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Istvan Molnar – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • drought stress affects the protein and dietary fiber content of wholemeal wheat flour in wheat Aegilops addition lines
    PLOS ONE, 2019
    Co-Authors: Marianna Rakszegi, Istvan Molnar, Marta Molnarlang, Eva Darko, Alison Lovegrove, Laszlo Lang, Zoltan Bedő, Peter R Shewry
    Abstract:

    Wild relatives of wheat, such as Aegilops spp. are potential sources of genes conferring tolerance to drought stress. As drought stress affects seed composition, the main goal of the present study was to determine the effects of drought stress on the content and composition of the grain storage protprotein (gliadin (Gli), glutenin (Glu), unextractable polymeric proteins (UPP%) and dietary fiber (arabinoxylan, β-glucan) components of hexaploid bread wheat (T. aestivum) lines containing added chromosomes from Ae. biuncialis or Ae. geniculata. Both Aegilops parents have higher contents of protein and β-glucan and higher proportions of water-soluble arabinoxylans (determined as pentosans) than wheat when grown under both well-watered and drought stress conditions. In general, drought stress resulted in increased contents of protein and total pentosans in the addition lines, while the β-glucan content decreased in many of the addition lines. The differences found between the wheat/Aegilops addition lines and wheat parents under well-watered conditions were also manifested under drought stress conditions: Namely, elevated β-glucan content was found in addition lines containing chromosomes 5Ug, 7Ug and 7Mb, while chromosomes 1Ub and 1Mg affected the proportion of polymeric proteins (determined as Glu/Gli and UPP%, respectively) under both well-watered and drought stress conditions. Furthermore, the addition of chromosome 6Mg decreased the WE-pentosan content under both conditions. The grain composition of the Aegilops accessions was more stable under drought stress than that of wheat, and wheat lines with the added Aegilops chromosomes 2Mg and 5Mg also had more stable grain protein and pentosan contents. The negative effects of drought stress on both the physical and compositional properties of wheat were also reduced by the addition of these. These results suggest that the stability of the grain composition could be improved under drought stress conditions by the intraspecific hybridization of wheat with its wild relatives.

  • dissecting the u m s and c genomes of wild relatives of bread wheat Aegilops spp into chromosomes and exploring their synteny with wheat
    Plant Journal, 2016
    Co-Authors: Istvan Molnar, Marta Molnarlang, Andras Cseh, Jan Vrana, Andras Farkas, Veronika Buresova, Petr Capal, Eva Darko, Marie Kubalakova, Jaroslav Doležel
    Abstract:

    Goat grasses (Aegilops spp.) contributed to the evolution of bread wheat and are important sources of genes and alleles for modern wheat improvement. However, their use in alien introgression breeding is hindered by poor knowledge of their genome structure and a lack of molecular tools. The analysis of large and complex genomes may be simplified by dissecting them into single chromosomes via flow cytometric sorting. In some species this is not possible due to similarities in relative DNA content among chromosomes within a karyotype. This work describes the distribution of GAA and ACG microsatellite repeats on chromosomes of the U, M, S and C genomes of Aegilops, and the use of microsatellite probes to label the chromosomes in suspension by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISHIS). Bivariate flow cytometric analysis of chromosome DAPI fluorescence and fluorescence of FITC-labelled microsatellites made it possible to discriminate all chromosomes and sort them with negligible contamination by other chromosomes. DNA of purified chromosomes was used as a template for polymerase chain reation (PCR) using Conserved Orthologous Set (COS) markers with known positions on wheat A, B and D genomes. Wheat-Aegilops macrosyntenic comparisons using COS markers revealed significant rearrangements in the U and C genomes, while the M and S genomes exhibited structure similar to wheat. Purified chromosome fractions provided an attractive resource to investigate the structure and evolution of the Aegilops genomes, and the COS markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes will facilitate alien gene introgression into wheat.

