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AK2

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Alberto Rissone – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • a model for reticular dysgenesis shows impaired sensory organ development and hair cell regeneration linked to cellular stress
    Disease Models & Mechanisms, 2019
    Co-Authors: Alberto Rissone, Fabio Candotti, Kevin Bishop, Raman Sood, Erin Jimenez, Blake Carrington, Claire Slevin, Stephen Wincovitch, Shawn M Burgess

    Abstract:

    ABSTRACT Mutations in the gene AK2 are responsible for reticular dysgenesis (RD), a rare and severe form of primary immunodeficiency in children. RD patients have a severely shortened life expectancy and without treatment die, generally from sepsis soon after birth. The only available therapeutic option for RD is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To gain insight into the pathophysiology of RD, we previously created zebrafish models for AK2 deficiencies. One of the clinical features of RD is hearing loss, but its pathophysiology and causes have not been determined. In adult mammals, sensory hair cells of the inner ear do not regenerate; however, their regeneration has been observed in several non-mammalian vertebrates, including zebrafish. Therefore, we used our RD zebrafish models to determine whether AK2 deficiency affects sensory organ development and/or hair cell regeneration. Our studies indicated that AK2 is required for the correct development, survival and regeneration of sensory hair cells. Interestingly, AK2 deficiency induces the expression of several oxidative stress markers and it triggers an increased level of cell death in the hair cells. Finally, we show that glutathione treatment can partially rescue hair cell development in the sensory organs in our RD models, pointing to the potential use of antioxidants as a therapeutic treatment supplementing HSCT to prevent or ameliorate sensorineural hearing deficits in RD patients.

  • a model for reticular dysgenesis shows impaired sensory organ development and hair cell regeneration linked to cellular stress
    bioRxiv, 2019
    Co-Authors: Alberto Rissone, Fabio Candotti, Kevin Bishop, Raman Sood, Erin Jimenez, Blake Carrington, Claire Slevin, Stephen Wincovitch, Shawn M Burgess

    Abstract:

    Mutations in the gene AK2 are responsible for Reticular Dysgenesis (RD), a rare and severe form of primary immunodeficiency in children. RD patients have a severely shortened life expectancy and without treatment die a few weeks after birth. The only available therapeutic option for RD is bone marrow transplantation. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of RD, we previously created zebrafish models for an AK2 deficiency. One of the clinical features of RD is hearing loss, but its pathology and causes have not been determined. In adult mammals, sensory hair cells of the inner ear do not regenerate; however, their regeneration has been observed in several non-mammalian vertebrates, including zebrafish. Therefore, we use our RD zebrafish models to determine if AK2 deficiency affects sensory organ development and/or hair cell regeneration. Our studies indicated that AK2 is required for the correct development, survival and regeneration of sensory hair cells. Interestingly, AK2 deficiency induces the expression of several oxidative stress markers and it triggers an increased level of cell death in the hair cells. Finally, we show that glutathione treatment can partially rescue hair cell development in the sensory organs in our RD models, pointing to the potential use of antioxidants as a supportive therapeutic modality for RD patients, not only to increase their chances of survival, but to prevent or ameliorate their sensorineural hearing deficits.

  • reticular dysgenesis associated AK2 protects hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development from oxidative stress
    Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2015
    Co-Authors: Alberto Rissone, Katja G Weinacht, Kevin Bishop, Giancarlo La Marca, Elisa Giocaliere, Jayashree Jagadeesh, Kerstin Felgentreff, Kerry Dobbs, Waleed Alherz

    Abstract:

    Adenylate kinases (AKs) are phosphotransferases that regulate the cellular adenine nucleotide composition and play a critical role in the energy homeostasis of all tissues. The AK2 isoenzyme is expressed in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and is mutated in reticular dysgenesis (RD), a rare form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in humans. RD is characterized by a maturation arrest in the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, leading to early onset, recurrent, and overwhelming infections. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of RD, we studied the effects of AK2 deficiency using the zebrafish model and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from fibroblasts of an RD patient. In zebrafish, AK2 deficiency affected hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) development with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. AK2-deficient iPSCs recapitulated the characteristic myeloid maturation arrest at the promyelocyte stage and demonstrated an increased AMP/ADP ratio, indicative of an energy-depleted adenine nucleotide profile. Antioxidant treatment rescued the hematopoietic phenotypes in vivo in AK2 mutant zebrafish and restored differentiation of AK2-deficient iPSCs into mature granulocytes. Our results link hematopoietic cell fate in AK2 deficiency to cellular energy depletion and increased oxidative stress. This points to the potential use of antioxidants as a supportive therapeutic modality for patients with RD.

