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S M Bougourd – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
The inheritance of B chromosomes in Allium schoenoprasum L.Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology, 1996Co-Authors: S M Bougourd, A B PlowmanAbstract:
The inheritance of B chromosomes has been investigated inAllium schoenoprasum from the River Wye, Powys; controlled crosses between plants of known B chromosome constitution were carried out, and the numbers of Bs present in the progenies scored. There was considerable heterogeneity in B chromosome transmission rates across the range of B chromosome numbers, through both the male and female lines, and in crosses involving odd and even numbers of Bs. The mean B number of the progeny was lower than the Mendelian expectation in 41 of the 57 crosses, significantly so in about a third of cases. No progeny had a mean B number significantly higher than expected. The mean transmission rate per B was not significantly different between parents with different numbers of Bs, in either the male of female line, or between plants carrying odd or even numbers of Bs. Transmission through the male line (0.43) was higher than through the female line (0.35), but not significantly so. The overall mean transmission rate per B (0.4), estimated from all crosses, was significantly lower than the expected rate of 0.5. This study provides conclusive evidence that B chromosomes inA. schoenoprasum from the River Wye lack an effective accumulation mechanism and, furthermore, show significant losses during transmission to the progeny of controlled crosses.
Unstable B-chromosomes in a European population of Allium schoenoprasum L. (Liliaceae)Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 1994Co-Authors: J P Stevens, S M BougourdAbstract:
Abstract In Allium schoenoprasum, small, euchromatic B-chromosomes occur in 74% of plants at Lac de Tracens, Parc National des Pyrenees. B-chromosomes from Lac de Tracens were compared with the previously well characterized Bs from British populations of A. schoenoprasum at the River Wye, Powys, and were found to differ in terms of both their morphology and the level of mitotic instability. At Lac de Tracens, two morphological types of B-chromosome were observed: a telocentric of about 1.15 μm in length and a metacentric of about 1.35 μm in length; the most frequent B-type in the River Wye populations (Bt-1) was not found. B-chromosomes from the River Wye are essentially stable at root tip mitosis, whereas 25 out of 29 plants from Lac de Tracens (86%) showed between-cell variation in B-number, with non-modal numbers in 330 out of 794 cells (41.6%). Most of the variability occurred within individual roots, rather than between roots of single bulbs or of sister bulbs. No meiotic pairing was observed between the different Bs in hybrids from the geographically isolated populations, suggesting a lack of homology. An independent origin of B-chromosomes in the British and French populations is suggested.
Selectively advantageous effects of B chromosomes on germination behaviour in Allium schoenoprasum L.Heredity, 1994Co-Authors: A B Plowman, S M BougourdAbstract:
The effects of B chromosomes in Allium schoenoprasum on germination rate and on the ability of seeds to germinate under drought conditions have been investigated. When water was freely available for germination, there was an increased frequency of B-containing individuals amongst the first 10 per cent of seeds to germinate compared with the middle germinating group (64 cf. 56 per cent). Two drought regimes were employed: in one (‘droplet’) seeds were provided with a limited amount of water, and in the other (‘PEG’) the availability of water was limited osmotically. There was a significantly increased frequency of B-containing individuals amongst the 5 per cent of seeds that were able to germinate in both the droplet sample (79 per cent) and the PEG sample (65 per cent) compared with the control sample (56 per cent). Although the early and drought germinating groups had higher frequencies of B-containing seedlings, the individual seedlings did not carry a significantly increased number of B chromosomes. The increases in the frequencies of B-containing seedlings in the early and drought germinating groups were comparable to or greater than that observed previously in the wild between the seed and seedling stages, suggesting that the increased survival of B-containing individuals in natural populations could be due to the effects of Bs on germination behaviour. There was no relationship between the presence of B chromosomes and seed size, seed density or seed shape, implying that differences in these seed characteristics do not provide an explanation of the effects of B chromosomes on germination.
Fatmaria Fatmaria – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK ETANOL 96% UMBI BAWANG SUNA (Allium schoenoprasum L.) TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Staphylococcus aureus DAN Staphylococcus saprophyticus DENGAN METODE DIFUSI CAKRAM KIRBY-BAUERHerb-Medicine Journal, 2020Co-Authors: Putri Hagalang Sinta, Dewi Klarita Furtuna, Fatmaria FatmariaAbstract:
ABSTRAK Pendahuluan: Pendahuluan: Infeksi Saluran Kemih (ISK) merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan yang sering menyerang pria dan wanita dari segala usia dengan berbagai gambaran klinis dan episode yang disebabkan oleh mikroorganisme seperti bakteri. Umbi bawang suna (Allium schoenoprasum L) merupakan salah satu tanaman yang digunakan oleh masyarakat Kalimantan Tengah sebagai bumbu dapur tetapi juga sebagai obat tradisional. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh potensi ekstrak etanol 96% umbi bawang suna (Allium schoenoprasum L) dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Staphylococcus saprophyticus dengan metode difusi cakram Kirby-Bauer.Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan true experimental design dengan variasi konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, dan 20% serta kontrol positif Azitromisin.Hasil: Berdasarkan hasil uji Kruskal Wallis nilai signifikansi yang diperoleh untuk bakteri Staphylococcus aureus ialah 0.001 dan Staphylococcus saprophyticus < 0.001 (p < 0.05) yang berarti hipotesis diterima (terdapat perbedaan bermakna).Simpulan: Ekstrak etanol 96% umbi bawang suna (Allium schoenorasum L) mempunyai daya hambat terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Kata kunci : Allium schoenoprasum L, ISK, antibakteri, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
uji aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanol 96 umbi bawang suna Allium schoenoprasum l terhadap pertumbuhan staphylococcus aureus dan staphylococcus saprophyticus dengan metode difusi cakram kirby bauerHerb-Medicine Journal, 2020Co-Authors: Putri Hagalang Sinta, Dewi Klarita Furtuna, Fatmaria FatmariaAbstract:
ABSTRAK Pendahuluan: Pendahuluan: Infeksi Saluran Kemih (ISK) merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan yang sering menyerang pria dan wanita dari segala usia dengan berbagai gambaran klinis dan episode yang disebabkan oleh mikroorganisme seperti bakteri. Umbi bawang suna ( Allium schoenoprasum L) merupakan salah satu tanaman yang digunakan oleh masyarakat Kalimantan Tengah sebagai bumbu dapur tetapi juga sebagai obat tradisional. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh potensi ekstrak etanol 96% umbi bawang suna ( Allium schoenoprasum L) dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Staphylococcus saprophyticus dengan metode difusi cakram Kirby-Bauer. Metode : Penelitian ini menggunakan true experimental design dengan variasi konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, dan 20% serta kontrol positif Azitromisin. Hasil: Berdasarkan hasil uji Kruskal Wallis nilai signifikansi yang diperoleh untuk bakteri Staphylococcus aureus ialah 0.001 dan Staphylococcus saprophyticus < 0.001 (p < 0.05) yang berarti hipotesis diterima (terdapat perbedaan bermakna). Simpulan : Ekstrak etanol 96% umbi bawang suna ( Allium schoenorasum L) mempunyai daya hambat terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Staphylococcus saprophyticus . Kata kunci : Allium schoenoprasum L, ISK, antibakteri, Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus saprophyticus .