  • syntenic relationships between the u and m genomes of Aegilops wheat and the model species brachypodium and rice as revealed by cos markers
    PLOS ONE, 2013
    Co-Authors: Istvan Molnar, Marta Molnarlang, Hana Simkova, Michelle Leveringtonwaite, Richard Goram, Andras Cseh, Jan Vrana, Andras Farkas, Jaroslav Doležel, Simon Griffiths
    Abstract:

    Diploid Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata are important wild gene sources for wheat. With the aim of assisting in alien gene transfer, this study provides gene-based conserved orthologous set (COS) markers for the U and M genome chromosomes. Out of the 140 markers tested on a series of wheat-Aegilops chromosome introgression lines and flow-sorted subgenomic chromosome fractions, 100 were assigned to Aegilops chromosomes and six and seven duplications were identified in the U and M genomes, respectively. The marker-specific EST sequences were BLAST-ed to Brachypodium and rice genomic sequences to investigate macrosyntenic relationships between the U and M genomes of Aegilops, wheat and the model species. Five syntenic regions of Brachypodium identified genome rearrangements differentiating the U genome from the M genome and from the D genome of wheat. All of them seem to have evolved at the diploid level and to have been modified differentially in the polyploid species Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. A certain level of wheat–Aegilops homology was detected for group 1, 2, 3 and 5 chromosomes, while a clearly rearranged structure was showed for the group 4, 6 and 7 Aegilops chromosomes relative to wheat. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species, wheat and model species will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U and M genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to allopolyploidization.

Marta Molnarlang – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • drought stress affects the protein and dietary fiber content of wholemeal wheat flour in wheat Aegilops addition lines
    PLOS ONE, 2019
    Co-Authors: Marianna Rakszegi, Istvan Molnar, Marta Molnarlang, Eva Darko, Alison Lovegrove, Laszlo Lang, Zoltan Bedő, Peter R Shewry
    Abstract:

    Wild relatives of wheat, such as Aegilops spp. are potential sources of genes conferring tolerance to drought stress. As drought stress affects seed composition, the main goal of the present study was to determine the effects of drought stress on the content and composition of the grain storage protein (gliadin (Gli), glutenin (Glu), unextractable polymeric proteins (UPP%) and dietary fiber (arabinoxylan, β-glucan) components of hexaploid bread wheat (T. aestivum) lines containing added chromosomes from Ae. biuncialis or Ae. geniculata. Both Aegilops parents have higher contents of protein and β-glucan and higher proportions of water-soluble arabinoxylans (determined as pentosans) than wheat when grown under both well-watered and drought stress conditions. In general, drought stress resulted in increased contents of protein and total pentosans in the addition lines, while the β-glucan content decreased in many of the addition lines. The differences found between the wheat/Aegilops addition lines and wheat parents under well-watered conditions were also manifested under drought stress conditions: Namely, elevated β-glucan content was found in addition lines containing chromosomes 5Ug, 7Ug and 7Mb, while chromosomes 1Ub and 1Mg affected the proportion of polymeric proteins (determined as Glu/Gli and UPP%, respectively) under both well-watered and drought stress conditions. Furthermore, the addition of chromosome 6Mg decreased the WE-pentosan content under both conditions. The grain composition of the Aegilops accessions was more stable under drought stress than that of wheat, and wheat lines with the added Aegilops chromosomes 2Mg and 5Mg also had more stable grain protein and pentosan contents. The negative effects of drought stress on both the physical and compositional properties of wheat were also reduced by the addition of these. These results suggest that the stability of the grain composition could be improved under drought stress conditions by the intraspecific hybridization of wheat with its wild relatives.

  • dissecting the u m s and c genomes of wild relatives of bread wheat Aegilops spp into chromosomes and exploring their synteny with wheat
    Plant Journal, 2016
    Co-Authors: Istvan Molnar, Marta Molnarlang, Andras Cseh, Jan Vrana, Andras Farkas, Veronika Buresova, Petr Capal, Eva Darko, Marie Kubalakova, Jaroslav Doležel
    Abstract:

    Goat grasses (Aegilops spp.) contributed to the evolution of bread wheat and are important sources of genes and alleles for modern wheat improvement. However, their use in alien introgression breeding is hindered by poor knowledge of their genome structure and a lack of molecular tools. The analysis of large and complex genomes may be simplified by dissecting them into single chromosomes via flow cytometric sorting. In some species this is not possible due to similarities in relative DNA content among chromosomes within a karyotype. This work describes the distribution of GAA and ACG microsatellite repeats on chromosomes of the U, M, S and C genomes of Aegilops, and the use of microsatellite probes to label the chromosomes in suspension by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISHIS). Bivariate flow cytometric analysis of chromosome DAPI fluorescence and fluorescence of FITC-labelled microsatellites made it possible to discriminate all chromosomes and sort them with negligible contamination by other chromosomes. DNA of purified chromosomes was used as a template for polymerase chain reation (PCR) using Conserved Orthologous Set (COS) markers with known positions on wheat A, B and D genomes. Wheat-Aegilops macrosyntenic comparisons using COS markers revealed significant rearrangements in the U and C genomes, while the M and S genomes exhibited structure similar to wheat. Purified chromosome fractions provided an attractive resource to investigate the structure and evolution of the Aegilops genomes, and the COS markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes will facilitate alien gene introgression into wheat.

  • syntenic relationships between the u and m genomes of Aegilops wheat and the model species brachypodium and rice as revealed by cos markers
    PLOS ONE, 2013
    Co-Authors: Istvan Molnar, Marta Molnarlang, Hana Simkova, Michelle Leveringtonwaite, Richard Goram, Andras Cseh, Jan Vrana, Andras Farkas, Jaroslav Doležel, Simon Griffiths
    Abstract:

    Diploid Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata are important wild gene sources for wheat. With the aim of assisting in alien gene transfer, this study provides gene-based conserved orthologous set (COS) markers for the U and M genome chromosomes. Out of the 140 markers tested on a series of wheat-Aegilops chromosome introgression lines and flow-sorted subgenomic chromosome fractions, 100 were assigned to Aegilops chromosomes and six and seven duplications were identified in the U and M genomes, respectively. The marker-specific EST sequences were BLAST-ed to Brachypodium and rice genomic sequences to investigate macrosyntenic relationships between the U and M genomes of Aegilops, wheat and the model species. Five syntenic regions of Brachypodium identified genome rearrangements differentiating the U genome from the M genome and from the D genome of wheat. All of them seem to have evolved at the diploid level and to have been modified differentially in the polyploid species Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. A certain level of wheat–Aegilops homology was detected for group 1, 2, 3 and 5 chromosomes, while a clearly rearranged structure was showed for the group 4, 6 and 7 Aegilops chromosomes relative to wheat. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species, wheat and model species will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U and M genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to allopolyploidization.

Kasper Berthelsen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Phylogenetic relationships of Triticum and Aegilops and evidence for the origin of the A, B, and D genomes of common wheat (Triticum aestivum).
    Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 2006
    Co-Authors: Gitte Petersen, Ole Seberg, Merete Yde, Kasper Berthelsen
    Abstract:

    Abstract Common wheat (Triticum aestivum) has for decades been a textbook example of the evolution of a major crop species by allopolyploidization. Using a sophisticated extension of the PCR technique, we have successfully isolated two single-copy nuclear genes, DMC1 and EF–G, from each of the three genomes found in hexaploid wheat (BAuD) and from the two genomes of the tetraploid progenitor Triticum turgidum (BAu). By subjecting these sequences to phylogenetic analysis together with sequences from representatives of all the diploid Triticeae genera we are able for the first time to provide simultaneous and strongly supported evidence for the D genome being derived from Aegilops tauschii, the Au genome being derived from Triticum urartu, and the hitherto enigmatic B genome being derived from Aegilops speltoides. Previous problems of identifying the B genome donor may be associated with a higher diversification rate of the B genome compared to the Au genome in the polyploid wheats. The phylogenetic hypothesis further suggests that neither Triticum, Aegilops, nor Triticum plus Aegilops are monophyletic.

