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Arthur F. Kramer – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Associations Between Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Control in Adolescents
    Frontiers in Psychology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Daniel R. Westfall, Arthur F. Kramer, Charles H. Hillman, Anne Kær Gejl, Jakob Tarp, Niels Wedderkopp, Anna Bugge

    Abstract:

    Previous research has found positive associations between cognitive control and Aerobic Fitness in preadolescents and adults; however, fewer studies have investigated these associations in adolescents. Adolescence is of particular interest due to continued maturation of the prefrontal cortex; an area that subserves cognitive control. This study investigated the associations of Aerobic Fitness and cognitive control in adolescents. An assessment of Aerobic Fitness (Andersen intermittent running test) and two tests of cognitive control were collected to investigate these associations. Participants completed a test of inhibitory control (flanker task) and a test of cognitive flexibility (switch task). Along with traditional measures of reaction time (RT) and accuracy, diffusion modelling was utilized to combine these measures to calculate latent variables (i.e., drift rate, boundary separation, and nondecision time). Associations between cognitive measures and Fitness were assessed with linear regressions while controlling for potential confounding factors. Higher Fitness was associated with shorter reaction time and higher accuracy in the flanker task, indicating better inhibitory control performance. In addition, greater Aerobic Fitness was associated with greater quality of information uptake in the flanker task, as indicated by drift rate. In the switch task, higher Aerobic Fitness was associated with greater accuracy and longer switch RT indicating a speed-accuracy tradeoff. Results from the switch task diffusion modelling supported this conclusion as indicated by greater Fitness associated with greater boundary separation, or response conservativeness. Further, greater drift rate in the switch task was associated with greater Fitness. These findings corroborate growing evidence indicating the importance of Aerobic Fitness for inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. This study extends the literature by demonstrating these effects in a large sample of adolescents with a computational model of the mechanisms that underlie cognition.

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  • Aerobic Fitness is associated with greater white matter integrity in children
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2014
    Co-Authors: Laura Chaddock-heyman, Michelle W. Voss, Charles H. Hillman, Kirk I. Erickson, Joseph L. Holtrop, Matthew B. Pontifex, Lauren B. Raine, Arthur F. Kramer

    Abstract:

    Aerobic Fitness has been found to play a positive role in brain and cognitive health of children. Yet, many of the neural biomarkers related to Aerobic Fitness remain unknown. Here, using diffusion tensor imaging, we demonstrated that higher Aerobic Fitness was related to greater estimates of white matter microstructure in children. Higher fit 9- and 10-year-old children showed greater fractional anisotropy (FA) in sections of the corpus callosum, corona radiata, and superior longitudinal fasciculus, compared to lower fit children. The FA effects were primarily characterized by Aerobic Fitness differences in radial diffusivity, thereby raising the possibility that estimates of myelination may vary as a function of individual differences in Fitness during childhood. White matter structure may be another potential neural mechanism of Aerobic Fitness that assists in efficient communication between gray matter regions as well as the integration of regions into networks.

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  • Role of Childhood Aerobic Fitness in Successful Street Crossing
    Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2012
    Co-Authors: Laura Chaddock, Charles H. Hillman, Mark B. Neider, Aubrey Lutz, Arthur F. Kramer

    Abstract:

    CHADDOCK, L., M. B. NEIDER, A. LUTZ, C. H. HILLMAN, and A. F. KRAMER. Role of Childhood Aerobic Fitness in Successful Street Crossing. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 749–753, 2012. Increased Aerobic Fitness is associated with improved cognition, brain health, and academic achievement during preadolescence. Purpose: In this study, we extended these findings by examining the relationship between Aerobic Fitness and an everyday real-world task: street crossing. Because street crossing can be a dangerous multitask challenge and is a leading cause of injury in children, it is important to find ways to improve pedestrian safety. Methods: A street intersection was modeled in a virtual environment, and higher-fit (n = 13, 7 boys) and lower-fit (n = 13, 5 boys) 8- to

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Neil Armstrong – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Clarity and Confusion in the Development of Youth Aerobic Fitness.
    Frontiers in Physiology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Neil Armstrong, Jo Welsman

    Abstract:

    .Peak oxygen uptake (V O_2) is internationally recognized as the criterion measure of youth Aerobic Fitness, but flawed laboratory assessments and fallacious interpretations of peak V O_2 in ratio with body mass have confused our understanding of the development of Aerobic Fitness. Moreover, the recent emergence of specious predictions of peak V O_2 from performance tests and the promotion of spurious ‘clinical red flags’ and cardiometabolic cut-points have confused our understanding of the relationship between youth Aerobic Fitness and health. Recent longitudinal studies of 10-18 year-olds using multilevel allometric modelling have empirically demonstrated that peak V O_2 increases in accord with sex-specific, concurrent changes in age- and maturity status-driven morphological covariates with the timing and tempo of changes specific to individuals. During both cycle ergometry and treadmill running age- and maturity-status- driven changes in fat free mass have been revealed as the most powerful morphological influences on the development of youth Aerobic Fitness. To bring some clarity to current confusion, this paper argues that future studies must be founded on rigorous assessment and interpretation of peak V O_2 and ensure that they address the development of youth Aerobic Fitness and its relationship with present and future health in relation to appropriate sex-specific morphological covariates governed by individual biological clocks.