T Tatlioglu – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Chive: Allium schoenoprasum L.Genetic Improvement of Vegetable Crops, 2012Co-Authors: T TatliogluAbstract:
Publisher Summary Allium schoenoprasum is a member of the section schoenoprasum of the genus Allium. The natural habitats of Allium schoenoprasum are Asia, Europe, and Northern America, including the Arctic. In Europe, it has been used as a spice ever since the early Middle Ages at the latest. The leaves of chives are used as appetizing condiment in soups, cooked meals, salads, and also as sandwich filling. In Siberia, salted chives are stored for winter use. Allium schoenoprasum belongs to the permanent cultures and grows on practically all soils, which are not too poor or dry. The spicy flavor of chives is caused by the content of garlic oil. It contains relatively high amounts of vitamin C, carotin, and calcium. This chapter discusses the cytology and genetics of Allium schoenoprasum. Breeding objectives in chives are forcing ability, homogeneous growth, tillering ability, desired leaf diameter, late flower formation in forcing, upright leaf position, and yield. The minor role of Allium schoenoprasum on a world scale and the known diversity of this crop reduce the necessity for large collections. The chapter presents the existing collections. It reviews the reproductive biology of Allium schoenoprasum, its varieties, and breeding methods.
the fertility restorer genes x and t alter the transcripts of a novel mitochondrial gene implicated in cms1 in chives Allium schoenoprasum lMolecular Genetics and Genomics, 2004Co-Authors: Thomas Engelke, T TatliogluAbstract:
A chimeric mitochondrial gene configuration, mainly derived from sequences associated with the essential genes atp 9 and atp 6, was isolated from the sterility-inducing cytoplasm of the CMS1 system in chives ( Allium schoenoprasum L.). This sequence is not found in four other cytoplasm types from chives; however, two copies are present in the mitochondrial DNA of CMS1-inducing cytoplasm, whose 5′-sequences are homologous to those of the atp 9 gene. We provide evidence to show that one of the two CMS1-specific copies is actively transcribed, and two transcripts which terminate at the same position but differ in their 5′initiation sites were localized using the RACE technique. These transcripts of 942 and 961 nt, respectively, were confirmed to be the major products of this gene in CMS1 plants by Northern hybridization. However, smaller transcripts were found to accumulate in plants in which fertility had been restored. Restoration of fertility was induced either by the gene X, or the gene T at high temperatures. In (S1) X. genotypes a transcript with an estimated size of 440 nt was detected in all tissues examined. An additional hybridization signal with an estimated size of ~850 nt is expressed in temperature-sensitive plants [(S1) xxT.], and the intensity of a minor 350-nt transcript is enhanced. These latter alterations, conditioned by the gene T, occur independently of the growth temperature, but are limited to the flowers; they were not observed in leaves. The CMS1 transcripts are edited at seven positions and contain an ORF with a maximum coding capacity of 780 nt (containing the start codon derived from the atp 9 gene in-frame). Use of the third in-frame start codon would result in the synthesis of a protein of a size very close to that of a previously described CMS1-specific protein, which has an apparent molecular weight of 18 kDa. The coding sequence that begins at this third in-frame start codon is also present in the sterility-inducing cytoplasms (S) and (T) in the onion, and absent in (N) cytoplasm.
A PCR-based marker system monitoring CMS-(S), CMS-(T) and (N)-cytoplasm in the onion ( Allium cepa L.).TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik, 2003Co-Authors: T. Engelke, D. Terefe, T TatliogluAbstract:
The chimerical mitochondrial CMS(1)-specific sequence in chives ( Allium schoenoprasum) was used to develop a PCR-marker that distinguishes both male-sterility inducing cytoplasms, CMS-(S) and CMS-(T), from the normal cytoplasm in onion ( Allium cepa). In combination with a previously described marker for CMS-(S), which anchors in the upstream region of the mitochondrial gene cob, all of the three known cytoplasms in the onion are distinguishable. The PCR-marker system was tested in 361 onion plants, which were selected from F(1)-hybrids and different open-pollinated varieties. The latter are mainly landraces from Turkey, in which all three cytoplasm types were detected.