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Dimitri N. Mavris – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Average Generic Vehicle Method for Fleet-Level Analysis of Noise and Emission Tradeoffs
    Journal of Aircraft, 2018
    Co-Authors: Matthew J. Levine, Jose Enrique Bernardo, Michelle Kirby, Dimitri N. Mavris


    A method is proposed for modeling average generic vehicles for fleet-Level analysis of technology impacts on environmental metrics. Vehicles are grouped into classes distinguished by AircraftLevel metrics, which include fuel burn (a surrogate of carbon dioxide emissions), nitrogen oxide species (NOx) emissions, and sound exposure Level noise contours. Target metrics are established for a subset of 94 airports by designing a series of tests of sequentially increasing complexity, with ideal average generic vehicle models minimizing the error distributions across these airports when AircraftLevel performance is aggregated to fleet Levels. A Latin hypercube design of experiments is employed to explore the AircraftLevel design space and construct surrogate models for each metric. Monte Carlo samplings of these surrogate models are paired with desirability functions to rapidly identify locations in the design space that simultaneously match aggregate fuel burn, NOx emissions, and day/night-Level contours. In…

  • Effect of Major Subsystem Power Off-takes on Aircraft Performance in More Electric Aircraft Architectures
    15th AIAA Aviation Technology Integration and Operations Conference, 2015
    Co-Authors: Imon Chakraborty, Metin F. Ozcan, Dimitri N. Mavris


    The gas turbine engines on commercial Aircraft produce both propulsive power and non-propulsive or secondary power for Aircraft subsystems, which can be in the form of either pneumatic or mechanical power off-take. While there is a degradation in performance and an increase in the thrust-specific fuel consumption in both cases, the extent is not necessarily identical. In addition, subsystem architecture choices also have an effect on Aircraft empty weight and possibly on drag. Therefore, the current industry trend towards More Electric subsystem architectures has potentially far-reaching impacts on Aircraft performance. To ascertain the effect of subsystem architecture choices on AircraftLevel and mission-Level metrics of interest, the subsystems as well as their impacts on the Aircraft and propulsion system must be modeled in suitable detail. Such an approach is demonstrated in this paper for the case of a representative single-aisle Aircraft with a focus on two subsystems which collectively consume a large fraction of the Aircraft’s total secondary power requirements the Environmental Control System and the Ice Protection Systems.

  • A Multi-Stage Surrogate Modeling Approach to Examine Vehicle-Level Technology Impacts at the Airport-Level
    53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 2015
    Co-Authors: Jose Enrique Bernardo, Clement Besson, Holger Pfaender, Jeff Schutte, Dimitri N. Mavris


    Fleet-Level analysis of technology scenarios are necessary to examine the system impact of potential technology packages applied at the Aircraft Level. Typically, fleet analyses require significant amounts of information to perform detailed model runs. This approach makes it difficult to analyze a broad set of technology scenarios because each one requires time consuming modeling. This paper presents a multi-stage surrogate modeling approach capable of examining vehicle-Level technology impacts to noise at the airport-Level. This process was developed to provide a dynamic dashboard evaluation of vehicle-Level technology rolled up to the system-Level (a representative airport in this case). The approach defines a subset grid of data that are each treated like an individual noise metric at the Aircraft Level. Surrogate models are developed to represent AircraftLevel noise at these locations as a function of Aircraft technology and design characteristics. The subset grid is small enough that AircraftLevel noise can be aggregated to the airport Level almost instantaneously. Once at the airport-Level a separate set of surrogate models utilizes the airport-Level noise values to determine the location and size of the Day-Night Average Level (DNL) 65 dB contour. The approach is described in detail, including generation of the surrogate models. Finally several notional scenarios are examined to evaluate the ability of the approach to represent the size and location of the DNL 65 dB contour as a function of AircraftLevel settings.

Kristof Risse – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The DLR TuLam project: design of a short and medium range transport Aircraft with forward swept NLF wing
    CEAS Aeronautical Journal, 2019
    Co-Authors: Arne Seitz, A. Hubner, Kristof Risse


    In order to further raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of laminar technologies in Aircraft design the German Aerospace Center DLR conducted an internal project called TuLam (Toughen up Laminar Technology), which lasted from 2014 to 2017. In the course of the project two technology paths were pursued, namely Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) and Hybrid Laminar Flow Control (HLFC). Within the frame of the NLF path a short and medium range transport Aircraft with forward swept laminar wing was designed. The present paper is focused on the aerodynamic design of the forward swept wing in cruise flight. As a special feature in comparison with previous designs of transonic laminar flow wings a trailing edge flap of 10% chord depth is employed to allow for an adaptation of the laminar bucket to off-design conditions. The resulting wing was assessed on overall Aircraft Level with respect to its fuel reduction potential, whereby the CSR-01 configuration, essentially a re-design of the Airbus A320-200, was used as a reference.

  • A Functional Approach to a Collaborative Iintegrated Wing and Movables Design
    2018 AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 2018
    Co-Authors: Giorgio Enrico Bona, Kristof Risse


    This paper presents a design methodology to model the wing, its movables, and the related integrational details. It is based on a functional approach to analyze the design
    problem, synthesizing it to a compact set of measurable and representative parameters.
    The methodology has been implemented in a collaborative and cross-organizational way, the result being an automated multidisciplinary process mirrored between industrial and research partners. After presenting the general methodology and its implementation, the
    focus is set on assessing the multiple impacts of different movables technologies on the design of the wing while capturing their value for both the manufacturer and the operator.
    These aspects are not evaluated at Aircraft Level only, but they even include safety of System architectures and the integration of components behind the rear spar.

  • Central Reference Aircraft data System (CeRAS) for research community
    CEAS Aeronautical Journal, 2016
    Co-Authors: Kristof Risse, Katharina Schafer, Florian Schültke, Eike Stumpf


    This paper gives an overview and presents the results of the project CeRAS, which stands for “Central Reference Aircraft data System”. CeRAS is intended to serve as an open platform hosting reference Aircraft data and methods that can be used by a research community in aeronautic research projects. The technical topics of the addressed user group lie in the field of overall Aircraft design as well as technology integration and evaluation on Aircraft Level. To enable the communication within the research community the CeRAS homepage has been created ( and filled with a first short-range reference Aircraft dataset. The research community can contribute to and communicate via the CeRAS homepage that is intended to serve as living “open source” platform. The first reference Aircraft is called CSR-01 and has been designed with the ILR Aircraft design platform MICADO. The Aircraft design characteristics are presented and discussed within this paper. Furthermore, common standards for monetary assessment methodologies are presented that have already been established and agreed within the CeRAS research community.

Martin Hepperle – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Exploring Vehicle Level Benefits of Revolutionary Technology Progress via Aircraft Design and Optimization
    Energies, 2018
    Co-Authors: Yaolong Liu, Ali Elham, Peter Horst, Martin Hepperle


    It is always a strong motivation for aeronautic researchers and engineers to reduce the Aircraft emissions or even to achieve emission-free air transport. In this paper, the impacts of different game-changing technologies together on the reduction of Aircraft fuel consumption and emissions are studied. In particular, a general tool has been developed for the technology assessment, integration and also for the overall Aircraft multidisciplinary design optimization. The validity and robustness of the tool has been verified through comparative and sensitivity studies. The overall Aircraft Level technology assessment and optimization showed that promising fuel efficiency improvements are possible. Though, additional strategies are required to reach the aviation emission reduction goals for short and medium range configurations.