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Erik J. Marsh – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The disappearing desert and the emergence of Agropastoralism: An adaptive cycle of rapid change in the mid-Holocene Lake Titicaca Basin (Peru–Bolivia)
    Quaternary International, 2016
    Co-Authors: Erik J. Marsh
    Abstract:

    Abstract The mid-Holocene was an extremely dry period in the Lake Titicaca Basin of South America, when lake levels were at their lowest point in the Holocene. South of the lake, a lack of outflow and very low and irregular precipitation would have created desert-like conditions. This area’s ‘archaeological silence’ seems to reflect an effective lack of population. This situation changed drastically as lake levels rose suddenly in the centuries following 3540 cal BP. As the desert disappeared, a flux of migrants filled the landscape, probably from the population concentration in the basin’s western highlands. They imported and developed new technologies and economic practices and reorganized them into an agropastoral lifeway. The emergence of Agropastoralism was both rapid and widespread, as people throughout the Lake Titicaca Basin adopted this practice. This major, regional shift can be productively framed as an adaptive cycle or Holling loop. This approach builds on the robust foundation of complexity theory, emphasizes the integrated nature of humans and their environment in a single system, highlights how systems fluctuate between slow and accelerated change, and is useful for developing hypotheses. Cascading feedback loops in climate, ecology, and cultural practices generated the emergence of Agropastoralism. This resilient system is still in use today and is currently facing major climate changes, which makes understanding its origins especially relevant.

  • the emergence of Agropastoralism accelerated ecocultural change on the andean altiplano 3540 3120 cal bp
    Environmental Archaeology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Erik J. Marsh
    Abstract:

    In the fourth millennium BP, there were major environmental and cultural changes on the Andean altiplano of South America, but the chronology remains vague. A recent synthesis describes a slow, gradual transition from hunting and gathering to Agropastoralism. This proposal is tested by refining the date of the onset of more humid and stable conditions, around 3550 cal BP, based on a Bayesian model of 26 dates from Lake Winaymarka and an updated calculation of the lacustrine offset. This is compared to Bayesian models of 191 dates from 20 archaeological sites, which incorporate a number of recently processed radiocarbon dates. A synthesis is presented of 15 full coverage surveys, a summed probability distribution, and a Bayesian model of the transition to ceramics, which together support a scenario of a very rapid demographic increase. Fourteen models from archaeological sites are cross-referenced in a composite model, which identifies a brief, altiplano-wide emergence of Agropastoralism with starting and …

  • The emergence of Agropastoralism: Accelerated ecocultural change on the Andean altiplano, ∼3540–3120 cal BP
    Environmental Archaeology, 2014
    Co-Authors: Erik J. Marsh
    Abstract:

    In the fourth millennium BP, there were major environmental and cultural changes on the Andean altiplano of South America, but the chronology remains vague. A recent synthesis describes a slow, gradual transition from hunting and gathering to Agropastoralism. This proposal is tested by refining the date of the onset of more humid and stable conditions, around 3550 cal BP, based on a Bayesian model of 26 dates from Lake Winaymarka and an updated calculation of the lacustrine offset. This is compared to Bayesian models of 191 dates from 20 archaeological sites, which incorporate a number of recently processed radiocarbon dates. A synthesis is presented of 15 full coverage surveys, a summed probability distribution, and a Bayesian model of the transition to ceramics, which together support a scenario of a very rapid demographic increase. Fourteen models from archaeological sites are cross-referenced in a composite model, which identifies a brief, altiplano-wide emergence of Agropastoralism with starting and …

Gert Nyberg – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Agroforestry extension and dietary diversity – an analysis of the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption in West Pokot, Kenya
    Food Security, 2016
    Co-Authors: Göran Bostedt, Agneta Hörnell, Gert Nyberg
    Abstract:

    Worldwide, the challenges of nomadic, pastoralist systems are causing their slow but steady disappearance in favour of sedentary Agropastoralism. This paper draws upon an existing household data set from a survey collected and organized by the Swedish non-govegovernmental organization (NGO) Vi Agroforestry, directed at a livestock-based, agro-pastoralist area in West Pokot County, western Kenya. The study focuses on the question of food diversity and malnutrition and the role of agroforestry extension services, i.e. knowledge spread, transfer and development. Our basic hypothesis is that certain fruit and vegetable related food groups are under-consumed in West Pokot, especially in the dryland areas. The results of the study shows that agroforestry, combined with advice through extension efforts can imply a transition path for pastoralists which involves improved dietary diversity, especially concerning food groups that include roots, tubers, fruits and leafy vegetables. From the results certain restrictions that hinder this transition become clear. An important but often overlooked factor is lack of information and knowledge as a determinant of household behavior in developing countries. NGOs such as Vi Agroforestry can play an important role in overcoming this restriction by providing extension services. Developing countries in general are not information-rich environments, a fact that is especially the case for poor citizens living in rural areas. The paper illustrates that careful attention to the information and knowledge available to households is necessary when designing development cooperation.