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  • Top 10 Research Questions Related to Youth Aerobic Fitness
    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2017
    Co-Authors: Neil Armstrong

    Abstract:

    ABSTRACTPeak oxygen uptake (2) is internationally recognized as the criterion measure of youth Aerobic Fitness, but despite pediatric data being available for almost 80 years, its measurement and interpretation in relation to growth, maturation, and health remain controversial. The trainability of youth Aerobic Fitness continues to be hotly debated, and causal mechanisms of training-induced changes and their modulation by chronological age, biological maturation, and sex are still to be resolved. The daily physical activity of youth is characterized by intermittent bouts and rapid changes in intensity, but physical activity of the intensity and duration required to determine peak 2 is rarely (if ever) experienced by most youth. In this context, it may therefore be the transient kinetics of pulmonary 2 that best reflect youth Aerobic Fitness. There are remarkably few rigorous studies of youth pulmonary 2 kinetics at the onset of exercise in different intensity domains, and the influence of chronological ag…

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  • Aerobic Fitness and its relationship to sport exercise training and habitual physical activity during youth
    British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2011
    Co-Authors: Neil Armstrong, Grant R. Tomkinson, Ulf Ekelund

    Abstract:

    Aim To analyse Aerobic Fitness and its relationship with sport participation, exercise training and habitual physical activity (HPA) during youth. Methods Studies were located through computer searches of Medline, SPORT Discus and personal databases. Systematic reviews of time trends in Aerobic Fitness/performance, and exercise training and peak oxygen uptake (peak VO 2 ) are reported. Results Peak VO 2 increases with age and maturation. Boys9 peak VO 2 is higher than girls9. Despite data showing a decrease in performance test estimates of Aerobic Fitness there is no compelling evidence to suggest that young people have low levels of peak VO 2 or that it is declining over time. The primary time constant of the VO 2 kinetics response to moderate and heavy intensity exercise slows with age and the VO 2 kinetics response to heavy intensity exercise is faster in boys. There is a negative correlation between lactate threshold as a percentage of peak VO 2 and age but differences related to maturation or sex remain to be proven. Young athletes have higher peak VO 2 , a faster primary time constant and accumulate less blood lactate at the same relative exercise intensity than their untrained peers. Young people can increase their peak VO 2 through exercise training but a meaningful relationship between Aerobic Fitness and HPA has not been demonstrated. Conclusions During youth the responses of the components of Aerobic Fitness vary in relation to age, maturation and sex. Exercise training will enhance Aerobic Fitness but a relationship between young people9s current HPA and Aerobic Fitness remains to be proven.

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Ulf Ekelund – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aerobic Fitness and its relationship to sport exercise training and habitual physical activity during youth
    British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2011
    Co-Authors: Neil Armstrong, Grant R. Tomkinson, Ulf Ekelund

    Abstract:

    Aim To analyse Aerobic Fitness and its relationship with sport participation, exercise training and habitual physical activity (HPA) during youth. Methods Studies were located through computer searches of Medline, SPORT Discus and personal databases. Systematic reviews of time trends in Aerobic Fitness/performance, and exercise training and peak oxygen uptake (peak VO 2 ) are reported. Results Peak VO 2 increases with age and maturation. Boys9 peak VO 2 is higher than girls9. Despite data showing a decrease in performance test estimates of Aerobic Fitness there is no compelling evidence to suggest that young people have low levels of peak VO 2 or that it is declining over time. The primary time constant of the VO 2 kinetics response to moderate and heavy intensity exercise slows with age and the VO 2 kinetics response to heavy intensity exercise is faster in boys. There is a negative correlation between lactate threshold as a percentage of peak VO 2 and age but differences related to maturation or sex remain to be proven. Young athletes have higher peak VO 2 , a faster primary time constant and accumulate less blood lactate at the same relative exercise intensity than their untrained peers. Young people can increase their peak VO 2 through exercise training but a meaningful relationship between Aerobic Fitness and HPA has not been demonstrated. Conclusions During youth the responses of the components of Aerobic Fitness vary in relation to age, maturation and sex. Exercise training will enhance Aerobic Fitness but a relationship between young people9s current HPA and Aerobic Fitness remains to be proven.

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