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Agro Wastes

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Ashok Pandey – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • α amylase production by bacillus amyloliquefaciens using Agro Wastes as feed stock
    Food Technology and Biotechnology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Dhanya Gangadharan, Madhavan K Nampoothiri, Ashok Pandey

    Abstract:

    Summary The productivity of enzyme fermentations depends critically on maintaining a high oxygen transfer rate to satisfy the optimal oxygen demand of the microorganism for product formation. Among the several factors that affect oxygen transfer rates in a fermentor are the air flow rate and agitation. The production of a-amylase by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was performed in 600-mL and 5-litre fermentor with a working volume of 300 mL and 3 L, respectively. The experiments indicated a requirement of high rates of aeration to enhance the enzyme yield. The biomass yield and productivity of the enzyme were found to have a linear relationship with the air flow rate, and the highest productivity was observed at 1.0 vvm. A maximum productivity of 41.4 U/(mL·h) was obtained after 14 h of fermentation in 600-mL fermentor system and a comparable productivity of 40 U/(mL·h) was obtained after 12 h in the 5-litre fermentor.

  • solid state fermentation for l lactic acid production from Agro Wastes using lactobacillus delbrueckii
    Process Biochemistry, 2006
    Co-Authors: Rojan P. John, Madhavan K Nampoothiri, Ashok Pandey

    Abstract:

    Abstract A viable process based on a low cost production media is desired to enhance the economics of fermentative production of l -lactic acid. Attempts were made to exploit two Agro-industrial Wastes, cassava bagasse and sugarcane bagasse, as a raw material and inert solid support using solid-state fermentation (SSF). Gelatinised cassava bagasse was enzymatically hydrolysed and starch hydrolysate containing reducing sugar was used to moisten the inert sugarcane bagasse, which was used as the solid support for SSF. This substrate was supplemented with 0.5 g/5 g support NH4Cl and yeast extract. SSF was carried out in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks at 37 °C using Lactobacillus delbrueckii as inoculum. Key parameters such as initial moisture content and initial sugar were optimised statistically by response surface methodology. A maximum of 249 mg/gds l -lactic acid was obtained after 5 days of fermentation under the optimised conditions with a conversion efficiency of about 99% of the initial reducing sugars.

  • Solid-state fermentation for L-lactic acid production from Agro Wastes using Lactobacillus delbrueckii
    Process Biochemistry, 2006
    Co-Authors: Rojan P. John, Kesavan Madhavan Nampoothiri, Ashok Pandey

    Abstract:

    A viable process based on a low cost production media is desired to enhance the economics of fermentative production of l-lactic acid. Attempts were made to exploit two Agro-industrial Wastes, cassava bagasse and sugarcane bagasse, as a raw material and inert solid support using solid-state fermentation (SSF). Gelatinised cassava bagasse was enzymatically hydrolysed and starch hydrolysate containing reducing sugar was used to moisten the inert sugarcane bagasse, which was used as the solid support for SSF. This substrate was supplemented with 0.5 g/5 g support NH4Cl and yeast extract. SSF was carried out in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks at 37°C using Lactobacillus delbrueckii as inoculum. Key parameters such as initial moisture content and initial sugar were optimised statistically by response surface methodology. A maximum of 249 mg/gds l-lactic acid was obtained after 5 days of fermentation under the optimised conditions with a conversion efficiency of about 99% of the initial reducing sugars. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Paolo Pavan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Treatment of waste activated sludge together with Agro-waste by anaerobic digestion: Focus on effluent quality
    Water Science and Technology, 2014
    Co-Authors: Cristina Cavinato, Paolo Pavan, C. Da Ros, Fabiola Cecchi, David Bolzonella

    Abstract:

    Waste activated sludge production and management plays an important role in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), especially from an economic point of view. One possible approach is the anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge with others organic substrates in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in order to exploit the spare volume of existing reactors, recover energy from biogas production, and obtain a fertilizer as final product. The anaerobic trials were carried out at pilot scale, applying two organic loading rates (2.8 and 4.5 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m(3).d)) with a hydraulic retention time of 16 and 21 days. Among AgroWastes, wine lees were chosen because of their continuous availability throughout the year, and their high COD content (up to 200-300 g/l, 70% soluble, on average). The addition of wine lees to activated sludge determined a higher biogas production (best yield was 0.40 Nm(3)/kgCOD(fed)) improving the energetic balance of the sludge line of the WWTP. The characterization of both substrates fed and digester effluents was carried out in terms of heavy metals; comparison with EC proposed limits showed that, due to high content of Cu in wine lees, the loading rate of this Agro-waste should be limited to maintain good characteristics of final biosolids.

  • Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cattle manure with AgroWastes and energy crops: Comparison of pilot and full scale experiences
    Bioresource Technology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Cristina Cavinato, Francesco Fatone, David Bolzonella, Paolo Pavan

    Abstract:

    The paper deals with the benefits coming from the application of a proper process temperature (55 °C) instead of a ‘reduced’ thermophilic range (47 °C), that is often applied in European anaerobic co-digestion plants. The experimental work has pointed out that biogas production improve from 0.45 to 0.62 m3/kg VS operating at proper thermophilic conditions. Moreover, also methane content was higher: from 52% to 61%. A general improvement in digester behaviour was clear also considering the stability parameters comparison (pH, ammonia, VFA content). The second part of the study takes into account the economic aspects related to the capital cost of anaerobic digestion treatment with a 1 MW co-generation unit fro heat and power production (CHP). Moreover, the economic balance was also carried out considering the anaerobic supernatants treatment for nitrogen removal. The simulation showed how a pay-back-time of 2.5 yr and between 3 and 5 yr respectively could be determined when the two options of anaerobic digestion only and together with the application of a nitrogen removal process were considered. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • thermophilic anaerobic co digestion of cattle manure with Agro Wastes and energy crops comparison of pilot and full scale experiences
    Bioresource Technology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Cristina Cavinato, Francesco Fatone, David Bolzonella, Paolo Pavan

    Abstract:

    Abstract The paper deals with the benefits coming from the application of a proper process temperature (55 °C) instead of a ‘reduced’ thermophilic range (47 °C), that is often applied in European anaerobic co-digestion plants. The experimental work has pointed out that biogas production improve from 0.45 to 0.62 m3/kg VS operating at proper thermophilic conditions. Moreover, also methane content was higher: from 52% to 61%. A general improvement in digester behaviour was clear also considering the stability parameters comparison (pH, ammonia, VFA content). The second part of the study takes into account the economic aspects related to the capital cost of anaerobic digestion treatment with a 1 MW co-generation unit fro heat and power production (CHP). Moreover, the economic balance was also carried out considering the anaerobic supernatants treatment for nitrogen removal. The simulation showed how a pay-back-time of 2.5 yr and between 3 and 5 yr respectively could be determined when the two options of anaerobic digestion only and together with the application of a nitrogen removal process were considered.

Cristina Cavinato – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Treatment of waste activated sludge together with Agro-waste by anaerobic digestion: Focus on effluent quality
    Water Science and Technology, 2014
    Co-Authors: Cristina Cavinato, Paolo Pavan, C. Da Ros, Fabiola Cecchi, David Bolzonella

    Abstract:

    Waste activated sludge production and management plays an important role in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), especially from an economic point of view. One possible approach is the anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge with others organic substrates in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in order to exploit the spare volume of existing reactors, recover energy from biogas production, and obtain a fertilizer as final product. The anaerobic trials were carried out at pilot scale, applying two organic loading rates (2.8 and 4.5 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m(3).d)) with a hydraulic retention time of 16 and 21 days. Among AgroWastes, wine lees were chosen because of their continuous availability throughout the year, and their high COD content (up to 200-300 g/l, 70% soluble, on average). The addition of wine lees to activated sludge determined a higher biogas production (best yield was 0.40 Nm(3)/kgCOD(fed)) improving the energetic balance of the sludge line of the WWTP. The characterization of both substrates fed and digester effluents was carried out in terms of heavy metals; comparison with EC proposed limits showed that, due to high content of Cu in wine lees, the loading rate of this Agro-waste should be limited to maintain good characteristics of final biosolids.

  • Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cattle manure with AgroWastes and energy crops: Comparison of pilot and full scale experiences
    Bioresource Technology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Cristina Cavinato, Francesco Fatone, David Bolzonella, Paolo Pavan

    Abstract:

    The paper deals with the benefits coming from the application of a proper process temperature (55 °C) instead of a ‘reduced’ thermophilic range (47 °C), that is often applied in European anaerobic co-digestion plants. The experimental work has pointed out that biogas production improve from 0.45 to 0.62 m3/kg VS operating at proper thermophilic conditions. Moreover, also methane content was higher: from 52% to 61%. A general improvement in digester behaviour was clear also considering the stability parameters comparison (pH, ammonia, VFA content). The second part of the study takes into account the economic aspects related to the capital cost of anaerobic digestion treatment with a 1 MW co-generation unit fro heat and power production (CHP). Moreover, the economic balance was also carried out considering the anaerobic supernatants treatment for nitrogen removal. The simulation showed how a pay-back-time of 2.5 yr and between 3 and 5 yr respectively could be determined when the two options of anaerobic digestion only and together with the application of a nitrogen removal process were considered. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • thermophilic anaerobic co digestion of cattle manure with Agro Wastes and energy crops comparison of pilot and full scale experiences
    Bioresource Technology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Cristina Cavinato, Francesco Fatone, David Bolzonella, Paolo Pavan

    Abstract:

    Abstract The paper deals with the benefits coming from the application of a proper process temperature (55 °C) instead of a ‘reduced’ thermophilic range (47 °C), that is often applied in European anaerobic co-digestion plants. The experimental work has pointed out that biogas production improve from 0.45 to 0.62 m3/kg VS operating at proper thermophilic conditions. Moreover, also methane content was higher: from 52% to 61%. A general improvement in digester behaviour was clear also considering the stability parameters comparison (pH, ammonia, VFA content). The second part of the study takes into account the economic aspects related to the capital cost of anaerobic digestion treatment with a 1 MW co-generation unit fro heat and power production (CHP). Moreover, the economic balance was also carried out considering the anaerobic supernatants treatment for nitrogen removal. The simulation showed how a pay-back-time of 2.5 yr and between 3 and 5 yr respectively could be determined when the two options of anaerobic digestion only and together with the application of a nitrogen removal process were considered.