Fabio Candotti – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • a model for reticular dysgenesis shows impaired sensory organ development and hair cell regeneration linked to cellular stress
    Disease Models & Mechanisms, 2019
    Co-Authors: Alberto Rissone, Fabio Candotti, Kevin Bishop, Raman Sood, Erin Jimenez, Blake Carrington, Claire Slevin, Stephen Wincovitch, Shawn M Burgess

    Abstract:

    ABSTRACT Mutations in the gene AK2 are responsible for reticular dysgenesis (RD), a rare and severe form of primary immunodeficiency in children. RD patients have a severely shortened life expectancy and without treatment die, generally from sepsis soon after birth. The only available therapeutic option for RD is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To gain insight into the pathophysiology of RD, we previously created zebrafish models for AK2 deficiencies. One of the clinical features of RD is hearing loss, but its pathophysiology and causes have not been determined. In adult mammals, sensory hair cells of the inner ear do not regenerate; however, their regeneration has been observed in several non-mammalian vertebrates, including zebrafish. Therefore, we used our RD zebrafish models to determine whether AK2 deficiency affects sensory organ development and/or hair cell regeneration. Our studies indicated that AK2 is required for the correct development, survival and regeneration of sensory hair cells. Interestingly, AK2 deficiency induces the expression of several oxidative stress markers and it triggers an increased level of cell death in the hair cells. Finally, we show that glutathione treatment can partially rescue hair cell development in the sensory organs in our RD models, pointing to the potential use of antioxidants as a therapeutic treatment supplementing HSCT to prevent or ameliorate sensorineural hearing deficits in RD patients.

  • a model for reticular dysgenesis shows impaired sensory organ development and hair cell regeneration linked to cellular stress
    bioRxiv, 2019
    Co-Authors: Alberto Rissone, Fabio Candotti, Kevin Bishop, Raman Sood, Erin Jimenez, Blake Carrington, Claire Slevin, Stephen Wincovitch, Shawn M Burgess

    Abstract:

    Mutations in the gene AK2 are responsible for Reticular Dysgenesis (RD), a rare and severe form of primary immunodeficiency in children. RD patients have a severely shortened life expectancy and without treatment die a few weeks after birth. The only available therapeutic option for RD is bone marrow transplantation. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of RD, we previously created zebrafish models for an AK2 deficiency. One of the clinical features of RD is hearing loss, but its pathology and causes have not been determined. In adult mammals, sensory hair cells of the inner ear do not regenerate; however, their regeneration has been observed in several non-mammalian vertebrates, including zebrafish. Therefore, we use our RD zebrafish models to determine if AK2 deficiency affects sensory organ development and/or hair cell regeneration. Our studies indicated that AK2 is required for the correct development, survival and regeneration of sensory hair cells. Interestingly, AK2 deficiency induces the expression of several oxidative stress markers and it triggers an increased level of cell death in the hair cells. Finally, we show that glutathione treatment can partially rescue hair cell development in the sensory organs in our RD models, pointing to the potential use of antioxidants as a supportive therapeutic modality for RD patients, not only to increase their chances of survival, but to prevent or ameliorate their sensorineural hearing deficits.

  • AK2 deficiency in zebrafish recapitulates human reticular dysgenesis an autosomal recessive form of severe combined immunodeficiency
    Blood, 2013
    Co-Authors: Jaya Jagadeesh, Kevin Bishop, Karen L Simon, Raman Sood, Fabio Candotti

    Abstract:

    The adenylate kinase (AK) gene family consists of 7 different members that contribute to energy cell metabolism by converting ATP+AMP to 2ADP. AKs are critical players in ensuring cellular energy homeostasis in all tissues. Mutations in the AK2 gene are responsible for reticular dysgenesis (RD), an autosomal recessive form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). RD is characterized by an early differentiation arrest in the granulocyte lineage and impaired lymphoid maturation and it represents less than 2% of total SCID. Affected children succumb to overwhelming infections early in life unless their immune system is successfully restored with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplant (HSCT). The mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of RD remain unclear. The phenotype of AK2 deficient animals has never been reported in the literature, but murine lines carrying homozygous inactivating retroviral insertions are embryonically lethal (our personal observations). We used the zebrafish model to perform a comprehensive study of the effects of AK2 deficiency using Morpholino oligomers injections and two different kinds of AK2 mutants (a ENU-induced T371C/L124P missense mutant and two null mutant lines generated using zinc-finger nuclease technology). In situ hybridization analyses of AK2-deficient embryos indicated that only erythroid development was affected during primitive hematopoiesis. Conversely, during definitive hematopoiesis, the loss of function of AK2 resulted in abnormalities distributed along all hematopoietic lineages suggesting an impairment of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development. Moreover, we observed that the AK2 deficiency induced oxidative stress and consequent apoptosis in both primitive erythroid cells and definitive HSCs. Importantly, antioxidant treatment of AK2 mutant embryos rescued the hematopoietic phenotypes as indicated by the recovered expression of HSC and lymphoid markers (such as c-myb and rag1). Overall, our data indicate that zebrafish represents a good model for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in RD and testing of new therapeutic interventions. To date, our mutant lines remain the only animal model of this rare and lethal human disease.

    Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

Kevin Bishop – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • a model for reticular dysgenesis shows impaired sensory organ development and hair cell regeneration linked to cellular stress
    Disease Models & Mechanisms, 2019
    Co-Authors: Alberto Rissone, Fabio Candotti, Kevin Bishop, Raman Sood, Erin Jimenez, Blake Carrington, Claire Slevin, Stephen Wincovitch, Shawn M Burgess

    Abstract:

    ABSTRACT Mutations in the gene AK2 are responsible for reticular dysgenesis (RD), a rare and severe form of primary immunodeficiency in children. RD patients have a severely shortened life expectancy and without treatment die, generally from sepsis soon after birth. The only available therapeutic option for RD is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To gain insight into the pathophysiology of RD, we previously created zebrafish models for AK2 deficiencies. One of the clinical features of RD is hearing loss, but its pathophysiology and causes have not been determined. In adult mammals, sensory hair cells of the inner ear do not regenerate; however, their regeneration has been observed in several non-mammalian vertebrates, including zebrafish. Therefore, we used our RD zebrafish models to determine whether AK2 deficiency affects sensory organ development and/or hair cell regeneration. Our studies indicated that AK2 is required for the correct development, survival and regeneration of sensory hair cells. Interestingly, AK2 deficiency induces the expression of several oxidative stress markers and it triggers an increased level of cell death in the hair cells. Finally, we show that glutathione treatment can partially rescue hair cell development in the sensory organs in our RD models, pointing to the potential use of antioxidants as a therapeutic treatment supplementing HSCT to prevent or ameliorate sensorineural hearing deficits in RD patients.

  • a model for reticular dysgenesis shows impaired sensory organ development and hair cell regeneration linked to cellular stress
    bioRxiv, 2019
    Co-Authors: Alberto Rissone, Fabio Candotti, Kevin Bishop, Raman Sood, Erin Jimenez, Blake Carrington, Claire Slevin, Stephen Wincovitch, Shawn M Burgess

    Abstract:

    Mutations in the gene AK2 are responsible for Reticular Dysgenesis (RD), a rare and severe form of primary immunodeficiency in children. RD patients have a severely shortened life expectancy and without treatment die a few weeks after birth. The only available therapeutic option for RD is bone marrow transplantation. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of RD, we previously created zebrafish models for an AK2 deficiency. One of the clinical features of RD is hearing loss, but its pathology and causes have not been determined. In adult mammals, sensory hair cells of the inner ear do not regenerate; however, their regeneration has been observed in several non-mammalian vertebrates, including zebrafish. Therefore, we use our RD zebrafish models to determine if AK2 deficiency affects sensory organ development and/or hair cell regeneration. Our studies indicated that AK2 is required for the correct development, survival and regeneration of sensory hair cells. Interestingly, AK2 deficiency induces the expression of several oxidative stress markers and it triggers an increased level of cell death in the hair cells. Finally, we show that glutathione treatment can partially rescue hair cell development in the sensory organs in our RD models, pointing to the potential use of antioxidants as a supportive therapeutic modality for RD patients, not only to increase their chances of survival, but to prevent or ameliorate their sensorineural hearing deficits.

  • reticular dysgenesis associated AK2 protects hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development from oxidative stress
    Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2015
    Co-Authors: Alberto Rissone, Katja G Weinacht, Kevin Bishop, Giancarlo La Marca, Elisa Giocaliere, Jayashree Jagadeesh, Kerstin Felgentreff, Kerry Dobbs, Waleed Alherz

    Abstract:

    Adenylate kinases (AKs) are phosphotransferases that regulate the cellular adenine nucleotide composition and play a critical role in the energy homeostasis of all tissues. The AK2 isoenzyme is expressed in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and is mutated in reticular dysgenesis (RD), a rare form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in humans. RD is characterized by a maturation arrest in the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, leading to early onset, recurrent, and overwhelming infections. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of RD, we studied the effects of AK2 deficiency using the zebrafish model and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from fibroblasts of an RD patient. In zebrafish, AK2 deficiency affected hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) development with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. AK2-deficient iPSCs recapitulated the characteristic myeloid maturation arrest at the promyelocyte stage and demonstrated an increased AMP/ADP ratio, indicative of an energy-depleted adenine nucleotide profile. Antioxidant treatment rescued the hematopoietic phenotypes in vivo in AK2 mutant zebrafish and restored differentiation of AK2-deficient iPSCs into mature granulocytes. Our results link hematopoietic cell fate in AK2 deficiency to cellular energy depletion and increased oxidative stress. This points to the potential use of antioxidants as a supportive therapeutic modality for patients with RD.