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Mary K Howett – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • biochemical analysis of human milk treated with sodium dodecyl Sulfate an Alkyl Sulfate microbicide that inactivates human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Journal of Human Lactation, 2006
    Co-Authors: Sandra Urdaneta Hartmann, Brian Wigdahl, Elizabeth B Neely, Cheston M Berlin, Caralynne Schengrund, Hungmo Lin, Mary K Howett
    Abstract:

    Reduction of transmission of human immunodeficiency viruvirus type 1 (HIV-1) through human milk is needed. Alkyl Sulfates such as sodium dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) are microbicidal against HIV-1 at low concentrations, have little to no toxicity, and are inexpensive. The authors have reported that treatment of HIV-1-infected human milk with ≤ 1% (10 mg/mL) SDS for 10 minutes inactivates cell-free and cell-associated virus. The SDS can be removed with a commercially available resin after treatment without recovery of viral infectivity. In this article, the authors report results of selective biochemical analyses (ie, protein, immunoglobulins, lipids, cells, and electrolytes) of human milk subjected to SDS treatment and removal. The SDS treatment or removal had no significant effects on the milk components studied. Therefore, the use of Alkyl Sulfate microbicides to treat milk from HIV-1-positive women may be a simple, practical, and nutritionally sound way to prevent or reduce transmission of HIV-1 while still feedi…

  • inactivation of hiv 1 in breast milk by treatment with the Alkyl Sulfate microbicide sodium dodecyl Sulfate sds
    Retrovirology, 2005
    Co-Authors: Mary K Howett, Brian Wigdahl, Elizabeth B Neely, Cheston M Berlin, Caralynne Schengrund, Hungmo Lin, Sandra Urdaneta
    Abstract:

    Background: Reducing transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk is needed to help decrease the burden of pediatric HIV/AIDS in society. We have previously reported that Alkyl Sulfates (i.e., sodium dodecyl Sulfate, SDS) are microbicidal against HIV-1 at low concentrations, are biodegradable, have little/no toxicity and are inexpensive. Therefore, they may be used for treatment of HIV-1 infected breast milk. In this report, human milk was artificially infected by adding to it HIV-1 (cell-free or cell-associated) and treated with ≤1% SDS (≤10 mg/ml). Microbicidal treatment was at 37°C or room temperature for 10 min. SDS removal was performed with a commercially available resin. Infectivity of HIV-1 and HIV-1 load in breast milk were determined after treatment. Results: SDS (≥0.1%) was virucidal against cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 in breast milk. SDS could be substantially removed from breast milk, without recovery of viral infectivity. Viral load in artificially infected milk was reduced to undetectable levels after treatment with 0.1% SDS. SDS was virucidal against HIV-1 in human milk and could be removed from breast milk if necessary. Milk was not infectious after SDS removal. Conclusion: The proposed treatment concentrations are within reported safe limits for ingestion of SDS by children of 1 g/kg/day. Therefore, use of Alkyl Sulfate microbicides, such as SDS, to treat HIV1-infected breast milk may be a novel alternative to help prevent/reduce transmission of HIV1 through breastfeeding.

  • Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by nonoxynol-9, C31G, or an Alkyl Sulfate, sodium dodecyl Sulfate
    Antiviral Research, 1999
    Co-Authors: Fred C. Krebs, Mary K Howett, Shendra R. Miller, Daniel Malamud, Brian Wigdahl
    Abstract:

    Abstract A highly desirable approach to prevention of human immunodeficiency viruvirus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission during sexual intercourse is the development of nontoxic, topical, broad spectrum microbicides effective against transmission of cell-associated and cell-free virus. Toward this end, the HIV-1 inactivation potential of surface active agents C31G and an Alkyl Sulfate, sodium dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) was assessed. Because of its extensive use as a microbicidal agent, nonoxynol-9 (N-9) was used as a reference against which C31G and SDS were compared. Viral inactivation was measured using HIV-1 LTR-β-galactosidase indicator cells (expressing CD4 or CD4/CCR5) derived from HeLa cells, a cell line of human cervical adenocarcinoma origin. In experiments which examined inactivation of cell-free HIV-1, C31G was generally more effective than N-9. Viral inactivation by SDS occurred at twice the concentration necessary to achieve similar levels of inactivation using either N-9 or C31G. Using HeLa and HeLa-derived cells in cytotoxicity studies, it was demonstrated that SDS is as much as 11 and five times less cytotoxic than N-9 or C31G, respectively, during 48 h of continuous exposure. SDS (unlike C31G and N-9) can inactivate non-enveloped viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV) [Howett, M.K., Neely, E.B., Christensen, N.D., Wigdahl, B., Krebs, F.C., Malamud, D., Patrick, S.D., Pickel, M.D., Welsh, P.A., Reed, C.A., Ward, M.G., Budgeon, L.R., Kreider, J.W., 1999. A broad-spectrum microbicide with virucidal activity against sexually transmitted viruses. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43(2), 314–321]. Since addition of SDS to C31G or N-9 may make the resulting microbicidal mixtures broadly effective against both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, several surface active agent combinations were evaluated for their abilities to inactivate HIV-1. Addition of SDS to either C31G or N-9 resulted in mixtures that were only slightly less effective than equivalent concentrations of C31G or N-9 alone. To investigate inactivation of cell-associated infectivity, HIV-1 IIIB-infected SupT1 cells were treated with N-9, C31G, or SDS. Inactivation of cell-associated infectivity required higher microbicide concentrations than were needed for inactivation of cell-free virus. However, the relative activities of N-9, C31G, or SDS were similar to those seen in assays of inactivation using cell-free virus. These studies suggest that C31G and SDS may be attractive candidates for human trials as topical microbicides effective against HIV-1 transmission since both function at concentrations that provide effective viral inactivation with low levels of cytotoxicity. SDS microbicides (used alone or with other microbicides) may provide the added advantage of protection from HPV infection.