Taihachi Kawahara – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • intra and interspecific phylogenetic relationships among diploid triticum Aegilops species poaceae based on base pair substitutions indels and microsatellites in chloroplast noncoding sequences
    American Journal of Botany, 2005
    Co-Authors: Kyoko Yamane, Taihachi Kawahara
    Abstract:

    This study analyzes intra- and interspecific variation in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) in diploidTriticum-Aegilops species. This analysis focused on DNA sequence variation in noncoding regions of cpDNA, which included base-pair substitutions, insertion/deletions (indels, 50 loci pooled), microsatellites (7 loci pooled), and inversions. Nine of 13 TriticumAegilops species were successfully identified and genotyped using these data. Sixty-two haplotypes were detected in 115 accessions of 13 diploid species. Because of the large number of characters examined, novel deep relationships within and among TriticumAegilops species could be identified and evaluated. Phylogenetic trees for the genus TriticumAegilops were constructed with Hordeum vulgare and Dasypyrum villosum as outgroups, and the results were compared to previous studies. These data support the following inferences: (1) Aegilops species should be included in Triticum; (2) groups D, T, M, N, U, and section Sitopsis (except Ae. speltoides) underwent speciation concurrently, but most diploid species evolved independently; (3) Ae. mutica does not occupy a basal position in TriticumAegilops; (4) Ae. speltoides is in a basal position and differs significantly from other Sitopsis species; (5) Ae. caudata is polyphyletic in all trees; (6) the genus Aegilops is paraphyletic with Secale.

  • Isozyme variation in species of the section Comopyrum of Aegilops.
    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 2000
    Co-Authors: Taihachi Kawahara
    Abstract:

    Genetic variation at 21 enzyme loci was studied in Aegilops comosa and Ae. uniaristata, the two species belonging to section Comopyrum of Aegilops. In Ae. comosa, the mean number of alleles per locus was 2.00 and the proportion of polymorphic loci was 0.667; in Ae. uniaristata they were 1.19 and 0.143, respectively. The two species were genetically distant from each other (I=0.561) supporting the previously assigned different genome symbols, M and N.

Peter R Shewry – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • drought stress affects the protein and dietary fiber content of wholemeal wheat flour in wheat Aegilops addition lines
    PLOS ONE, 2019
    Co-Authors: Marianna Rakszegi, Istvan Molnar, Marta Molnarlang, Eva Darko, Alison Lovegrove, Laszlo Lang, Zoltan Bedő, Peter R Shewry
    Abstract:

    Wild relatives of wheat, such as Aegilops spp. are potential sources of genes conferring tolerance to drought stress. As drought stress affects seed composition, the main goal of the present study was to determine the effects of drought stress on the content and composition of the grain storage protein (gliadin (Gli), glutenin (Glu), unextractable polymeric proteins (UPP%) and dietary fiber (arabinoxylan, β-glucan) components of hexaploid bread wheat (T. aestivum) lines containing added chromosomes from Ae. biuncialis or Ae. geniculata. Both Aegilops parents have higher contents of protein and β-glucan and higher proportions of water-soluble arabinoxylans (determined as pentosans) than wheat when grown under both well-watered and drought stress conditions. In general, drought stress resulted in increased contents of protein and total pentosans in the addition lines, while the β-glucan content decreased in many of the addition lines. The differences found between the wheat/Aegilops addition lines and wheat parents under well-watered conditions were also manifested under drought stress conditions: Namely, elevated β-glucan content was found in addition lines containing chromosomes 5Ug, 7Ug and 7Mb, while chromosomes 1Ub and 1Mg affected the proportion of polymeric proteins (determined as Glu/Gli and UPP%, respectively) under both well-watered and drought stress conditions. Furthermore, the addition of chromosome 6Mg decreased the WE-pentosan content under both conditions. The grain composition of the Aegilops accessions was more stable under drought stress than that of wheat, and wheat lines with the added Aegilops chromosomes 2Mg and 5Mg also had more stable grain protein and pentosan contents. The negative effects of drought stress on both the physical and compositional properties of wheat were also reduced by the addition of these. These results suggest that the stability of the grain composition could be improved under drought stress conditions by the intraspecific hybridization of wheat with its wild relatives.