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Hari Prasad Sharma – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • seasonal food habits of the red panda Ailurus fulgens in rara national park nepal
    Hystrix-italian Journal of Mammalogy, 2014
    Co-Authors: Hari Prasad Sharma, Jon E Swenson, Jerrold L Belant
    Abstract:

    We documented the seasonal food habits of the red panda Ailurus fulgens based on the analysis of 152 fecal pellet groups in Rara National Park, Nepal, using micro-histological techniques. We also reviewed previous studies documenting the degree of specialization in red panda diets throughout their range. We found that bamboo was the major food item for red pandas in Rara National Park, occurring in 100% of pellet groups in both the pre- and post-monsoon seasons. Similarly, bamboo was also reported as the dominant food item (80‐100%) in the diet of red pandas in seven studies conducted throughout their range. These results confirm previous findings and suggest that red pandas may be vulnerable to bamboo loss through anthropogenic impacts, which could influence their survival.

  • Effects of livestock on occurrence of the Vulnerable red panda Ailurus fulgens in Rara National Park, Nepal
    Oryx, 2014
    Co-Authors: Hari Prasad Sharma, Jerrold L Belant, Jon E Swenson
    Abstract:

    The Vulnerable red panda Ailurus fulgens is endemic to the Himalayas. Anthropogenic activities, including deforestation, have degraded the species’ habitat but the effects of livestock have not been examined. We assessed the effects of illegal livestock activity on the presence of the red panda in Rara National Park, Nepal. The probability of detecting red panda faecal pellets decreased with livestock occurrence but not with elevation or aspect. The presence of bamboo and proximity to water are important to red pandas but did not influence their habitat use at the spatial resolution evaluated. Livestock grazing in Rara National Park appears to adversely affect the presence of the red panda within its habitat. To reduce illegal livestock grazing we recommend enforcement of existing regulations, that training workshops be held for herders, and awareness-raising and dialogue with residents.

  • Food habits and conservation threats of the red panda in Rara National Park, Nepal
    , 2012
    Co-Authors: Hari Prasad Sharma
    Abstract:

    The seasonal food habits of red panda Ailurus fulgens were estimated based on the analysis of 152 latrines in Rara National Park, Nepal, using micro-histological techniques. We also reviewed previous studies documenting the degree of specialization in red panda diets throughout their range. We found that bamboo was the major food item for red panda in Rara National Park, representing 77.8% and 90.6%, in postand pre-monsoon seasons, respectively. Similarly, bamboo was also reported as the dominant food item (81–99%) of red pandas in all previous studies conducted throughout their range. We suggest that red pandas may be

Stephen J. O'brien – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Molecular Phylogeny of the Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)
    Journal of Heredity, 1995
    Co-Authors: J. Pecon Slattery, Stephen J. O'brien
    Abstract:

    The phylogenetic placement of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) has been an evolutionary enigma since their original descriptions in the nineteenth century. A series of recent molecular analyses led to a consensus that the giant panda‘s ancestors were derived from early bears (Ursidae), but left unsettled the phylogenetic relationship of the red panda. Previous molecular and morphological phylogenies were inconclusive and varied among placement of the red panda within the raccoon family (Procyonidae), within the bear family (Ursidae), or in a separate family of carnivores equidistant between the two. To examine a relatively ancient (circa 20-30 million years before the present, MYBP) phylogenetic divergence, we used two slowly evolving genetic markers: mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence and 592 fibroblast proteins resolved by two dimensional gel electrophoresis. Four different carnivore outgroup species, including dog (Canidae: Canis familiaris), cat (Felidae: Felis catus), fanaloka (Viverridae: Fossa fossa), and mongoose (Herpestidae: Galidia elegans), were selected to identify the root of the phylogenetic topologies. Phylogenetic reconstruction by distance-based methods, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood clearly indicate a distinct bifurcation forming the Ursidae and the Procyonidae. Further, our data consistently place the red panda as an early divergence within the Procyonidae radiation and confirm the inclusion of giant panda in the Ursidae lineage.