  • Characterization of enclosure management regimes and factors influencing their choice among agropastoralists in North-Western Kenya
    Pastoralism, 2015
    Co-Authors: John Ndung’u Wairore, Stephen Mwangi Mureithi, Oliver Vivian Wasonga, Gert Nyberg
    Abstract:

    The enclosure system is an increasingly popular approach for land rehabilitation among communities inhabiting the arid and semi-arid lands in Africa. However, the mixed results associated with its adoption by households call for an in-depth understanding of the management regimes. This study was conducted in Chepareria ward in West Pokot County to characterize enclosure management regimes and determine factors which influence their choice among agropastoralists in Chepareria. Enclosures in Chepareria were mainly used for livestock-based Agropastoralism (78.3 %) while crop-based Agropastoralism accounts for 21.7 %. The dominance of livestock-based enclosure management regimes in Chepareria indicates that livestock production is still the mainstay of agropastoralists in Chepareria while diversification of land use is common where rain-fed agriculture allows as evidenced by the adoption of crop-based enclosure regimes in the wetter regions of Chepareria. The choice of management regimes was mainly influenced by agroecological zonation and land tenure ( P  ≤ 0.01), and number of livestock owned and household income ( P  ≤ 0.05). Enclosures were mainly established to alleviate pasture scarcity and create stable environments for the local Pokot pastoral community by restoring degraded rangelands. However, the continuous adoption and adaptation of enclosures has enabled agricultural diversification by increasing flexibility on land, fodder and livestock management including the adoption of alternative income-generating activities among enclosure owners in Chepareria. Enclosure owners may continue to diversify or intensify enclosure management regimes as influenced by agroecological zonation, land tenure, number of livestock owned and household income.

Yimin Yang – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Early interaction of Agropastoralism in Eurasia: new evidence from millet-based food consumption of Afanasyevo humans in the southern Altai Mountains, Xinjiang, China
    Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 2020
    Co-Authors: Tingting Wang, Yimin Yang
    Abstract:

    Different agricultural and metallurgical systems had developed at the eastern and western ends of Eurasia continent before 3000 BC. As one of the earliest Bronze Age cultures in the Eurasian steppe, the Afanasyevo Culture originating from Southern Siberia, Russia, had played an extremely significant role in facilitating cultural interactions and the spread of domestic species in Eurasia. Hence, investigating the diets of Afanasyevo populations during their movements across the Eurasian steppe possibly provides important clues to explore when, where, and how the earlier cultural interactions happened. Here, we present the isotopic analysis of Afanasyevo humans found in Ayituohan Ι Cemetery (ca. 2836–2490 cal BC) in the southern Altai Mountains, Xinjiang of China, and compare with those of Afanasyevo humans from the different regions in Southern Siberia of Russia. All of the high δ15N values indicate that the subsistence strategies of Afanasyevo populations were dominated by the animal husbandry during their movements; meanwhile, the obviously high δ13C values in this study suggest that a certain amount of millet-based foods (millet crops and/or domesticated animals fed on millets) appeared in their diets as they settled in the southern Altai Mountains in Xinjiang of China. It provides new evidence for the millet transmission along Inner Asian Mountain Corridor and especially for the early interaction of multiregional Agropastoralism between Eurasian steppe and northwest China.

