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Hong Li – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Recognition of another member of the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: an endemic gammaherpesvirus in domestic goats.
    The Journal of general virology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Hong Li, Donald P Knowles, Janice Keller, Timothy B. Crawford


    A novel gammaherpesvirus in goats that is herein tentatively designated as caprine herpesvirus-2 was identified based on the sequence of a fragment from the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that the virus sequence isolated from goats was 67% identical to the homologous sequence from alcelaphine herpesvirus-1, 71% identical to ovine herpesvirus-2 and 73% identical to a recently recognized herpesvirus causing malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer. Combined serological and PCR-survey data demonstrated that this virus is endemic in goats and its transmission pattern may be similar to that of ovine herpesvirus-2 in sheep.

  • In Situ Hybridization for Localization of Ovine Herpesvirus 2, the Agent of Sheep-Associated Malignant Catarrhal Fever, in Formalin-Fixed Tissues:
    Veterinary Pathology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Patricia A Pesavento, Hong Li, Cristina W Cunha, Kenneth Jackson, Donal O’toole


    A constraint on understanding the pathogenesis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is the limited number of tools to localize infected cells. The amount of detectable virus, visualized in the past either by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization (ISH), has been modest in fixed or frozen tissues. This complicates our understanding of the widespread lymphoid proliferation, epithelial necrosis/apoptosis, and arteritis-phlebitis that characterize MCF. In this work, we developed a probe-based in situ hybridization assay targeting 2 ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) genes, as well as their respective transcripts, in formalin-fixed tissues. Using this approach, OvHV-2 nucleic acids were detected in lymphocytes in MCF-affected animals following both natural infection (American bison and domestic cattle) and experimental infection (American bison, rabbits, and pigs). The probe did not cross-react with 4 closely related gammaherpesviruses that also cause MCF: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, alcelaphine herpesvirus 2, c…

  • Seroprevalence of malignant catarrhal fever virus in captive wildebeest (Connochaetes sp.) in France
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 2018
    Co-Authors: Katia Ortiz, Francoise Myster, Justine Javaux, Marie Simon, Thierry Petit, Sylvie Clavel, Benjamin Lamglait, Barbara Blanc, Alice Brunet, Hong Li


    Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a gammaherpesvirus carried asymptomatically by wildebeests (Connochaetes sp.) in sub-Saharan Africa. Although asymptomatic in wildebeest, AlHV-1 infection in a number of other ruminant species causes a severe and fatal lymphoproliferative disease named wildebeest-derived malignant catarrhal fever (WD-MCF). Several endangered species of captive ruminants are highly susceptible to developing WD-MCF if infected by AlHV-1, which is a critical concern in zoos, game reserves and wildlife parks where wildebeests are also kept in captivity. Here, we investigated the seroprevalence of AlHV-1 in 52 captive wildebeests randomly sampled from five different zoos in France. We found 46% (24/52) seropositive animals and detected AlHV-1 DNA in one of them, demonstrating that AlHV-1 infection is present in captive wildebeests in France. In an interesting manner, the repartition of seropositive wildebeests was not homogenous between zoos with 100% (20/20) of seronegative animals in three parks. These results further highlight the importance of considering WD-MCF as a threat for clinically susceptible species and encourage for testing AlHV-1 infection in captive wildebeests as a management control strategy.

David M Haig – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Complete sequence and analysis of the ovine herpesvirus 2 genome.
    The Journal of general virology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Jane Hart, David M Haig, Mathias Ackermann, Gamini Jayawardane, George Russell, Hugh Reid, James P Stewart


    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is endemic in sheep populations worldwide and causes malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a lymphoproliferative disease, in cattle, bison and deer. OvHV-2 has been placed in the gammaherpesvirus subfamily and is related closely to Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1). Here, the cloning, sequencing and analysis of the complete OvHV-2 genome derived from a lymphoblastoid cell line from an affected cow (BJ1035) are reported. The unique portion of the genome consists of 130,930 bp, with a mean G+C content of 52 mol%. The unique DNA is flanked by multiple copies of terminal repeat elements 4205 bp in length, with a mean G+C content of 72 mol%. Analysis revealed 73 open reading frames (ORFs), the majority (62) of which showed homology to other gammaherpesvirus genes. A further subset of nine ORFs is shared with only the related AlHV-1. Three ORFs are entirely unique to OvHV-2, including a spliced homologue of cellular interleukin-10 that retains the exon structure of the cellular gene. The sequence of OvHV-2 is a critical first step in the study of the pathogenesis and treatment of MCF.

  • Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein B: recombinant expression and antibody recognition
    Archives of Virology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Helen Todd, David M Haig, Neil F Inglis, David Deane, Ann Percival, Kevin Mclean, Erin D. T. Manson, Shilpa Nayuni, Lindsey M. Hutt-fletcher, Dawn M. Grant


    The gammaherpesvirus alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) causes fatal malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in susceptible species including cattle, but infects its reservoir host, wildebeest, without causing disease. Pathology in cattle may be influenced by virus-host cell interactions mediated by the virus glycoproteins. Cloning and expression of a haemagglutinin-tagged version of the AlHV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) was used to demonstrate that the AlHV-1-specific monoclonal antibody 12B5 recognised gB and that gB was the main component of the gp115 complex of AlHV-1, a glycoprotein complex of five components identified on the surface of AlHV-1 by immunoprecipitation and radiolabelling. Analysis of AlHV-1 virus particles showed that the native form of gB was detected by mAb 12B5 as a band of about 70 kDa, whilst recombinant gB expressed by transfected HEK293T cells appeared to be subject to additional cleavage and incomplete post-translational processing. Antibody 12B5 recognised an epitope on the N-terminal furin-cleaved fragment of gB on AlHV-1 virus particles. It could be used to detect recombinant and virus-expressed gB on western blots and on the surface of infected cells by flow cytometry, whilst recombinant gB was detected on the surface of transfected cells by immunofluorescence. Recombinant gB has potential as an antigen for ELISA detection of MCF virus infection and as a candidate vaccine antigen.

  • alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 malignant catarrhal fever virus in wildebeest placenta genetic variation of orf50 and a9 5 alleles
    PLOS ONE, 2015
    Co-Authors: Dawn M. Grant, Felix Lankester, Ahmed Lugelo, Nicholas Mnyambwa, Ahab Ndabigaye, Julius Keyyu, Rudovick R. Kazwala, Valerie Relf, David M Haig


    Alcelaphine herpesvirus–1 (AlHV-1), a causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever in cattle, was detected in wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) placenta tissue for the first time. Although viral load was low, the finding of viral DNA in over 50% of 94 samples tested lends support to the possibility that placental tissue could play a role in disease transmission and that wildebeest calves are infected in utero. Two viral loci were sequenced to examine variation among virus samples obtained from wildebeest and cattle: the ORF50 gene, encoding the lytic cycle transactivator protein, and the A9.5 gene, encoding a novel polymorphic viral glycoprotein. ORF50 was well conserved with six newly discovered alleles differing at only one or two base positions. In contrast, while only three new A9.5 alleles were discovered, these differed by up to 13% at the nucleotide level and up to 20% at the amino acid level. Structural homology searching performed with the additional A9.5 sequences determined in this study adds power to recent analysis identifying the four-helix bundle cytokine interleukin-4 (IL4) as the major homologue. The majority of MCF virus samples obtained from Tanzanian cattle and wildebeest encoded A9.5 polypeptides identical to the previously characterized A9.5 allele present in the laboratory maintained AlHV-1 C500 strain. This supports the view that AlHV-1 C500 is suitable for the development of a vaccine for wildebeest-associated MCF.

