated with differing stress levels. Fecal cortisol assays were not a useful method of assessing Adrenal function in these seals, as measured levels did not correlate with plasma cortisol levels.

  • HERPESVIRUS INFECTION IN STRANDED PACIFIC HARBOR SEALS OF COASTAL CALIFORNIA
    Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 1997
    Co-Authors: Frances M D Gulland, Linda J Lowenstine, Jean-martin Lapointe, Terry R. Spraker, Donald P. King

    Abstract:

    Histopathological examination revealed multifocal acute to chronic Adrenal Necrosis in 74 of 162 (45%) Pacific harbor seal pups (Phoca vitulina richardsi) dying during rehabilitation following live stranding along the coast of central and northern California (USA). Necrotic Adrenal cells contained amphophilic, smudgy intranuclear inclusion bodies that were stained positive for DNA. Fifty of these seals also had lesions typical of sepsis, bacterial omphalophlebitis, pneumonia or gastroenteritis. Twenty four seals had no lesions other than thymic atrophy and occasional multifocal hepatic Necrosis. Prior to death, affected seals had a marked lymphopenia. Electron microscopy revealed unenveloped intranuclear hexagonal to round viral particles approximately 100 nm in diameter, and cytoplasmic enveloped virions approximately 160 nm in diameter. These were morphologically consistent with herpesvirus. Inoculation of phocine Adrenal and kidney cell lines with an Adrenal tissue homogenate from affected animals prod…