Jerrold L Belant – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • seasonal food habits of the red panda Ailurus fulgens in rara national park nepal
    Hystrix-italian Journal of Mammalogy, 2014
    Co-Authors: Hari Prasad Sharma, Jon E Swenson, Jerrold L Belant
    Abstract:

    We documented the seasonal food habits of the red panda Ailurus fulgens based on the analysis of 152 fecal pellet groups in Rara National Park, Nepal, using micro-histological techniques. We also reviewed previous studies documenting the degree of specialization in red panda diets throughout their range. We found that bamboo was the major food item for red pandas in Rara National Park, occurring in 100% of pellet groups in both the pre- and post-monsoon seasons. Similarly, bamboo was also reported as the dominant food item (80‐100%) in the diet of red pandas in seven studies conducted throughout their range. These results confirm previous findings and suggest that red pandas may be vulnerable to bamboo loss through anthropogenic impacts, which could influence their survival.

  • Effects of livestock on occurrence of the Vulnerable red panda Ailurus fulgens in Rara National Park, Nepal
    Oryx, 2014
    Co-Authors: Hari Prasad Sharma, Jerrold L Belant, Jon E Swenson
    Abstract:

    The Vulnerable red panda Ailurus fulgens is endemic to the Himalayas. Anthropogenic activities, including deforestation, have degraded the species’ habitat but the effects of livestock have not been examined. We assessed the effects of illegal livestock activity on the presence of the red panda in Rara National Park, Nepal. The probability of detecting red panda faecal pellets decreased with livestock occurrence but not with elevation or aspect. The presence of bamboo and proximity to water are important to red pandas but did not influence their habitat use at the spatial resolution evaluated. Livestock grazing in Rara National Park appears to adversely affect the presence of the red panda within its habitat. To reduce illegal livestock grazing we recommend enforcement of existing regulations, that training workshops be held for herders, and awareness-raising and dialogue with residents.

  • distribution and observations of red pandas Ailurus fulgens fulgens in dhorpatan hunting reserve nepal
    , 2009
    Co-Authors: Hari Prasad Sharma, Jerrold L Belant
    Abstract:

    We documented the presence of Red Pandas Ailurus fulgens fulgens during March–May 2007 in three hunting blocks (Surtibang, Barse and Fagune) of Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, Nepal. Based on faecal pellet groups, Red Pandas occurred from 3,000 to 3,600 m elevation, with abundance of pellets increasing to 3,500 m and declining sharply at higher elevations. No evidence of Red Pandas was observed or reported at elevations >3,730 m. Four Red Pandas were observed in the study area at elevations ranging from 3,220 to 3,610 m. Observed elevational distribution of Red Pandas in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve was similar to elevational distributions reported in the literature. Vegetation in areas of highest Red Panda activity were dominated by Abies spectabilis, Rhododendron campanulatum, Betula utilis, Juniperus indicus and Arundinaria sp(p)., which have been documented previously as important food and cover species.

Jorge Morales – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • implications of the functional anatomy of the hand and forearm of Ailurus fulgens carnivora ailuridae for the evolution of the false thumb in pandas
    Journal of Anatomy, 2006
    Co-Authors: Mauricio Anto, Stephane Peigne, Manuel J Salesa, Juan Francisco Pasto, Jorge Morales
    Abstract:

    Both the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) possess a ‘false-thumb’, actually an enlarged radial sesamoid bone, which contributes to the gripping action of the hand. These species are not closely related, however, as one is an ursid and the other an ailurid, so the fact that they share this adaptation implies a remarkable convergence. We studied the functional anatanatomy of this structure in the red panda, comparing it with existing descriptions of the grasping mechanism in both pandas. Previous interpretations of the radial sesamoid in Ailurus as a rod-like structure without direct articulation to the wrist bones are inaccurate. There are various important differences between the red panda and the giant panda. In the former, the lesser development of the radial sesamoid, its connection with the flexor retinaculum, the presence of an insertion of the muscle abductor pollicis longus in the first metacarpal, which enhances its supinatory action, and the presence of a muscle flexor brevis digitorum manus point to thin-branch climbing features serving as an exaptation to the more recent role of the red panda hand in the manipulation of bamboo.