Benjamin G Dewals – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 genes a7 and a8 regulate viral spread and are essential for malignant catarrhal fever
    PLOS Pathogens, 2020
    Co-Authors: Francoise Myster, Alain Vanderplasschen, Nicolás M. Suárez, Andrew J. Davison, Meijiao Gong, Justine Javaux, Gavin S. Wilkie, Timothy Connelley, Benjamin G Dewals


    Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a gammaherpesvirus that is carried asymptomatically by wildebeest. Upon cross-species transmission to other ruminants, including domestic cattle, AlHV-1 induces malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), which is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease resulting from proliferation and uncontrolled activation of latently infected CD8+ T cells. Two laboratory strains of AlHV-1 are used commonly in research: C500, which is pathogenic, and WC11, which has been attenuated by long-term maintenance in cell culture. The published genome sequence of a WC11 seed stock from a German laboratory revealed the deletion of two major regions. The sequence of a WC11 seed stock used in our laboratory also bears these deletions and, in addition, the duplication of an internal sequence in the terminal region. The larger of the two deletions has resulted in the absence of gene A7 and a large portion of gene A8. These genes are positional orthologs of the Epstein-Barr virus genes encoding envelope glycoproteins gp42 and gp350, respectively, which are involved in viral propagation and switching of cell tropism. To investigate the degree to which the absence of A7 and A8 participates in WC11 attenuation, recombinant viruses lacking these individual functions were generated in C500. Using bovine nasal turbinate and embryonic lung cell lines, increased cell-free viral propagation and impaired syncytia formation were observed in the absence of A7, whereas cell-free viral spread was inhibited in the absence of A8. Therefore, A7 appears to be involved in cell-to-cell viral spread, and A8 in viral cell-free propagation. Finally, infection of rabbits with either mutant did not induce the signs of MCF or the expansion of infected CD8+ T cells. These results demonstrate that A7 and A8 are both essential for regulating viral spread and suggest that AlHV-1 requires both genes to efficiently spread in vivo and reach CD8+ T lymphocytes and induce MCF.

  • Genomic duplication and translocation of reactivation transactivator and bZIP-homolog genes is a conserved event in alcelaphine herpesvirus 1
    Scientific Reports, 2016
    Co-Authors: Francoise Myster, Alain Vanderplasschen, Steven J. Beurden, Océane Sorel, Nicolás M. Suárez, Andrew J. Davison, Benjamin G Dewals


    Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a gammaherpesvirus carried asymptomatically by wildebeest. Upon cross-species transmission, AlHV-1 induces malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of ruminants, including cattle. The strain C500 has been cloned as an infectious, pathogenic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) that is used to study MCF. Although AlHV-1 infection can be established in cell culture, multiple passages in vitro cause a loss of virulence associated with rearrangements of the viral genome. Here, sequencing of the BAC clone showed that the long unique region (LUR) of the genome is nearly identical to that of the previously sequenced strain from which the BAC was derived, and identified the duplication and translocation of a region from within LUR, containing the entire coding sequences of ORF50-encoding reactivation transactivator Rta and A6-encoding bZIP protein genes. The duplicated region was further located to a position within the terminal repeat (TR) and its deletion resulted in lower ORF50 expression levels and reduced viral fitness. Finally, the presence of a similar but not identical duplication and translocation containing both genes was found in AlHV-1 strain WC11. These results indicate that selection pressure for enhanced viral fitness may drive the duplication of ORF50 and A6 in AlHV-1.

  • replacement of glycoprotein b in alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 by its ovine herpesvirus 2 homolog implications in vaccine development for sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever
    mSphere, 2016
    Co-Authors: Hong Li, Naomi S. Taus, Benjamin G Dewals, Alain Vanderplasschen, Cristina W Cunha, Donald P Knowles


    ABSTRACT Vaccine development is a top priority in malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) research. In the case of sheep-associated MCF (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), progress toward this objective has been hindered by the absence of methods to attenuate or modify the virus, since it cannot be propagated in vitro. As an alternative for vaccine development, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that one of the SA-MCF vaccine candidate targets, OvHV-2 glycoprotein B (gB), could be expressed by a nonpathogenic alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and then evaluated the potential of the AlHV-1/OvHV-2 chimera to be used as a vaccine and a diagnostic tool. The construction and characterization of an AlHV-1/OvHV-2 chimeric virus that is nonpathogenic and expresses an OvHV-2 vaccine target are significant steps toward the development of an SA-MCF vaccine and also provide a valuable means to study OvHV-2 biology.