Göran Bostedt – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Agroforestry extension and dietary diversity – an analysis of the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption in West Pokot, Kenya
    Food Security, 2016
    Co-Authors: Göran Bostedt, Agneta Hörnell, Gert Nyberg
    Abstract:

    Worldwide, the challenges of nomadic, pastoralist systems are causing their slow but steady disappearance in favour of sedentary Agropastoralism. This paper draws upon an existing household data set from a survey collected and organized by the Swedish non-governmental organization (NGO) Vi Agroforestry, directed at a livestock-based, agro-pastoralist area in West Pokot County, western Kenya. The study focuses on the question of food diversity and malnutrition and the role of agroforestry extension services, i.e. knowledge spread, transfer and development. Our basic hypothesis is that certain fruit and vegetable related food groups are under-consumed in West Pokot, especially in the dryland areas. The results of the study shows that agroforestry, combined with advice through extension efforts can imply a transition path for pastoralists which involves improved dietary diversity, especially concerning food groups that include roots, tubers, fruits and leafy vegetables. From the results certain restrictions that hinder this transition become clear. An important but often overlooked factor is lack of information and knowledge as a determinant of household behavior in developing countries. NGOs such as Vi Agroforestry can play an important role in overcoming this restriction by providing extension services. Developing countries in general are not information-rich environments, a fact that is especially the case for poor citizens living in rural areas. The paper illustrates that careful attention to the information and knowledge available to households is necessary when designing development cooperation.

Lemmen Carsten – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Cultural and Demic Diffusion of First Farmers, Herders, and their Innovations Across Eurasia
    'University of Ljubljana', 2015
    Co-Authors: Lemmen Carsten
    Abstract:

    Was the spread of Agropastoralism from the Eurasian founder regions dominated by demic or by cultural diffusion? This study employs a mathematical model of regional sociocultural development that includes different diffusion processes, local innovation and societal adaptation. Simulations hindcast the emergence and expansion of agropastoral life style in 294 regions of Eurasia and North Africa. Different scenarios for demic and diffusive exchange processes between adjacent regions are contrasted and the spatiotemporal pattern of diffusive events is evaluated. This study supports from a modeling perspective the hypothesis that there is no simple or exclusive demic or cultural diffusion, but that in most regions of Eurasia a combination of demic and cultural processes were important. Furthermore, we demonstrate the strong spatial and temporal variability in the balance of spread processes. Each region shows sometimes more demic, and at other times more cultural diffusion. Only few, possibly environmentally marginal, areas show a dominance of demic diffusion. This study affirms that diffusion processes should be investigated in a diachronic fashion and not from a time-integrated perspective.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figures, revised version submitted to Documenta Prehistori

  • Simulated climatically disturbed emergence of agricultures in Western Eurasia 8500-3000 BC
    PANGAEA, 2014
    Co-Authors: Lemmen Carsten, Wirtz, Kai W
    Abstract:

    Was the spread of Agropastoralism from the Fertile Crescent throughout Europe influenced by rapid climatic shifts? We here generate idealized climate events using palaeoclimate records. In a mathematical model of regional sociocultural development, these events disturb the subsistence base of simulated forager and farmer societies. We evaluate the regional simulated transition timings and durations against a published large set of radiocarbon dates for western Eurasia; the model is able to realistically hindcast much of the inhomogeneous space-time evolution of regional Neolithic transitions. Our study shows that the inclusion of climate events improves the simulation of typical lags between cultural complexes, but that the overall difference to a model without climate events is not significant. Climate events may not have been as important for early sociocultural dynamics as endogenous factors

  • Simulated transition to Agropastoralism in the Indus valley 7500-3000 BC
    PANGAEA, 2013
    Co-Authors: Lemmen Carsten, Khan Aurangzeb
    Abstract:

    The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was one of the first great civilizations in prehistory. This bronze age civilization flourished from the end of the fourth millennium BC. It disintegrated during the second millennium BC; despite much research effort, this decline is not well understood. Less research has been devoted to the emergence of the IVC, which shows continuous cultural precursors since at least the seventh millennium BC. To understand the decline, we believe it is necessary to investigate the rise of the IVC, i.e., the establishment of agriculture and livestock, dense populations and technological developments 7000-3000 BC. Although much archaeologically typed information is available, our capability to investigate the system is hindered by poorly resolved chronology, and by a lack of field work in the intermediate areas between the Indus valley and Mesopotamia. We thus employ a complementary numerical simulation to develop a consistent picture of technology, Agropastoralism and population developments in the IVC domain. Results from this Global Land Use and technological Evolution Simulator show that there is (1) fair agreement between the simulated timing of the agricultural transition and radiocarbon dates from early agricultural sites, but the transition is simulated first in India then Pakistan; (2) an independent agropas- toralism developing on the Indian subcontinent; and (3) a positive relationship between archeological artifact richness and simulated population density which remains to be quantified