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Adverse Childhood Experiences

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Robert F Anda – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Adverse Childhood Experiences and smoking status in five states
    Preventive Medicine, 2011
    Co-Authors: Earl S Ford, Robert F Anda, Valerie J Edwards, Geraldine S Perry, Guixiang Zhao, Chaoyang Li, Janet B Croft

    Abstract:

    Abstract Objective Our objective was to examine the associations between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and smoking behavior among a random sample of adults living in five U.S. states. Methods We used data from 25,809 participants of the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to assess the relationship of each of the 8 Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Adverse Childhood experience score to smoking status. Results and conclusions Some 59.4% of men and women reported at least one Adverse Childhood experience. Each of the eight Adverse Childhood Experiences measures was significantly associated with smoking status after adjustment for demographic variables. The prevalence ratios for current and ever smoking increased in a positive graded fashion as the Adverse Childhood experience score increased. Among adults who reported no Adverse Childhood Experiences, 13.0% were currently smoking and 38.3% had ever smoked. Compared to participants with an Adverse Childhood experience score of 0, those with an Adverse Childhood experience score of 5 or more were more likely to be a current smoker (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.92–2.57) and to have ever smoked (aPR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.67–1.93). Further research is warranted to determine whether the prevention of and interventions for Adverse Childhood Experiences might reduce the burden of smoking-related illness in the general population.

  • Adverse Childhood Experiences and sleep disturbances in adults.
    Sleep medicine, 2011
    Co-Authors: Daniel P Chapman, Robert F Anda, Janet B Croft, Valerie J Edwards, Anne G. Wheaton, Yong Liu, Stephanie L. Sturgis, Geraldine S Perry

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background Sleep disturbances are associated with an increased risk for many chronic diseases and unhealthy behaviors. A history of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) is also associated with similar adult health outcomes. We studied the relationship between multiple ACEs and the likelihood of experiencing self-reported sleep disturbances in adulthood. Methods We used data from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study, a retrospective cohort study of 17,337 adult health maintenance organization members in California who completed a survey about eight ACEs, which included Childhood abuse and growing up with various forms of household dysfunction. The self-reported sleep disturbances measured included ever having trouble falling or staying asleep and feeling tired after a good night’s sleep. We used an integer count of the number of ACEs (the ACE score) to assess the cumulative impact of these Experiences on the likelihood of self-reported sleep disturbances. Results Thirty-three percent of the cohort reported trouble falling or staying asleep, while 24% reported feeling tired after sleeping. All eight ACE categories were associated with an increased likelihood of self-reported sleep disturbances ( p p Conclusions Adverse Childhood Experiences were associated with self-reported sleep disturbances in adulthood, and the ACE score had a graded relationship to these sleep disturbances. A history of ACEs should be obtained for patients with self-reported sleep disturbances to coordinate services that ameliorate the long-term effects of these events.

  • Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations.
    Child abuse & neglect, 2005
    Co-Authors: Charles L. Whitfield, Vincent J Felitti, Shanta R. Dube, Robert F Anda

    Abstract:

    Objective: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods: We conducted a survey about Childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health behaviors and outcomes in adulthood, which was completed by 17,337 adult HMO members in order to assess the independent relationship of 8 Adverse Childhood Experiences and the total number of ACEs (ACE score) to experiencing hallucinations. We used logistic regression to assess the relationship of the ACE score to self-reported hallucinations. Results: We found a statistically significant and graded relationship between histories of Childhood trauma and histories of hallucinations that was independent of a history of substance abuse. Compared to persons with 0 ACEs, those with 7 or more ACEs had a five-fold increase in the risk of reporting hallucinations. Conclusion: These findings suggest that a history of Childhood trauma should be looked for among persons with a history of hallucinations. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vincent J Felitti – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations.
    Child abuse & neglect, 2005
    Co-Authors: Charles L. Whitfield, Vincent J Felitti, Shanta R. Dube, Robert F Anda

    Abstract:

    Objective: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods: We conducted a survey about Childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health behaviors and outcomes in adulthood, which was completed by 17,337 adult HMO members in order to assess the independent relationship of 8 Adverse Childhood Experiences and the total number of ACEs (ACE score) to experiencing hallucinations. We used logistic regression to assess the relationship of the ACE score to self-reported hallucinations. Results: We found a statistically significant and graded relationship between histories of Childhood trauma and histories of hallucinations that was independent of a history of substance abuse. Compared to persons with 0 ACEs, those with 7 or more ACEs had a five-fold increase in the risk of reporting hallucinations. Conclusion: These findings suggest that a history of Childhood trauma should be looked for among persons with a history of hallucinations. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Adverse Childhood Experiences and risk of paternity in teen pregnancy
    Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2002
    Co-Authors: Robert F Anda, Janet B Croft, Vincent J Felitti, David F Williamson, Daniel P Chapman, Valerie J Edwards, Wayne H Giles

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: Few studies have investigated risk factors that predispose males to be involved in teen pregnancies. To provide new information on such factors, we examined the relationships of eight common Adverse Childhood Experiences to a male’s risk of impregnating a teenager. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using questionnaire responses from 7399 men who visited a primary care clinic of a large health maintenance organization in California. Data included age of the youngest female ever impregnated; the man’s own age at the time; his history of Childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse; having a battered mother; parental separation or divorce; and having household members who were substance abusers, mentally ill, or criminals. Odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of involvement in a teen pregnancy were adjusted for age, race, and education. RESULTS: At least one Adverse Childhood experience was reported by 63% of participants, and 34% had at least two Adverse Childhood Experiences; 19% of men had been involved in a teen pregnancy. Each Adverse Childhood experience was positively associated with impregnating a teenager, with ORs ranging from 1.2 (sexual abuse) to 1.8 (criminal in home). We found strong graded relationships (P < .001) between the number of Adverse Childhood Experiences and the risk of involvement in a teen pregnancy for each of four birth cohorts during the last century. Compared with males with no Adverse Childhood Experiences, a male with at least five Adverse Childhood Experiences had an OR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.4) for impregnating a teenager. The magnitude of the ORs for the Adverse Childhood Experiences was reduced 64 ‐100% by adjustment for potential intermediate variables (age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners, having a sexually transmitted disease, and alcohol or drug abuse) that also exhibited a strong graded relationship to Adverse Childhood Experiences. CONCLUSION: Adverse Childhood Experiences have an important relationship to male involvement in teen pregnancy. This relationship has persisted throughout four successive birth cohorts dating back to 1900 ‐1929, suggesting that the effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences transcend changing sexual mores and contraceptive methods. Efforts to prevent teen pregnancy will likely benefit from preventing Adverse Childhood Experiences and their associated effects on male behaviors that might mediate the increased risk of teen pregnancy. (Obstet Gynecol 2002; 100:37‐ 45. © 2002 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.)

  • Adverse Childhood Experiences, Alcoholic Parents, and Later Risk of Alcoholism and Depression
    Psychiatric services (Washington D.C.), 2002
    Co-Authors: Robert F Anda, Vincent J Felitti, Daniel P Chapman, Valerie J Edwards, Charles L. Whitfield, Shanta R. Dube, David F Williamson

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: The study examined how growing up with alcoholic parents and having Adverse Childhood Experiences are related to the risk of alcoholism and depression in adulthood. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 9,346 adults who visited a primary care clinic of a large health maintenance organization completed a survey about nine Adverse Childhood Experiences: experiencing Childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse; witnessing domestic violence; parental separation or divorce; and growing up with drug-abusing, mentally ill, suicidal, or criminal household members. The associations between parental alcohol abuse, the Adverse Experiences, and alcoholism and depression in adulthood were assessed by logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The risk of having had all nine of the Adverse Childhood Experiences was significantly greater among the 20 percent of respondents who reported parental alcohol abuse. The number of Adverse Experiences had a graded relationship to alcoholism and depression in ad…

Janet B Croft – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Adverse Childhood Experiences and smoking status in five states
    Preventive Medicine, 2011
    Co-Authors: Earl S Ford, Robert F Anda, Valerie J Edwards, Geraldine S Perry, Guixiang Zhao, Chaoyang Li, Janet B Croft

    Abstract:

    Abstract Objective Our objective was to examine the associations between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and smoking behavior among a random sample of adults living in five U.S. states. Methods We used data from 25,809 participants of the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to assess the relationship of each of the 8 Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Adverse Childhood experience score to smoking status. Results and conclusions Some 59.4% of men and women reported at least one Adverse Childhood experience. Each of the eight Adverse Childhood Experiences measures was significantly associated with smoking status after adjustment for demographic variables. The prevalence ratios for current and ever smoking increased in a positive graded fashion as the Adverse Childhood experience score increased. Among adults who reported no Adverse Childhood Experiences, 13.0% were currently smoking and 38.3% had ever smoked. Compared to participants with an Adverse Childhood experience score of 0, those with an Adverse Childhood experience score of 5 or more were more likely to be a current smoker (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.92–2.57) and to have ever smoked (aPR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.67–1.93). Further research is warranted to determine whether the prevention of and interventions for Adverse Childhood Experiences might reduce the burden of smoking-related illness in the general population.