  • Evidence of a false thumb in a fossil carnivore clarifies the evolution of pandas
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2005
    Co-Authors: Manuel J Salesa, Stephane Peigne, Mauricio Antón, Jorge Morales
    Abstract:

    The “false thumb” of pandas is a carpal bone, the radial sesamoid, which has been enlarged and functions as an opposable thumb. If the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) are not closely related, their sharing of this adaptation implies a remarkable convergence. The discovery of previously unknown postcranial remains of a Miocene red panda relative, Simocyon batalleri, from the Spanish site of Batallones-1 (Madrid), now shows that this animal had a false thumb. The radial sesamoid of S. batalleri shows similarities with that of the red panda, which supports a sister-group relationship and indicates independent evolution in both pandas. The fossils from Batallones-1 reveal S. batalleri as a puma-sized, semiarboreal carnivore with a moderately hypercarnivore diet. These data suggest that the false thumbs of S. batalleri and Ailurus fulgens were probably inherited from a primitive member of the red panda family (Ailuridae), which lacked the red panda’s specializations for herbivory but shared its arboreal adaptations. Thus, it seems that, whereas the false thumb of the giant panda probably evolved for manipulating bamboo, the false thumbs of the red panda and of S. batalleri more likely evolved as an aid for arboreal locomotion, with the red panda secondarily developing its ability for item manipulation and thus producing one of the most dramatic cases of convergence among vertebrates.

  • Découverte d’une forme ancestrale du Petit Panda dans le Miocène moyen de Madrid (Espagne)
    Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences – Series IIA – Earth and Planetary Science, 1997
    Co-Authors: Leonard Ginsburg, Jorge Morales, Dolores Soria, Esther Herráez
    Abstract:

    One isolated lower tooth (M2) collected in the Middle Miocene of Madrid (Spain) is determined as a new taxon: Magerictis imperialensis nov. gen. nov. sp. It is very close to the lesser panda, Ailurus fulgens. Thus, the origins of the lesser panda are not with procyonids, but with european mustelids. The origin of ailurids, as well as the simocyonids, are close to a form such as Amphictis, a small Oligocene mustelid from the Phosphorites of Quercy, which already shows an elongated M2.

J. Pecon Slattery – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Molecular Phylogeny of the Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)
    Journal of Heredity, 1995
    Co-Authors: J. Pecon Slattery, Stephen J. O'brien
    Abstract:

    The phylogenetic placement of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) has been an evolutionary enigma since their original descriptions in the nineteenth century. A series of recent molecular analyses led to a consensus that the giant panda’s ancestors were derived from early bears (Ursidae), but left unsettled the phylogenetic relationship of the red panda. Previous molecular and morphological phylogenies were inconclusive and varied among placement of the red panda within the raccoon family (Procyonidae), within the bear family (Ursidae), or in a separate family of carnivores equidistant between the two. To examine a relatively ancient (circa 20-30 million years before the present, MYBP) phylogenetic divergence, we used two slowly evolving genetic markers: mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence and 592 fibroblast proteins resolved by two dimensional gel electrophoresis. Four different carnivore outgroup species, including dog (Canidae: Canis familiaris), cat (Felidae: Felis catus), fanaloka (Viverridae: Fossa fossa), and mongoose (Herpestidae: Galidia elegans), were selected to identify the root of the phylogenetic topologies. Phylogenetic reconstruction by distance-based methods, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood clearly indicate a distinct bifurcation forming the Ursidae and the Procyonidae. Further, our data consistently place the red panda as an early divergence within the Procyonidae radiation and confirm the inclusion of giant panda in the Ursidae lineage.