Brian Wigdahl – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • biochemical analysis of human milk treated with sodium dodecyl Sulfate an Alkyl Sulfate microbicide that inactivates human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Journal of Human Lactation, 2006
    Co-Authors: Sandra Urdaneta Hartmann, Brian Wigdahl, Elizabeth B Neely, Cheston M Berlin, Caralynne Schengrund, Hungmo Lin, Mary K Howett
    Abstract:

    Reduction of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through human milk is needed. Alkyl Sulfates such as sodium dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) are microbicidal against HIV-1 at low concentrations, have little to no toxicity, and are inexpensive. The authors have reported that treatment of HIV-1-infected human milk with ≤ 1% (10 mg/mL) SDS for 10 minutes inactivates cell-free and cell-associated virus. The SDS can be removed with a commercially available resin after treatment without recovery of viral infectivity. In this article, the authors report results of selective biochemical analyses (ie, protein, immunoglobulins, lipids, cells, and electrolytes) of human milk subjected to SDS treatment and removal. The SDS treatment or removal had no significant effects on the milk components studied. Therefore, the use of Alkyl Sulfate microbicides to treat milk from HIV-1-positive women may be a simple, practical, and nutritionally sound way to prevent or reduce transmission of HIV-1 while still feedi…

  • inactivation of hiv 1 in breast milk by treatment with the Alkyl Sulfate microbicide sodium dodecyl Sulfate sds
    Retrovirology, 2005
    Co-Authors: Mary K Howett, Brian Wigdahl, Elizabeth B Neely, Cheston M Berlin, Caralynne Schengrund, Hungmo Lin, Sandra Urdaneta
    Abstract:

    Background: Reducing transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk is needed to help decrease the burden of pediatric HIV/AIDS in society. We have previously reported that Alkyl Sulfates (i.e., sodium dodecyl Sulfate, SDS) are microbicidal against HIV-1 at low concentrations, are biodegradable, have little/no toxicity and are inexpensive. Therefore, they may be used for treatment of HIV-1 infected breast milk. In this report, human milk was artificially infected by adding to it HIV-1 (cell-free or cell-associated) and treated with ≤1% SDS (≤10 mg/ml). Microbicidal treatment was at 37°C or room temperature for 10 min. SDS removal was performed with a commercially available resin. Infectivity of HIV-1 and HIV-1 load in breast milk were determined after treatment. Results: SDS (≥0.1%) was virucidal against cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 in breast milk. SDS could be substantially removed from breast milk, without recovery of viral infectivity. Viral load in artificially infected milk was reduced to undetectable levels after treatment with 0.1% SDS. SDS was virucidal against HIV-1 in human milk and could be removed from breast milk if necessary. Milk was not infectious after SDS removal. Conclusion: The proposed treatment concentrations are within reported safe limits for ingestion of SDS by children of 1 g/kg/day. Therefore, use of Alkyl Sulfate microbicides, such as SDS, to treat HIV1-infected breast milk may be a novel alternative to help prevent/reduce transmission of HIV1 through breastfeeding.

  • Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by nonoxynol-9, C31G, or an Alkyl Sulfate, sodium dodecyl Sulfate
    Antiviral Research, 1999
    Co-Authors: Fred C. Krebs, Mary K Howett, Shendra R. Miller, Daniel Malamud, Brian Wigdahl
    Abstract:

    Abstract A highly desirable approach to prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission during sexual intercourse is the development of nontoxic, topical, broad spectrum microbicides effective against transmission of cell-associated and cell-free virus. Toward this end, the HIV-1 inactivation potential of surface active agents C31G and an Alkyl Sulfate, sodium dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) was assessed. Because of its extensive use as a microbicidal agent, nonoxynol-9 (N-9) was used as a reference against which C31G and SDS were compared. Viral inactivation was measured using HIV-1 LTR-β-galactosidase indicator cells (expressing CD4 or CD4/CCR5) derived from HeLa cells, a cell line of human cervical adenocarcinoma origin. In experiments which examined inactivation of cell-free HIV-1, C31G was generally more effective than N-9. Viral inactivation by SDS occurred at twice the concentration necessary to achieve similar levels of inactivation using either N-9 or C31G. Using HeLa and HeLa-derived cells in cytotoxicity studies, it was demonstrated that SDS is as much as 11 and five times less cytotoxic than N-9 or C31G, respectively, during 48 h of continuous exposure. SDS (unlike C31G and N-9) can inactivate non-enveloped viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV) [Howett, M.K., Neely, E.B., Christensen, N.D., Wigdahl, B., Krebs, F.C., Malamud, D., Patrick, S.D., Pickel, M.D., Welsh, P.A., Reed, C.A., Ward, M.G., Budgeon, L.R., Kreider, J.W., 1999. A broad-spectrum microbicide with virucidal activity against sexually transmitted viruses. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43(2), 314–321]. Since addition of SDS to C31G or N-9 may make the resulting microbicidal mixtures broadly effective against both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, several surface active agent combinations were evaluated for their abilities to inactivate HIV-1. Addition of SDS to either C31G or N-9 resulted in mixtures that were only slightly less effective than equivalent concentrations of C31G or N-9 alone. To investigate inactivation of cell-associated infectivity, HIV-1 IIIB-infected SupT1 cells were treated with N-9, C31G, or SDS. Inactivation of cell-associated infectivity required higher microbicide concentrations than were needed for inactivation of cell-free virus. However, the relative activities of N-9, C31G, or SDS were similar to those seen in assays of inactivation using cell-free virus. These studies suggest that C31G and SDS may be attractive candidates for human trials as topical microbicides effective against HIV-1 transmission since both function at concentrations that provide effective viral inactivation with low levels of cytotoxicity. SDS microbicides (used alone or with other microbicides) may provide the added advantage of protection from HPV infection.

O Cabeza – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Ruggero Caminiti – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Esther Rilo – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • electrical conductivity of seven binary systems containing 1 ethyl 3 methyl imidazolium Alkyl Sulfate ionic liquids with water or ethanol at four temperatures
    Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2013
    Co-Authors: Esther Rilo, Luis M Varela, J Vila, Sandra Garciagarabal, O Cabeza
    Abstract:

    We present experimental measurements of specific electrical (or ionic) conductivity of seven binary systems of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium Alkyl Sulfate (EMIM-CnS) with water or ethanol. Electrical conductivity was measured at 298.15 K in all ranges of concentrations and selected mixtures also at 288.15, 308.15, and 318.15 K. The Alkyl chains of the anions used are ethyl (EMIM-ES), butyl (EMIM-BS), hexyl (EMIM-HS), and, only for mixtures with ethanol, octyl (EMIM-OS). Let us note that the four ionic liquids (ILs) measured are miscible in water and ethanol at those temperatures and atmospheric pressure in all ranges of concentrations, but EMIM-OS jellifies for a given range of concentration with water. We compare the measured data in terms of the Alkyl chain length and solvent nature. Data are compared with previously scarce results for these same systems and also for other aqueous and ethanol mixtures with ILs. In addition, we verify that our data fit the universal theoretical expression with no fitting …

  • density and derived thermodynamic properties of 1 ethyl 3 methylimidazolium Alkyl Sulfate ionic liquid binary mixtures with water and with ethanol from 288 k to 318 k
    Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 2012
    Co-Authors: Esther Rilo, Luis M Varela, O Cabeza
    Abstract:

    We present in this paper experimental measurements of density for pure ionic liquids of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Alkyl Sulfate family, with the Alkyl group being ethyl ([EMIM][ES]), butyl ([EMIM][BS]), hexyl ([EMIM][HS]), and octyl ([EMIM][OS]), and their binary mixtures with water and with ethanol in the whole composition range, at 288 K, 298 K, 308 K, and 318 K and under atmospheric pressure. The IL family chosen allows us to analyze the influence of the Alkyl chain length of the anion. We compare results with those previously published by us and by other research groups, where the influence of the Alkyl chain length of the cation in volumetric properties is studied. We observed that the density for both kind of binary mixtures decreases with the increase of the Alkyl chain length of the anion and with the decrease of the molar fraction of ionic liquid. From density data we extract molar volumes and excess molar volumes. Molar volumes can be adjusted to a straight line versus the molar fraction, …

  • density and derived thermodynamic properties of 1 ethyl 3 methylimidazolium Alkyl Sulfate ionic liquid binary mixtures with water and with ethanol from 288 k to 318 k
    Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 2012
    Co-Authors: Esther Rilo, Luis M Varela, O Cabeza
    Abstract:

    We present in this paper experimental measurements of density for pure ionic liquids of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Alkyl Sulfate family, with the Alkyl group being ethyl ([EMIM][ES]), butyl ([EMIM][BS]), hexyl ([EMIM][HS]), and octyl ([EMIM][OS]), and their binary mixtures with water and with ethanol in the whole composition range, at 288 K, 298 K, 308 K, and 318 K and under atmospheric pressure. The IL family chosen allows us to analyze the influence of the Alkyl chain length of the anion. We compare results with those previously published by us and by other research groups, where the influence of the Alkyl chain length of the cation in volumetric properties is studied. We observed that the density for both kind of binary mixtures decreases with the increase of the Alkyl chain length of the anion and with the decrease of the molar fraction of ionic liquid. From density data we extract molar volumes and excess molar volumes. Molar volumes can be adjusted to a straight line versus the molar fraction, …