  • Adverse Childhood Experiences and sleep disturbances in adults.
    Sleep medicine, 2011
    Co-Authors: Daniel P Chapman, Robert F Anda, Janet B Croft, Valerie J Edwards, Anne G. Wheaton, Yong Liu, Stephanie L. Sturgis, Geraldine S Perry

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background Sleep disturbances are associated with an increased risk for many chronic diseases and unhealthy behaviors. A history of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) is also associated with similar adult health outcomes. We studied the relationship between multiple ACEs and the likelihood of experiencing self-reported sleep disturbances in adulthood. Methods We used data from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study, a retrospective cohort study of 17,337 adult health maintenance organization members in California who completed a survey about eight ACEs, which included Childhood abuse and growing up with various forms of household dysfunction. The self-reported sleep disturbances measured included ever having trouble falling or staying asleep and feeling tired after a good night’s sleep. We used an integer count of the number of ACEs (the ACE score) to assess the cumulative impact of these Experiences on the likelihood of self-reported sleep disturbances. Results Thirty-three percent of the cohort reported trouble falling or staying asleep, while 24% reported feeling tired after sleeping. All eight ACE categories were associated with an increased likelihood of self-reported sleep disturbances ( p p Conclusions Adverse Childhood Experiences were associated with self-reported sleep disturbances in adulthood, and the ACE score had a graded relationship to these sleep disturbances. A history of ACEs should be obtained for patients with self-reported sleep disturbances to coordinate services that ameliorate the long-term effects of these events.

  • Adverse Childhood Experiences and risk of paternity in teen pregnancy
    Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2002
    Co-Authors: Robert F Anda, Janet B Croft, Vincent J Felitti, David F Williamson, Daniel P Chapman, Valerie J Edwards, Wayne H Giles

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: Few studies have investigated risk factors that predispose males to be involved in teen pregnancies. To provide new information on such factors, we examined the relationships of eight common Adverse Childhood Experiences to a male’s risk of impregnating a teenager. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using questionnaire responses from 7399 men who visited a primary care clinic of a large health maintenance organization in California. Data included age of the youngest female ever impregnated; the man’s own age at the time; his history of Childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse; having a battered mother; parental separation or divorce; and having household members who were substance abusers, mentally ill, or criminals. Odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of involvement in a teen pregnancy were adjusted for age, race, and education. RESULTS: At least one Adverse Childhood experience was reported by 63% of participants, and 34% had at least two Adverse Childhood Experiences; 19% of men had been involved in a teen pregnancy. Each Adverse Childhood experience was positively associated with impregnating a teenager, with ORs ranging from 1.2 (sexual abuse) to 1.8 (criminal in home). We found strong graded relationships (P < .001) between the number of Adverse Childhood Experiences and the risk of involvement in a teen pregnancy for each of four birth cohorts during the last century. Compared with males with no Adverse Childhood Experiences, a male with at least five Adverse Childhood Experiences had an OR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.4) for impregnating a teenager. The magnitude of the ORs for the Adverse Childhood Experiences was reduced 64 ‐100% by adjustment for potential intermediate variables (age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners, having a sexually transmitted disease, and alcohol or drug abuse) that also exhibited a strong graded relationship to Adverse Childhood Experiences. CONCLUSION: Adverse Childhood Experiences have an important relationship to male involvement in teen pregnancy. This relationship has persisted throughout four successive birth cohorts dating back to 1900 ‐1929, suggesting that the effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences transcend changing sexual mores and contraceptive methods. Efforts to prevent teen pregnancy will likely benefit from preventing Adverse Childhood Experiences and their associated effects on male behaviors that might mediate the increased risk of teen pregnancy. (Obstet Gynecol 2002; 100:37‐ 45. © 2002 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.)